Midterm 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
large leaf
To; toward
Chlamydial Pneumonia
Chlamydial Pneumoniae
flagella surround cell
Aquatic Ecosystem
fresh & saltwater
Variation among living organisms
central part of sarcodines
corrects overwinding ahead of replication forks by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining dna strands
Detects vertical and horizontal movement of the head to provide gravitational equilibrium 
proteins are polymers or monomers?
electrolytes that release Hydrogen ions (H+) (increasing the [H+])
(monocotyledon)A flwoering plant with one cotyledon in seeds, floral parts usually in threes (or multiples of thess), and often parallel-veined leaves.
a polypeptide hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium levels in vertebrates by inhibiting loss of calcium from bone to the blood.
(Greek: water-loving) term for ions and polar molecules that are attracted to water molecules
Type of connective tissue; contains minerals that make it hard; makes up skeleton
Anthropoda are closely related to :
arranging organisms into groups based on their similarities
gonads located anterior to clitellum in worms
inherited characteristics of a species taht develops over time in response to an environmental factor, enabling the species to survive
Which strand is synthesized discontinouly?
Lagging strand
an instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
structural component in fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons
long-term potentiation (LTP)
increases postsynaptic response1. presynaptic release of glutamat2. postsynaptic terminus receptors (AMPA and NMDA) receive
a carbohydrate that does not hydrolyze, as glucose, fructose, or ribose, occurring naturally or obtained by the hydrolysis of glycosides or polysaccharides.
Loss of Biodiversity
Effects sustainability and stability of popn's.
plants with "seeds in container" the seeds are inclosed in fruits. The vast majority of seed plants are angiosperms-the flowering plants.
a tube connecting ovaries and the uterus
one chytrid pathogen that effects frogs
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
requires genetic variation to be present; certain alleles are passed to the next generation
Natural selection
Name the term: high levels of cholesterol in the blood: hyper______________
microbes that produce methane CH4 by anaerobic cellular respiration
they live in oxygen free sediments
name a eukaryote with peptiglycan that lives in freshwater?
CHart showing the ancestral history of an individual by tracing a particular trait back several generations of the family
__________ are poisons that can cause disease when bacteria secrete them into their environment
William Smith
worked out relative dating with sedimentary rocks.
"Father of English Biology"
Antibiotics / Antibiotic resistance
Resistance:1. enzyme degrades antibiotic2. Bacteria have enzyme that alters antibiotic3. Efflux pumps remove antibiotic from cell4. Antibiotic genes from plasmids transferred to another speciesOTher things to know:-penicillin: cell wall bursts-streptomycin: stops translation-rifampin: stops transcriptionAntibiotics are overused / used improperly (too short)Often on plasmids, there are resistance genes for enviro toxins,and/or antibiotics, etc
Roert Koch
developed the germ theory of infectious disease
genetic drift
random change in allele freq.small populations
the transport of solid matter or liquid into a cell by means of a coated vacuole or vesicle (
either of the two saclike respiratory organs in the thorax of humans and the higher vertebrates.
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during primary succession
thin wax layer over leaf that prevents water loss, the layer on the underside of the leaf is specked with stoma
where does all energy we eat originally come from
the sun
Which organelle is found only in plant cells?
__ are meade up of multiple ommatidia
compound eyes
Dynein (dī′-nē-un)
In cilia and flagella, a large contractile protein extending from one microtubule doublet to the adjacent doublet.
14.2 Muscles are anchored to bones by ____________.A) glycogenB) fatC) tendonsD) ligamentsE) cartilage
first 25cm of the small intestine. It is here that acid chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices fromt he pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and gland cells of the intestinal wall iself.
hat is the largest organ in your body?
What is needed as a "go-between" in translation.
Transfer effect
(Bower birds) The bowers that the birds build are “displaced plumage” instead of Being pretty, they build a pretty house (this term only applies to the bower birds)
cellular respiration is ___________
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
Proteins (3.5)
polymers of amino acids, each amino acid contains nitrogen
a cell, cell product, or organism that is genetically identical to the unit or individual from which it was derived.
they are COO they form the smells and flavors help us build fats
What is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain?
GABA (amino acids)
You accidentally expose yourself to anthrax, a bacterial parasite that infects the extracellular tissues in your body (i.e. not a intracellular parasite). Which of the following lines of defense in your immune system would you NOT expect to respond to thi
b. natural killer cells
jet propulsion is the usual means of locomotion in water for
a. bivalves
b. octopuses
c. squids
d. gastropods
c. squids
F- cells
DNA sequence known as the F factor that is necessary for a bacterium to serve as a donor during conjugation
restriction enzyme
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.
makes membrane and proteins
what are the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 2 primary functions?
Where can you find nucleic acids?
cells -- dna
PH Scale
Used to indicate the H+ ions in a soluiton
Crossing over...a. generally results in binary fissionb. involves nucleolic. involves breakages and exchanges being made between sister chromatidsd. alters the composition of chromsomes and results in new combinations of alleles being channeled into the d
alters the composition of chromosomes and results in new combinations of alleles being channeled into the daughter cells
In rock layers, which would be the youngest layer?
The top layer
What is a polymer?
A compound consisting of a repeated link of monomers.
Covalent Bond
forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.strongest bond in the world
Many groups of fish are able to sense water pressure changes with their
lateral line system
The good and bad of Protist.
Producers in food chain, human products from algae; pathogenic.
What is a K-selected animal?
This means that as density increases, it is harder to reproduce so the population levels off.
Which is the best definition of osmosis?
Movement of water across a semipermeable memb rane from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentraion
On average, in stable populations, which leaves more offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce: a pair of elephants or a pair of rabbits?
If both populations are stable, then the pair of elephants and the pair of rabbits will leave the same number of offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce.
What is the functions of the nervous system?
Cordinates and controls body responses to internal and external enviroment.
Why is it effective to use a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitor
A combinations of therapy keeps the virus from getting active.
What are the 3 forms of DNA packing?
B DNA- most common, tightly coiled right handed helix. A DNA- right handed helix, not as tight. Z DNA- is zigzagged, left handed helix.
Describe role of Tc cells relative to what they do and who they help.
Tc cells attack cells that have become infected with a particular toxin or fungi. They destroy the cell by destroying the cell membrane.
without fever
excessive sweating
to wash
to brush
defense for ornithopods
active at night
blood pressure cuff
Basal metabolic rate
to get ready
erect posture, size increase
duck-billed dinosaurs; cheek tooth/dental battery, food processor mouth losing and replacing teeth, long expanded tails, short stocky hands; teeth and hands support them being terrestrial; huge variety in crests used for species recognition and display, large eyes, good hearing, sexual dimorphism, lived in herds
"shield bearing" *synapomorphy- elaborate osteoderms
Personal Protective Equipmentgowns, masks/respirators, protective eyewear and gloves
Triassic Dinosaurs
Coelophysis, Eoraptor, Herrerasaurus
(saurischians and ornithischians start split)
lochness monster-like, generally have short tails. paddle through water, extinct towards cretaceous, long skinny neck or short neck
graviportal herbivore; composed of Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae; *synapomorphies- 1. closure of the antorbital and supratemporal fenestra 2. secondary palate (roof of bone lets you eat and breath at same time) 3. shield-like dermal armor; erect posture 15 ft long, some 20-30; life= sleep+sex+eating
turtle shell; synapomorphy for turtles
spike purposes
possibly for:
- protection
-sexual display (visually distinctive in a mature animal)
pregnancy doesn't affect menstrual cycles; born so prematurely they barely survive
Ideal Body Weight.-provides an estimate of what a person should weigh% of IBW= Current Weight/Ideal Weight x 100
Organic substances, essential for normal metabolism; act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. Body can not synthesize required amounts, must be supplemented.Vitamin content highest in fresh foods, used quickly with minimal exposure to heat, air, water. Water-soluble vitamins – vitamin C and B-complex. Cannot be stored in the body, must be provided each day through diet. Fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E, & K; can be stored in the body. Toxicity may result from mega doses of synthetic vitamins.
Surgical Asepsis
AKA: sterile techniqueprevents contamination of an open wound. Isolates the operative area from the unsterile environment and maintains a sterile field for surgery.Used during:1. procedure that require intentional perforation of clients skin (i.e. IV catheters)2. skin integrity broken (i.e. burns, incision, trauma)3. procedures that involve insertion of catheters or surgical instruments into sterile body cavities (i.e. urinary catheter)
Protect clients rights to confidentialityAvoid discussing clients in public hallways and provide reasonable levels of privacy in communicating with and about clients in any matter.
acostarse (o-ue)
to go to bed
Jurassic Dinosaurs
Stegosaurs, ceratosaurs, allosaurs, apatosaurs, torvosaurs, first raptors
*synapomorphies- 1.bony shell on the back of head 2. relatively short pubis
very similar to a dinosaur, generalized, mesotarsic ankle, quadrupedal/bipedal
primitive shell animal, body armor, crurotarsal ankle, hind limbs are longer, facultative biped
lateral side to side movement, sprawled posture, some have kinetic skulls
*synapomorphies- 1. leaf shaped teeth 2. predentary bone 3. back-turned pubis 4. elongate ilium 5. elongate ischium 6. ossified tendons
herbivores, suspected gut flora, have to eat way more to get nutrients, most have cheeks
group of Theropoda; bipedal cursors, close gait, narrow body *synapomorphy summary- fusions between bones to make the leg and pelvis stronger; meat eating jaws and teeth, possible kinetic skull, sexual dimorphism, crests on the bone are for display, too delicate for head butting
*synapomorphy- thumb claw is twisted to a 40 degree angle; 9-28 feet, quadrupedal & possible bipedal at times; some have gatroliths= herbivore, jaw joint lower than teeth = herbivore, longer skull
"egg stealers" rare dinosaurs, found fossils showing that they care for young ( mom fossilized cradling nest), baby dromaeosaurs found at an oviraptor nest, most likely scenario is baby dromaeosaurs is food for oviraptor baby
external rotation
rotation of an appendage outward
inorganic elements also essential in the body as catalysts in biochemical reactionsClassification:-macro minerals: daily requirement 100mg or more-trace elements: daily requirement less than 100mg
is the breakdown of biochemical substances into simplersubstances and occurs during physiological state of negative nitrogenbalance. ie. starvation, when wasting of body tissue occurs
Coeolphysis and Dilophosaurus are
a) basal theropods
ponerse la ropa
to put on clothes
Flavors of Dinosaurs
Theropods, Sauropods, Ornithopods, Stegosauria, Ankylosauria, Pachycephalosauria, Ceratopsia
thecodont teeth
teeth surrounded by bone; deeply rooted
elongate ilium
provides area for muscle attachment for forward leverage when there is a back-turned pubis
"bird mimic" looks like an ostrich dinosaur, most likely omnivores, 5-13 ft long, light body, cursorial, small head, gastroliths, almost no teeth, not strong beak, possible plant eaters
in all vertebrates except mammals and reptiles, a chamber in the intestine that receives materials from the digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems; common structure for excretion but can be filled with blood and turned into an intromittent organ
precise occlusion
teeth fit together perfectly, needed for chewing like herbivores
secondarily quadrupedal
bipedal ancestors but carried around so much weight that they moved to all fours, this means that hind limbs would be longer; possibly could stand up on hind legs and tail
(Fat) the most calorie dense nutrient, providing 9kcal/g, composedof triglycerides and fatty acids.-Triglycerides circulate in the blood and are made up of 3 fatty acids and glycerol.-The synthesis of fatty acids is called lipogenesis. Saturated – higher in animal fats Unsaturated – mono- and poly- are higher in vegetable fats Trans - formed when vegetable oils are hardened into solids (hydrogenated oil); may be identified as a portion of the saturated fat on food labelsLinoleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, is the only essential fatty acid in humans.Fat is the body’s major form of stored energy. The metabolism of 1 gm of lipid yields more than twice the energy as CHO or PRO.Recommended that only 30% of kcal are from fat (typically 35-45% of American diet), & that intake of saturated fat and cholesterol is low.New technology:Benecol has cholesterol lowering properties; 3 servings/day for 1 year
Basal Energy Expenditure- is used to determine the caloric need in a24 hour period depending on the level of activity.
Abnormally fast or deep RR, which results in the loss of CO2 from the blood, causing
moving an extremity away from the body.e.g. arms moving away from the body.
heaped up horny layers of dead epidermis
Primary Functions of the Skin
Protective function/barrier against: • Microorganisms • Ultraviolet radiation • Loss of body fluids • Stress of mechanical forces • Temperature regulation • Involved in production of vitamin D • Sensory function • Touch & pressure receptors provide protective function & pleasurable sensations
Sauropods (2)
Apatosaurs- "pat the horse", nares high on skull, small brains and skulls, pillar like limbs, quadroped-Diplodocus, nares mid snout, only dinosaur with longer front limbs than hind limbsSAUROPODS--vertebrae contained hollow spaces to allow for much lighter strong structure, also air sacs in these hollows to lighten the density and stiffen the neck-Drank a LOT of water (avian respiratory and reptilian metabolism)
True or false, theropod has three digits on the ground?
Subcategories and features of Pterosaurs
Pterodactyloid- no tail

Rhamphorhynchoid- long tail, crest off back of head
starts to get lots of fish; beginning vertebrates and then land vertebrates arise
a group of animals that have similar ecological resource requirements; similar ecological niches
nests at egg mountain, nests spaced 20 ft apart (animal size), animals could lay down and hang around nests, juveniles are still with parents, dinos take care of their babies, babies stay in nest for awhile and trample shells, parents take care of them, babies have feeble joints when it hatches
medullary bone
building up extra bone for pregnancy/ egg laying, to keep extra bone that will be depleted by producing the offspring
back-turned pubis
gives room for more guts in ornithischia, pubis is in back with ischium; ilium elongated in front
Skin tends to stay pinched or tented with dehydration – turgor poorDocument poor - pinched skin tents greater than 2-3 sec. upon release
Discuss conditions that may put a client at risk for impaired oral mucous membranes
MalnutritionChemical trauma
Valsalva maneuver
a maneuver that assists with stool passage. By applying pressure to the abdominal muscles to contract, while maintaining a forced expiration against a close airway
1 mililiter is the SI unit of measurment and is referred to as mL for measurment tools. cc is the same as cubic centimeter which refers to the volume of the substance occupying the space in the measurement tool. 1 cc is the same as mL.
DeinonychusVelociraptor--had bit of feathers, couldn't fly
-Genus Dromeosaurid -Extreme raptor, sickle-shaped claw on 2nd digit of hind foot
Evidence of crater? (3)
-Tsunami deposit-Tektites (molten mass ejected from impact craters)-Paleogene (part of terrestial) over cretaceous
Support/Disproving Evidence for Increased Volcanism Theory of Extinction
greenhouse gases into atmosphere blocks the sun, increased temperature on the globe, was cause of permo-triassic but doesn't correspond with dinosaurs extinction
perforate acetabulum
hip socket with a hole, no longer where the angle of support is because of angled femur
kinetic skull
larger space due to loosing bars of bone making it easy to open mouth very wide
asymmetrical hand
thumb & 2 fingers tend to be emphasized while the other 2 are reduced * a synapomorphy for saurischian
not sure of leg position or how they moved, mouths with rostral bone beak, frill for protection & attachment of muscles
Describe subjective and objective data used used to assess bowl function
Nursing History (subjective)•History of illness or surgery R/T the GI tract•Usual pattern & habits – e.g. time of day•Usual characteristics of stool•Routines followed to promote elimination e.g. hot fluids•Use of artificial aids – laxatives, cathartics•Presence & status of bowel diversions – colostomy, ileostomy•Patient’s perception of normal or abnormal bowel elimination•Recent change in elimination pattern•Diet history – bulk in diet, daily fluid intake•History of Exercise•Travel history•Medication history•Emotional State•Social history – where the patient lives may affect toileting habits; do they have to share a toilet?•Mobility & Dexterity – getting clothes off; ability to get to bathroom•Post Operative abdominal surgery assess•Abdominal pain or discomfort•Flatus within previous 8 hours•BM within previous 12 – 24 hours•N & V•Feeling bloated•Return of appetite, feeling hungry•Abdominal crampingFecal Characteristics (objective)•Color – adult brown (black = upper GI bleed, iron)•Odor – affected by food•Consistency – soft, formed•Frequency – adult daily or 2 – 3 times a week•Amount •Shape – resembles the diameter of the rectum•Constituents – undigested food, fat, bile, water, etc.Pertinent Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests (objective)• Fecal/Stool Specimens – must accurately obtain & label• Do not contaminate with urine, or toilet paper•If test is for fecal fat need 3 – 5 day specimen collection•Check to see if need warm specimen or can refrigerate stool•Guaiac Test – hemoccult, fecal occult blood testing•Diagnostic Examinations•Direct Visualization – performed under conscious sedation•Endoscopy – post test – no food or drink (NPO) until gag reflex returns•Gastroscopy – post test – NPO until gag reflex returns•Proctoscopy•Sigmoidoscopy•Capsule Endoscopy- visualize small intestine•Indirect Visualization•UGI Series; Barium Enema
Colostomy; ileostomy
depending on the location of the site, it is a surgical opening created with the ends of the intestines to theabdominal wall (stoma). - ostomy means a surgical procedure thatcreates an artificial opening for the elimination of bodily wastes.If the site at the colon it is called a colostomy and if it’s in the ileum it’s called an ileostomy
you will pass this first exam! keep on studying hard to become an RN.
Describe health promotion activities and interventions appropriate for clients to prevent development of dysfunction in bowel elimination pattern
∗Promotion of Regular Bowel Habits • Take time to defecate • Establish a routine – more likely to occur 1 hour after meals∗ Promotion of Normal Defecation • Squatting Position • Positioning on Bedpan∗Promotion of Adequate Fluid & Food Intake • Grapefruit juice & the caffeine in coffee, tea, colas, & chocolate drinks act as diuretics & take fluids from the bowel so these liquids should not be counted as providing fluid intake for bowel activity • Studies have shown a mixture of prune juice, applesauce, & bran can provide adequate fiber for effective bowel management • 2 cups Kellogg’s All Bran; 2 cups applesauce; 1 cup 100% prune juice∗Promotion of Regular Exercise∗Promotion of Comfort∗Promotion of Self-Concept∗Avoiding straining and the Valsalva Manuver
Assessment of Gums
Pink, smooth, moist with tight margin at each tooth
Flatulence; Flatus
presence of an excessive amount of air or gas in the stomach and intestinal tract.
Risk factors for development of pressure ulcers
•Impaired sensory input•Impaired physical mobility•Alterations in LOC•Casts•Traction•Various equipment – O2 cannulaAlso:-shearing forces -moisture-poor nutrition-edema
Water is 60-70% of total body weight. Muscle contains more water than any tissue except blood (so, lean people have higher % than the obese).Cell function depends on a fluid environment; acts as a solvent for nutrients.Fluid needs met through intake of fluids, foods high in water content, & by water produced through the oxidation of food.Normally I = O. Average 2200-2700; Oral Intake 1100-1400, Solids 800-1000
Archaeopteryx lived at same time as diplodicus and apatosaurus? True or False? Same Place?
TrueSame place? False
Subcategories and features of Sauropods
Diplodocids- more horizontal posture, longer skulls, thin teeth

Macronarians- front legs longer than back legs, rounder skulls, thicker teeth
lobe-finned fish
used fins to walk on bottoms of ponds; fin bones look like arms- similar to Tetrapoda and considered to be ancestral
Describe health promotion activities appropriate for clients who are taking medications
Client & Family Teaching -Provide info about the purpose of the medications and their actions and effects in terms that clients can understand -Teach family or friends how to give injections in case the client becomes ill -Educate about the benefits of medication and integrate the clients health beliefs and cultural practicesCommunity Resources -Make referrals to community resources if the client is unable too afford or cannot arrange transportation to obtain necessary medication
True or false, advanced ornithischians replaced sauropods as major herivore in cretaceous?
True--because ornithischiens were more efficient at processing food
Dromeosaurids are characterized by an enlarged claw on hind digit 2 and
a backward pointing pubic bone
Duration of Action
∗Is the length of time the drug has a pharmacologic effect∗Some drugs produce effects for minutes and others may have an effect for hours or days
Food Guide Pyramid
a basic guide for buying food and meal preparations, provides for diet ranging from 1600-2800 kcal/day. Foods are selected from enriched cereals, complex carbs and grains to round out meals and meet energy requirements. 1-2 servings: eggs, fish, poultry2-4 servings: plant oils4-8 servings: whole grains5-13 servings: fruits and vegetables5-8 (8oz) glasses of water daily
To evolve efficient flight the body had to be big or small?
Size had to remain small.
Discuss factors that influence drug action
Varies from drug to drugDrug – Receptor Interaction∗Reversible – degree and duration of binding are functions of how well the drug fits the receptor, nature of the bond, and concentration of the drug at the site of the receptor∗Selective – if the drug fits the receptor tightly or is strongly attracted to the receptor it is considered to have high affinity with the receptor∗Graded – a threshold number of receptors must be filled with the drug before a pharmacologic response is observed. Once all receptors are occupied a further increase in the drug concentration will not produce an added effect∗Agonistic, Partial Agonistic, or Antagonistic • Drugs that bind to a receptor and produce a response are called agonists • Drugs that bind to a receptor and block a response are called antagonistsDrug – Enzyme Interaction∗Drugs can inhibit the action of certain enzymes • Nonspecific Drug Interaction∗Produce general effects on cell membranes and cellular processes
Disproving Evidence for Disease Theory of Extinction
continents were so far apart that disease would not likely spread from one species to another
Describe the role of the RN in relation to other members of the health care team associated with medication administration
Nurses often collaborate with the prescriber, the pharmacist and case managers to ensure that clients receive medications safely and that clients are able to afford their medications
Support for Asteroid Theory of Extinction
Massive crater in Yucatan is the right age, shocked quartz (abundant) can only form under massive temperature and pressure), shatter cones (also massive temp and pressure), tsunami deposits (tsunami would result from huge impact), fern spike (ferns are first plants to grow back from catastrophic event), Iridium Anomaly (iridium not normally found on earth, found in asteroids, deposits found)
From detailed studies of T-rex we know that they were scavengers, not hunters, because
the legs were too short for the body size to make it speedy enough
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