Midterm I 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Epistemology
knowing
Wilhelm Wundt
axis 1
clinical syndromes
Epidemiology
Psychopathology research method examining the prevalence, distribution, and consequences of disorders in populations.
testosterone
important male sex hormone
AARP
major organization representing elderly adults in the United States
Midbrain
Major structures include reticular formation, basal ganglia, and nucleus accumbens.
APHASIA
UNABLE TO USE LANGUAGE CORRECTLY
autistic disorder
developmental disorder characterized by severe disruption of children's ability to form social bonds and use language
attitudes
evaluative reactions towards objects, events, and other people
Personality Psychologists
investigate our persistent traits
alarm cries
how do monkey's communicate
Nature vs Nuture
GREEK
Aristotle and Plato
masking
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
hypothesis
prediction which states the likelihood that a certain event will occur of that a given relationship will be found; "IF/THEN" statement
biomedical therapy
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patients nervous system
Amygdala
brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear.
Generativity
In middle-aged adults, the sustained effort to develop into creative and productive human beings who use their skills and knowledge to help develop and maintain societal institutions without successful generations we would not survive.
ocd
anxiety d/o by unwanted repetitve thoughts(obsession)/ actions(compulsions)
Attachment
deep emotional bond that infants develop for primary care giver, fundamental human need
experimental psychopathologists
study abnormal or disordered behavior
disorganized type
combination of symptoms including disorganized speech, disturbed behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect - even persons delusions and hallucinations lack coherent theme - noticeably odd in behavior and have serious impairment in work and other social contexts
Imprinting
process by which certain infant animals, such as ducklings, learn to follow or approach the first moving object they see.
Sensory adaptation
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
PTSD
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
don't like social interaction
avoidant personality disorder
BULIMIA NERVOSA
EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY BINGES OF EATING FOLLOWED BY SELF-INDUCED VOMITING.
Suggestibility
The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections (especially swayed by imagery)
inferiority complex
feelings of inferiority hypothesized by Adler to serve as a central motivating force in the personality
logic
the science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference.
Developmental psychology
Universal aspects of lifespan development from conception through death; Identifies cultural variations
Illusionary correlation
perception of relationships when none exist
imagery
mental pictures used to aid effortful memory processing
Praising socially withdrawn children when they have eye contact with others and ignoring them after a temper tantrum best illustrates an application of
C) operant conditioning
Saccades are ________.
Tiny little vibrations, constant movement in the eye people dont notice.
optic disk
hole in the retina (blind spot)
Learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
When a Sexual drive lies dormant-no erogenous zone
and Energy is channeled into other activities
 
What is this called?
 
Latency
Repression
A defense mechanism in which an individual supposedly sends the memory of a stressor to the unconscious.
Lateralization
What refers to the specialization of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex?
rooting reflex
reflexive turning of the newborn's head in the direction of a touch on its cheek
Brain Abnormalities involving Schizophrenic Disorders
enlarged ventriclessmall frontal cortex - lower activity
performance component
execute strategies assembled by meta component
Empty-nest syndrome 
alleged period of depression in mothers following the departure of their grown children from the home 
Lateral inhibition
The pattern of interaction among neurons in the visual system in which activity in one neuron inhibits adjacent neurons' responses
psychoanalysis
talks to the psychologist about their life and issues and could take months or years of intensive therapy to work.
Wernike's Area
Controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually found in the left temporal lobe.
cognitive-social learning theories
personality theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment.
identification
the process by which according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Social loafing
reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves
Embryonic stage
The period of prenatal development that lasts from the second week until about the eighth week
extrovert
a person concerned primarily with the physical and social environment, a person whose attention is directed outward, not towards inner feelings
dominance
the disposition of an individual to assert control in dealing with others
Double- blind study
an experimental procedure in which both researchers and participants are uniformed about the nature of the independent variable being administered
sample
a set of individuals selected from a pop and intended to represent the population
gene-environment interaction
situation in which the effects of genes depend on the environment in which they are expressed
brainstem
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Social Clock
- the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage parenthood and retirement.
correlational method
used to determine if an association exist between 2 variables, cant prove cause&effect,directionality problem, third variable problem
X-linked (sex) disorder=
inheritance where recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome
1 in 4 kids affected
 
25% risk Male Affected
 
25% risk Female is carrier
 
causes: diabetes insipidus, hemophilia, Duchenne's musclular distropy
The need for human relationships and for meaningful social contact. It was studied by David McClelland who developed scales to measure it
 
Affliation Motivation
obese,men
the more _________ you are, the higher your relative risk of death. This is especially true for _______.
anxiety vs fear and panic
-anxiety: future-oriented emotion characterized by feelings of apprehension about upcoming events
 
-fear:present-oriented emotion reaction to
 
-panic: UNEXPECTED and sudden fight/flight response in the absence of danger
children need to be exposed to language by
7 years
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists
Study organizations and seek ways to improve the functioning and human benefits of business.
correlation-causation fallacy
error of assuming that because one thing is associated wit another it just might cause the other
Describe two techniques that have been used to treat individuals with depression...
Biological-Pharmacological: anti-depressants Tofranil : Aims to alter patient’s way of thinking away from negative interpretations towards more positive view of events Prozac: SSRIs also block reuptake of serotonin with fewer side effects than tricyclics*Psychological-Cognitive therapies: Aims to alter patient’s way of thinking away from negative interpretations towards more positive view of events
pupil
the opening of the eye through which light passes
The four types of coping
1) Behavioral (physical activities)
2) Cognitive (thoughts)
3) Problem focused (behaviors/cognitions)
4) Emotion focused
acess and legitmacy persepective
looks good in public eyes
STIMULUS MOTIVE
UNLEARNED MOTIVE SUCH AS CURIOSITY OR CONTACT THAT PROMPTS US TO EXPLORE OR CHANGE THE WORLD AROUND US.
Behavioral Neuroscience
An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily functions
deep level
semantic encoding; focus on meaning of stimulus (definition, synonyms)
Facial expressions used to express a particular emotion (ex. amazement)
Affect displays
personality test
an instrument, as a questionnaire or series of standardized tasks, used to measure personality characteristics or to discover personality disorders
framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. we prefer to hear that beef is 80% lean not 10% fat(Myers Psychology 8e p. 406)
short term memory
PASSIVE--limited to 7 items (phone # while you dial it)
Myelin sheath
A protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon.
interference theory
The belief that we forget because new and old material conflict (interfere) with one another.
What is a reinforcer?
always increases liklihood of response that it follows-dog begs for food, u give her lamb off table, begging gets worse
Conversion Disorder
A reference to the idea that a person’s psychological problems have been converted into simulated physical problems. Pg 383
Gross Motor2 years
runclimb stairs, tables, beds, out of cribsfeed self with spoondraw lines/spirals
ADHD
___ is 6 to 9 times more common in males than females.
Random Sample
A sample that gives every member of the population the equal chance of being selected
Weber's law
The observation that the size of the difference threshold is proportional to the intensity of the standard stimulus
Positive Correlation
values of both variables move in the same direction
Define Naturalistic Observation
Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural setting
Practical Reasoning
Figuring out what to do, or reasoning directed toward action
Association Areas
Area within each lobe of the cerebral cortex believed to play general rather than specific roles; generally are considered to be the siteof higher mental processes such as thinking, language, memory and speech
Hering theory
only two types of color receptors in the eye: blue-yellow, red-green, respond in opponent fashion
Compensation (substitution)
(defense mechanisms)
a person makes up for inferiorities in one area by becoming superior in another area
representative heuristic
tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is also a member of the category
What is Memory "chunking"?
Miller said that people can only remember 7 "chunks" at a time.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
basically ensured no discrimination of any kind
Cerebral Cortex(p 129)
A collection of several thin layers of cells covering the cerebrum; it is largely responsible for higher mental functions.
Holmes and Rahe
made a list of 43 stressful life events that can contribute to illness
What is a cross sectional study?
comparing groups of different ages.
JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE (JND)
the minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected.
stages 3 & 4
- brain waves are slow and high- difficult to awaken
What is the difference between arteriosclerosis and arthrosclerosis?
1. Atherosclerosis a. Result of heart disease causing a progressive NARROWING of the arterial walls. 2. Arteriosclerosis a. Result of heart disease causing a progressive HARDENING of the arterial walls.
What does Punishers mean? (Traditional Learning)
A consequence that makes the behavior it follows less likely, either through the presentation of something unpleasant or the removal of something desirable.
What are the two motives Freud says we have in life?
1. Sex (sensational)2. aggression
probability of heads is higher after a long string of tails
an example of gambler's fallacy, reflects the influence of the representativeness heuristic
The retention of information about the where, when, and what of life's happenings--that is, how individuals remember life's episodes.
What is the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life's happenings--that is, how individuals remember life's episodes? E
How is length of post-TBI amnesia used to help make a recovery prognosis?
The longer a patient has amnesia following the longer the recovery prognosis
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