Midterm Political Science Flashcards

Terms Definitions
WWI Begins
1914
Voter Turnout
Very Low
GOP
"Grand Ole Party" (republican)
Isolationist
originally US foreign policy
______________ voting occurs when people base their voting decisions on well-informed opinions and consideration of the future consequences of their votes.
Prospective
Elastic Clause
nessasary and proper clause
(Re)apportionment
allocating seats after every 10 years
______________ is a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people.
Government
Independent Variable
The suspected cause of change/effect
Principle of Consent
Consent from the president
Total Wars
lots of deaths,includes civilians,see opposers as very evil and wrongful.
The Senate
-100 (smaller)-6 year terms-informal procedures-acts slowly-generalists
probabilistic reasoning
almost always required, some exceptions ok
November 1965
Westmoreland predicts US will need 600,000 troop by 1967
pluralist explanation
interest groups are a natural extension of a democratic system that guarantees freedom of expression and association - David Truman
Early newspapers usually __________.
were sponsored by politicians.
Some say that _______________ are businesses and to retain their customers, they must reflect the mainstream of America
media corporations
People form _________ through the process of political socialization.
Political Opinions
Federalism
division of sovernty between at least two different levels of government
Bureaucracy
An organization in which people are hired and promoted based on their qualifications and merit, work is organized in terms of specialized positions, detailed rules and procedures are followed by all members of the organization, and there is a hierarchical chain of command so that those at the top can direct and supervise large numbers of people.
Welfare reform legislation 
State-by-state variation became more pronounced . Giving states more self rule
Initiative?
a proposed law or amendment that appears on the ballot for a popular vote
The Supreme Court of ________ declared that marriage was a civil right and that banning same-sex marriage violated the state's equal protection and due process clauses.
Massachusetts
Tax preferences
special tax treatments (tuition, tax credit, deductions for charitable donations)
Today's international economy is
characterized by increasing interdependence
Platform
The formal statement of a party's principles and policy objective.
A ____________ is the difference between what the sample results reveal and what the true results would have been if the total possible relevant population was polled.
sample error
2nd Amendment
The right to keep and bear arms
The Supreme court did not fully apply the first amendment to motion pictures until ________.
1952
A election in which voters select candidates for a subsequent election is called a ___________.
Primary election
A theory is:
A set of interconnected statements that identify what causes something and why
Central Agency
An organization that tries to provide direction and coordination to government. In Canada, the key central agencies are the Privy Council Office, the Prime Minister's Office, the Treasury Board, and the Department of Finance.
State
A group of people occupying a specific area and organized under one government
Unified government
Situation in where the president and chambers of congress are controlled by the same party
Implied powers
the sovereign duties of a government implied the right to use means adequate to its ends (elastic clause Art I, Sec 8)
Reagan Doctrine
a pledge of U.S. backing for anticommunist insurgents who sought to overthrow Soviet-supported governments
third degree
mental or physical torture used to obtain a confession
Legislative Reograization Act of 1946 gave congressmen:
-Staff-District offices-Trips home-Congressional support agencies
Revolution
The use of violence to overthrow a government, especially when the overthrow is followed by rapid and thorough social, economic, and political restructuring.
Liberals argue
that the Soviet Union disintegrated on account of Gorbachev's internal reforms
Party-column ballot
A ballot that organizes the candidates by political party
A ________________ is a primary in which the candidate from that one party is selected from others in that party to run in an upcoming election.
Closed Primary
527s
can raise as much money as they want because dont give it directly to parties or candidates
Jurisdiction and standing to sue are _______.
basic judicial requirements.
State of national govt.
weak and limited power 1770-1790
No exec. Branch-President
No Judicial Branch-No fed. Courts
 
International Financial Institution
An organization that has some ability to affect the global economic system; for example the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
information costs
the time and mental effort required to absorb and store information
Federal System
A federal system is both a political and philosophical concept that describes how power is given to governments
How do they elect Mo judges/justices?
1. election-partisan
2. Mo Plan
Dehumanization
a process by which members of a group of people assert the "inferiority" of another group through subtle or overt acts or statements
suspect classification
one that is subject to strict judicial scrutiny
Civic v. Political Engagement
Political: activity that has the intent of influencing government actionCivic: organized voluntary activity focused on problem solving and helping others.
Weber's rational method, monopolistic or acquisitive model, Garbage can model
The three models of Bureaucracy
Sound bites
Short audio or video clips taken from a large speech.
1954 (2 answers)
Eisenhower agrees to pay 1/2 of French war costs in Indochina--US is fighting a proxyGeneva Conference (produces Geneva Accords) which set 17th parallel as border between North and South Vietnam and creates countries of Laos and Cambodia, but US never never signs (ratifies) agreements
Who was the youngest person to be elected President of the United States?
John F. Kennedy
Today most foreign-born U.S. citizens come from countries that are part of___________________
Latin America and Asia.
What was Plato's goal of government?
Rule in accordance with truth
_____ are the type of interest group that is least likely to meet Madison’s definition of “factions.”
Public interest groups
Public Interest Group
A group that seeks to achieve goals that the group views as being for the good of the community as a whole rather than specific benefits for their members.
___________ are Factors in one's life that leads one to vote one way or another.
Agents of Political Socialization
The Government Accountability Office, which audits and reviews executive branch agencies and is sometimes called "Congress's watchdog," is ___________.
part of the Congress's effort through the Pendelton Act to promote a merit system.
Due to ______ there is a Less range of views and exchange of ideas in the media.
Political Pressure
How bill becomes law:
4. Floor Debate
1. House: limited debate and ammendments must be germane/related
2. Senate: unlimited debate (filibuster and cloture-limits debate/at least 60 votes) and ammendments dont need to be germane/related
Then:house and senate vote on bill. a final vote on the senate floor needs at least 60 votes if it was filibustered
"fruits of a poison tree" doctrine
Supreme Court principle which says that evidence obtained illegally cannot be used in court.
- Negative news coverage of Iraq rather than focusing on positive developments- “No journalism is worth doing unless it unseats the mighty” as an attitude of some reporters - These are examples of _______________.
adversarial relationships between the media and president
Logrolling is when a
member "trades" his or her vote on a particular bill with another member in exchange for their votes on other legislation
Constitution and the Supreme COurt
Supreme Court is the only court that is explicitly identified in article 3 of the constitution
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
As part of the Constitution Act of 1982, the Charter protects a variety of rights and freedoms. It is superior to ordinary legislation, explicitly allows the courts to invalidate legislation, and applies to the actions of all governments and organizations under the control of government.
Studies of bias in the media have reached ___________.
different conclusions: some found a liberal bias while others found a conservative bias.
Civil Liberties and the Fight Against Terroism
 
* The US Patriot Act
* President Expanded the "Little use/ Little known" law that has secret access to Customer, telephones, & financial records
* Bush taking role as commander in chief- issued executive order authorizing use of military tribunals to try and noncitizen, whether arrested here or abroad, suspected of being tied directly or indirectly to acts of terrorism
*Detention of 1200 people/ Questioning 5,000 / tightning of visa restrictions and surveillance of muslim and middle easterns.
*president authorized indefinate detention w/o hearing of American citizen who were discovered to have been fighting against US.
*Secret Deportations
*president authorized VAST EAVESDROPPING
The danger of majority tyranny in a democracy most likely would result from _______________________________.
majority rule without the tempering influence of debate and discussion
Powers of the US House & US Senate
Power to raise, make, and borrow money; power to regulate commerce; power to unify and expand the country;power to prepare and declare war; power to create federal judiciary.
how a bill becomes law:
5. Bill must pass house and senate, it not then:
6. conference committee
members from house ans senate make a compromise bill
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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