Midterm Review 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nucleotide
meta
change
para
beside, near
OSE
indicates a sugar
organism
any living thing
lack of adequate insulin
diabetes
homeostasis
the steady-state physiological condition of the body
Where does Glycolysis occur?
mitochondria
cyanobacteria
• form colonies•long and stringy •trap sediment•create structures known as stromadolites
What is this genotype:tt
Homozygous recessive
  Sulfonamide
Inhibition of Specific EnzymesSulfonamideInhibit folic acid synthesis; inhibits purine and pyrimidine synthesisSulfanilamide competes with p-aminobenzoic acid during folic acid synthesis Decline of folic acid in cell  inhibits DNA/RNA synthesis
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
How do most animals reproduce? 
__ stage usually dominating the life cycle.
sexually
diploid
 
___________ levels filled __________, then move to next energy level.
innerfirst
cochlea
contains fluids (perilymph, endolymph) for transmission of pressure waves; contains organ for hearing (organ of corti)
Pyrogen
Molecules that set the body's thermostat to a higher temperature. They are released by certain leukocytes.
What are receptors for smell?
Olfactory cells.
phototropism
bending to light
cells further from light elongate faster than those closer
tip of shoot responds to light
special receptors on tip respond to blue light
The Zen disposition described in chapter 14 is that all human creations are impermanent illusions that nevertheless have meaning as a result of arising from, that is, evolving from eternal REALITY
Valid
The main solvent in biological solutions is...
Water
Fluid-feeeding
1.  many insects are phytophagous (feed on plant fluids)
-butterflies
-moths
-aphids
2.  Many parasites are fluid-feeders
-mosquitoes
-leeches
-hookworms (2 spp. affect humans-live n intestine) (nematodes)
-sea lamprey (jawessfish- suck ut bodily fluids and some tissues a problem in the great lake, thy have a monified mouth part to suck the inards out gross tongues)
If evolutionary throy that organisms arise from a common ancestor is correct, then the older sedimentary rocks should not have fewer types of fossils
False
Nucleus
an organelle that contains the cell’s DNA and has codes for making proteins
Where does the cellular respiration energy is release where?
mitochodria
hemophilia
any of several X-linked genetic disorders, symptomatic chiefly in males, in which excessive bleeding occurs owing to the absence or abnormality of a clotting factor in the blood.
The success with which plants extend their range northward following glacial retreat is best determined by
A) whether there is simultaneous migration of herbivores.
B) their tolerance to shade.
C) their seed dispersal rate.
D) their size.
E) their growth
c
Diploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
ProkaryoticEukaryotic
cells that do not have nuclear membranes surrounding its organelles.Eukaryotic cells make up most other livings things
Phosphate groups are ___
Phosphate groups are acidic
What kind of symmetry do flatworms have?
-bilateral
3 Patterns of Inheritance
Complete,Incomplete and Co- Dominance
tonicity
The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water.
Antiparallel
The arrangement in DNA where one strand runs in the 5' to 3' direction while the other strand is oriented in the 3' to 5' direction.
Vaccine
A solution of fractionated, dead, or attenuated live pathogenic material that is introduced into an individual for the purpose of stimulating a primary immune response or "boosting" a previously reduced anamnestic state.
Watson and Crick
-DNA modelDemonstrated:-How info is stored in molecules structure-How DNA molecules are templates for their own replication
Which branch of genomics deals with the actual mapping and sequencing of genomes of individuals?
Structural
Endosymbiosis
Endosymbiosis -in which one organism lives inside another, -is common in microbial eukaryotesDinoflagellates are common endosymbionts in animals and other microbial eukaryotes; some are photosynthetic.
Most fetuses can first survive outside the womb after a minimum of
seven months.
Domain Bacteria
The most diverse and widespread prokaryotes
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond; partially positive H atom is in covalent bond to the partially negative atom participating in a polar covalent bond

easily made...easily broken; dynamic and fluid
in spite of their weakness; they give water unique properties
acrosome
an organelle covering the head of animal sperm and containing enzymes that digest the egg cell coating, thus permitting the sperm to enter the egg.
methanogens
bacteria that use co2 to oxidize h2 (make methane)
Eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Membrane Functions
1. Isolate cell content from the external environment2. Regulate the exchange of essential substances3. Allow communications between cells4. Create attachments in and between cells5. Regulate biochemical reactions
expressivity
degree to which a penetrant gene or genotype is phenotypically expressed in an individual
Vital lung capacity
maximum inhalation + a second inhalation without exhalation
Saltatory Conduction
-The transmission of a neural impulse along a myelinated neuron -ion activity at one node depolarizes the next node along the axon-more rapid than continuous
Nuclear Membrane
It surrounds and protects nucleus of the cell.
Density Dependence Inhibition
cells continue dividing until they touch one another
calmodulin
a Ca2+ binding protein present at high levels in eukaryotic cells
The fruiting body is an irregular ball, covered with rough scales and attached to the soil by a thick mycelial strand, Interior of the ball is filled with a dark, powdery spore mass, The spores are liberated by the ball breaking open irregularly as it mat
Earth balls
tendon
a strip or sheet of tough collagenous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone; the most important structures in stabilizing a joint
What gives us our sense of smell?
olfactory receptors
Photic Zone
upper zone where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis
gene
the basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides the coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when translated into protein, leads to the expression of hereditary character.
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
Transfer reports
clients my transfer from one unit to another to receive different levels of care.
how is baker's yeast used?
to ferment alcohol and food
transpiration
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
1.Ctenophora - Comb Jelly's
Have Radial or Biradial symmetry; Nerve Net
Radioactive isotope
An isotope (an atomic form of a chemical element) that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy.
translocation
a piece of a chromosome breaks off and is incorporated into a nonhomologous chromosome
phenomenon
An event that occurs in nature and is interesting enough to be worth studying.
Transposable elements
45% - 21% long active, 13% short active, 8% retrotransposons, 3% DNA fossils
cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)
A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin.
Environmental hazards that lead to mutations are? (3)
1. Solar Radiation2. Carcinogens3. Solvents and other chemicals
Weak acids and bases ionize to a small extent in an aqueous sokution.
A) Tue
B) False
A) True
What is the name of the enzyme that actually matches the exisiting DNA bases with complementary nucleotides and then links them together to make a new strand?
DNA polymerase
How many nephrons do people have per kidney?
about 1 million
For the class amphibia, why are they still stuck to the water?
Because of there reproduction.
Why can't passive transport concentrate a molecule against it's gradient?
The energy used to power passive transport comes from the molecules concentration gradient - therefore, the molecule will only move with the gradient, not against it.
Summarizing the eventsof mRNA maturation: (4)
1: transcription by pRNA II and capping=Primary transcript2: Removal of 3' end nu nuclease and polyadenylation = processing intermediate.3. endonucleolytic cleave at splice junctions.4. ligation of exons = mature mRNA
what determines the level of ploidy in a cell?
the number of homologous chromosomes
Which series is arranged in order from largest to smallest in size?
cell, nucleus, chromosome, DNA, nucleotide
why do all living things need nutrients?
to build tissues and carry out essential life functions
Van Helmont + Priestley + Ingenhousz =
in the presence of light, plants transform carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and they also release oxygen
Oxygen has a          influence on the formation of complex organinc molecules because it         .
 
Negative; reacts with them and destroys them
2 types of fibers that make up the mitotic spindle
1 polar fibers and 2. kinetochore fibers
U-Boats
German submarine
conscription
way of fighting
Artillery
Machine guns, Canons
bolsheviks
radical socialists, overthrew provisional government in russia
Armistice
agreement to end fighting
erich ludendorff
main german general
Stalemate
draw, war that drags on
Socialist
Person who supports community ownership of property and the sharing of all profits.
Central Powers
Germany, Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, Ottomans
CPI
Committee on Public Information. supported war at home while publishing internationally.
Nation State
Autonomous and same culture
propaganda
information such as posters and pamphlets created by governments in order to influence public opinion
a final set of demands ,
ultimadum
Gavrilo Princip
assasinated archduke ferdinand, a serb
Triple Eantente
France, Russia, England: France investigating in Russian economy, no way Russia will join with Austria-Hungary, England isolation but joins, France isn't benefiting from Russia because of the Russo Japanese war (Russia beaten badly)
Lenin
Russian leader of the communist revolution of 1917
Irreconcilables
People opposed to League of Nations
Mobilization
the gathering of resources and preparation for war.
trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Franz Ferdinand
heir to the austria-hungary throne; shot in bosnia along with his wife by a serbian member of the black hand; leads to ww1
Rasputin
Mystical healer who claimed he could cure the Czar's son hemophilia
Serbia, France, Italy, Britain
Who were Russias alliances?
Draft
Law requiring certain people to serve in the military.
Wilhelm II
German leader who thought Germany could get though Belgium to get to France before Russia could mobilize their troops and the war would be over in 6 months
Alliances
Friend ship between countries that is mutual, benifical and defensive.
Douglas Haig
Commander in Chief of British Expeditionary Forces. Helped plan attack at the battle of Somme
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
unrestricted submarine warfare
submarine warfare without any rules
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Yalta
When FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet; they agreed to wage war on Japan, to divide Germany into 4 equal parts, on the big 5's veto, and to hold free elections for the liberated countries
reparations
The compensation paid by a defeated nation for the damage or injury it inflicted during the war.
Propoganda
info such as posters and pamphlets created by governments in order to influence public opinion
appeasement
policy of making peace with an aggressor in order to avoid
conflict
Allied Powers
the coalition formed by Britain and her colonies (including Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India), France and Russia from the beginning of the war, and later other countries including Belgium, Italy and the United States.
Spanish Influenza
A lethal flu virus that killed millions worldwide.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's plan for world peace after World War I
August 1, 1914
(date) Germany declares war on Russia.
Balkan Question
Russia vs. Austria, Austria needs land and Russia wants to dominate because same type of people (Serbs)
what is proletariat?
the laboring class or the workers
gallipoli peninsula
extends from the southern coast of European Turkey.
U-boat
K.M
German submarine in World Wars 1 and 2
1867
US purchased Alaska for 7.2 million on gold
19. World War I was the first __________ war.
Mechanized
Convoy System
the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
militarism
The policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparedness for war and their use as a tool of diplomacy.
Conscientious objector
A person who believes fighting is wrong and therefore does not wnat to serve in the military
Partition
Means to divide. 14 nations met to partition Africa and share the continent's abundance of resources
Concientious objector
person who refused to fight for moral or religious reasons
Zimmerman note
a telegram sent to a German official in Mexico prior to U.S. entrance into WWI; proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico
What countries made up the central powers?
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
Treaty of Versailles 1919
Called for Germany to take responsibility for the war; Germany should pay reparations for the war; a League of Nations would be set up
The Big Three
The British, Soviet, and US leaders who coordinated defeat of Germany and Japan in WWII and negotiated post war settlements. Referred to Winston Churchill (England), Joseph Stalin (Soviet) and Franklin Delano Roosevelt (US) until 1945 when it became Clement Attlee (England), Joseph Stalin (Russia) and Harry Truman (US).
Significance:
what three nations wee in the Triple Alliance?
Italy, Russia,Austria
Espionage Act
Legislation that made it a crime to obstruct military recruitment,to encourage mutiny ,or to aid the enemy by spreading lies.
Adolf Hilter
Was born in Austria, served in WWI, joined the nazi party, in 1923 he attempted a failed coup d'etat known as Beer Hall Putsch, while in prison wrote Mein Kampf.
Open Door Policy
formulated by John Hay; gave all nations equal access to trading and developing rights to China
The three main sources of tension
Nationalism, militarism, entangled alliances among European nations.
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
The "Black Hand" assassinated this Austrian-Hungary prince, starting a war between Austria-Hungry and Serbia. Credited for starting WW1.
Defense Of Realm Act
governed people of Britain- list of things people were not allowed to do during the war - cannot criticize the war
Lost Generation
social effect of WWI; many young men & veterans were lost during the war
Benito Mussolini
Known as "Il Duce", he was the Fascist dictator of Italy during World War II.
Treat of Versailles
The treaty that ended WWI. It placed very harsh terms on Germany.
treaty of versailles
the peace treaty signed by germany and the allied powers after WWI
First Battle of the Marne
The battle where everyone realized, "we're not going anywhere"
War of attrition
A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses, Trench warfare between Germany and France. Called War of Attrition(wearing down) because the goal was to break down the enemy. There was no winner after 3 years of fighting.
Rasputin
Russian Mystic ( Mad Monk )
Russian Mystic ( Mad Monk )
archduke francis ferdinand
was next in line to inherit the throne of austria-hungary. his proposed reforms would have given bosnian serbs more right under his rule.
the assasination of who was a cause of the war?
austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand
US at start of WW1
US neutral, sold food and munitions to Allies.
captured and shot by Italian partisans
Toward the end of the war, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was
The "Big Three" of the Treaty of Versailles
France - Clemenceau, England - Lloyd George, USA - Wilson
What was important about the Battle of the Bulge?
Germany was now open fro the west and the east

punto
scherzando
playful
il piano
piano
ragas
(melodic modes)
piano
soft; softly
Music
Organized noise
ritard
to go slower
Bela Bartok
-Hungarian-interrupted intermezzo-concerto
Merry Widow
Franz Lehar
timbre
quality of sound
voi andate
you (plural) go
Stabat Mater
Giovanni de Palestrina
larghissimo
very slow and broad
George M Cohan
Over There
largo
slow, broad, dignified style
agrements
what the french called ornaments.
Tafelmusik
german word for table music
Tempo di valse
waltz dance tempo
a tempo
resume the original tempo
Scale?
AN ASCENDING/DESCENDING GROUP OF NOTES
Lester Young
Tenor sax from Woodbine, Mississippi
Edgar Varese- Poeme Electronique
20th Century Music
Symphony
A multimovement instrumental for a symphony orchestra in the form of a sonataFirst Movement-Fast2nd-Slow3rd- Minuet Trio4th-Faster than First
Sad Songs and Waltzes
Willie Nelson (1973)
shinto
Japanese religion consisting of prayer and ritual associated with an ancient body of music, connected to Buddhism
vocal ranges (female)
soprano (high)mezzo soprano (medium)alto (low)
Earliest “superstar” of jazzFirst great jazz trumpet virtuoso/improviser in jazz history
Louis Armstrong
descant
a melody or counterpoint accompanying a simple musical theme and usually written above it.
consort
ensemble of several members of the same instrument family
Syncopation
an offbeat, a deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accentuation
Concerto grosso
large scale composition for orchestra and GROUP OF solo instruments
vibrato
wobbling hand to mix pitches adding richness
Dream ballet
dance could convey the awkward emotions in a poetic manner
confirms Curly's affections and Jud's intentions
classical, traditional & parisian follies
forecasts the plot for us
reprises Act I music and signature melodies
Shoshone Flag Song
song: Helene Furlong, salute presentation of the flag that begins every powwow, Iterative verses, wide vocal range, furlong doubles or seconds Bonatsie, bonatsie uses falsetto, slow tempo, vocables and ululation
Vedas
unmetered songs of devotion and ritual that form the oldest books of the Hindu religionchants center around a core tone that serves as an earthly foundation
Punji
double or single reed wind instrument with two pipes (one a drone,) played by snake charmers (india)
record
something on which sound or images have been recorded for subsequent reproduction, as a grooved disk that is played on a phonograph or an optical disk for recording sound
Roots of Symphony
Italian opera overture - sinfonia, which was a three movement form, generally fast-slow-fast. German Manheim composers added the minuet and trio in between the second and third movements, making it the third of four total movements.
Kochel (K) numbers
means of identifying hundreds of Mozart's compositions
Chamber Music
Music in a small place, few instruments, purely instrumental
Homophonic texture
term describing music in which one main melody is accompanied by chords.
modal system
basis of music during the middle ages
measure
a group containing a fixed number of beatsdownbeat- first accented beat of measure
"song" is a lyrical type of monody with regular rhythm. Passionate, expansive, and tuneful
Aria
mezzo piano
somewhat louder than piano but softer than forte; moderately soft.
What got its base out of the Blues
Dixieland Music
Which of the following were de-emphasized in Debussy's music?
a.  rhythm
b.  melody
c.  form
d.  functional harmony
e.  all of the above
Consonant Sounds are ? and are ? to the ear
"Passive"Pleasing
Gregorian chant is so named because Pope Gregory I?
organized the chants
A large number of notes sung to a single syllable?
MELISMATIC
What is a "rostrum"?
the platform on which the conductor stands
 Pierre Boulez
He was one of the early pioneers of total serialism Aleatoric music 12 tone builds on works of Aton Webern.  He served as the principal conductor for the BBC Symphony Orchestrah from 1971-1975, and New York Philharmonic from 1971-1974.  He founded the Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM)
_______is an Institution that fosters the Arts in the USA by providing grants for various arts related endeavors.
National Endowment of the Arts
minuet and trio form
third movement of a symphony is always in this form
Bea Jung and John Wagner
Danced the waltz. Waltz is in 3/4 meter and has folk and aristocratic origins in the 19th century. Dance originally seen as "riotous and lascivious."
Adi tala, ata tala, rupaka tala, triputa tala
8 , 14 , 3, 7
How do you determine the interval quality?
If (1) it is P1, 4, 5, or 8 and (2) it is 0, 5, 7, or 12 half-steps.
Ontology
being
Willaim James
axis 3
medical disorders
enactive learning
learning by doing
set point
supposedly set weight
Kinesthetic
Position of the Limbs
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter that regulates muscle action, cognitive functioning, and memory.
Discrimination
Preferential treatment of certain people usually driven by prejudicial attitudes.
DSM-IV-TR
current diagnostic and statistical manual of the american psychological association that classifies, defines, and describes mental disorders
Acquisition
initial stage of learning something
braching extensions of neurons
Dendrites are
begings at age 2
two-word stages
monogomy
having only one sexual partner
imagery
mental images collectively, especially those produced by the imagination
random sample
produced when researchers assign subjects to experimental and control groups by chance
who developed the law of effect
thorndike
experiential therapies
interventions that recognize the importance of awareness, acceptance, and expression of feelings
Identity Crisis
A developmental turning point, associated primarily with adolescence, in which basic choices need to be made by the person in various life areas. (For example- decisions and commitments made about career, a mate, and ideology to live by.)
ptsd
 
anxiety d/o by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdraw, jumpy anxiety, insomnia linger for 4wks after traumatic experience
Psychology
discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state and external enviroment
confound
anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between the different experimental conditions of a study
anhedonia
negative symptom characterized by loss of interest in or ability to experience pleasure from activities that most people find appealing
Assimilation
the process by which individuals interpret new information in accordance with existing knowledge or schemas.
Retina
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
always afraid of failure
avoidant personality disorder
_______ consist of all the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings youare aware of at any instant.
consciousness
Emotion Regulation
The cognitvie and behavorial strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience
id
the psychic structure, present at birth, that represents physiological drives and is fully unconscious. (Latin translation: it)
sympathy
a relationship between persons in which the condition of one induces a parallel or reciprocal condition in another
Physical Development
Cephalocaudal: head to feet Proximodistal: center moving outward
Association areas
involved in higher mental functions, including learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
encoding
process of converting input into form that can be stored in long term memory
Sigmund Freud
an Austrian physician, he developed one of the first comprehensive theories of personality
Relaxing one muscle group after another until one achieves a completely relaxed state of comfort is called _______ relaxation.
C) progressive
When we describe someone's eyes as blue, technically we are referring to his or her blue _____.
Iris
anesthesia
(Ex Novocain) clogs up ion channels resulting in a longer abs refractory period, less neural impulses
Associative Learning
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a responsive and its consquences (as in operant conditioning).
The pathway that results in activation of the autonomic nervous system is from?
Thalamus--amygdala---hypothalamus
Defense Mechanism
Cognitive strategies such as denial and displacement that are used to reduce the symptoms of stress.
Myelin
Important to the nervous system, what increases the transmission speed of neural impulses?
adaptation
to piaget, the process of adjustment that enables people to function more effectively in meeting the demands they face in the environment
Superiority Complex
Exaggerated self - importance to conceal inferiority
field dependence-independence
individuals tendency to rely primarily on external versus internal frames of reference when orienting themselves in space
Accomodation
Piagetian process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience 
Place theory
A proposal about pitch perception stating that regions of the basilar membrane respond to particular sound frequencies and the nervous system interprets the excitation from different basilar regions as different pitches
insanity
whether a person is aware of consequences of their behavior
Chromosomes
Thread like structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
denial
refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality.
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phalic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
difference threshold
minimum change detected between two stimuli
Conformity Experiment
matching one line to three others
Fetal stage
The period of prenatal development that lasts from the ninth week until birth
afterimage
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
consciousness-raising
a group-therapy technique in which the aim is to enhance the participants' awareness of their particular needs and goals as individuals or as a group
introspection
The process of reporting on one's own conscious mental experiences
sampling without replacement
this method removes each selected individual from the pop. before the next selection is made. although the probability of being selected changes with each selection, this method guarantees that no individual will appear more than once.
cognitive development
study of how children learn, think, reason, communicate, and remember
Cerebellum
The part of the brain that controls bodily balance.
Crystallized Intelligence
- our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills: tends to increase with age
epilepsy
an electrical storm in the brain, can be seen with EEG, due to lack of inhibitory NT's especially GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), seizures controlled w/ drugs that increase GABA (valproic acid)
Zygote=
fertilized egg from union of sperm and ova
an individual is deliberately excluded from a interpersonal relationship or social relation
Social Rejection Studies
bioelectromagnetic applications
the study of how living organisms interact with electromagnetic (EM) fields
3 interrelated response systems
1.physical: perceive danger, brain sends messages to sympathetic nervous system; fight/flight response; chemical and physical effects that ready the body for actions
2.cognitive: seraching for potential sources of threat; difficulty focusing on every day tasks
3.behavioral: aggression and/or desire to escape 
fixation
inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective that impedes problem solving
Frustration
Result of being unable to satisfy a motive.
replicability
a finding must be capable of being duplicated by independent researchers following the same " recipe"
Receptor cells & the Senses
Type of nerve cells
repetition blindness
the inability to see the second occurence of a stimulus that appears teice in succession
Affect based trust
Based on gut feelings and emotions
distributional errors
rater tends to rate everyone the same.
CANNON-BARD THEORY
STATES THAT THE EXPERIENCE OF EMOTION OCCURS SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH BIOLOGICAL CHANGES.
Operational Definition
A description of an abstract property in measurable terms
dual coding theory
encoding info using multiple codes enhances memory
The idea that our perception of reality is based largely on the words we use to communicate to express ourselves
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
dual personality
a disorder in which an individual possesses two dissociated personalities, each of a complexity comparable to that of a normal individual
intelligence quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 [thus, IQ = (ma/ca) x 100]. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 444)
deferred imitation
imitate a novel act after a delay (early form of explicit memory)
Reticular formation
The part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons and made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal.
eidetic imagery
An iconic memory lasting a minute or so that keeps images "in front of the person" so objects can be counted or analyzed. Also called photographic memory.
How does extinction occur?
weakening of learned response. happens over timeEx:teach dog to salivate at sound of bell and give food. ring bell a few times n not give food. dog will not salivate
Human sexual response cycle
The normal psychological events that occur during sexual arousal. The cycle is divided into four stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Pg 395
prosocial behavior
feeling and acting in ways that are helpful and kind without obvious benefit to oneself
Schizophrenia, Disorganized Type; Schizophrenia, Catatonic Type
Incoherence and loose associations are typical of... , while catatonic stupor, rigidity, or unusual posturing are typical of ...
Dependent Variable
A factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable
Information integration theory
we form impressions based on our personal disposition and a weighted average of the traits of the person we are forming an image of
This type of therapy provider are MSW's who provide psychotherapy.
Clinical Social Worker
Deep Structure
The meaning of a sentence (if changed means something different)
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time
Latency
(Freud's Theory: Stages of Personality Development)
fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.
How to Improve Memory
Elaborate on teh material, use visual imagery, use a mnemonic device, explain it to a friend
dual earner marriage
the dominant family form today is the dual-earner marriage in which both partners are employed
hawthorne effect
if you know you are being watched you behave differently
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)(p 122)
A method of stimulating brain cells, using a powerful magnetic field produced by a wire coil placed on a person's head; it can be used by researchers to temporarily inactivate neural circuits and is also being used theraputically.
Internal Locus of Control
the perception that you control your own fate
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A from of biological therapy in which electrodes are placed on a patient's temples and strong electric shocks are then delivered to the brain.
Possible Self
Image of how the self might be in the future.
Schacter's 2 Factor Theory
arousal alerts the brain to find a reason for the arousal. Once the arousal is labeled, the emotion occurs
What does the person-environment aspect of the aging process denote?
To successfully adapt, age, and cope, and individual must continually match their skills to the demands of the environment, which is also changing.
males - early adulthood (20-39)
Focuses on career but more with family than in years past. Still only does about 25% of housework.
Psychology is a complicated science because...
Human behavior is complex, ideas and feelings are difficult to measure, experiments can be unethical, and there are always biases.
Shannon (if you're tim)
Tim (if you're Shannon)
person i love the most! (trick question)
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense.
What is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense called? P
How to estimate the Population Parameters?
Use the M and SD. When mean is unknown, use SD. If SD is used, we call the 'z' 't'.
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