Miller Levine Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
All terrestrial
vertebrates-reptiles, birds, mammals, and the land stages of most amphibians-breathe with lungs.
What characteristic distinguishes vertebrates from nonvertebrate chordates?
day-to-day condition of the atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation, and other factors
The basic units of life
Describe how feedback inhibition works.
 soft-bodied animals that typically have
an internal or external shell. Like annelids, mollusks
have true coeloms surrounded by mesoderm. They
also have complex organ systems.
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
primary producer
first producer of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms
organism whose cells contain a nucleus
cell organelle that stores materials such as water,
salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Describe the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems

 long supporting rod that runs through achordate's body just below the nerve cord
gastrovascular cavity
digestive chamber with a single
Malpighian tubule
structure in most terrestrial arthropods
that concentrates the uric acid and adds it to digestive
 process by which metabolic wastes are eliminated
from the body
worms with segmented bodies and a
true coelom lined with tissue derived from mesoderm.
 phylum Porifera (por IHF er uh), "pore bearers"

they have tiny openings, or pores, all over their
bodies .
relationship in which two species live close together
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
Biotic factor
Any living part of the environment
Create a table that summarizes the contributions made to the cell theory by Robert Hooke, Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, and Rudolf Virchow.
capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy
The organelles that break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the cell are called
Golgi aparatus
organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and
packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic
reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the
the cell structure that contains the genetic material
Explain why the word invertebrate may be a useful
word but is not a true category in the system of
classification .
feedback inhibition
process in which a stimulus produces
a response that opposes the original stimulus; also called
negative feedback
 an organ of excretion that separates wastes and
excess water from the blood
feed on detritus (decaying bits of plant and animal material), ofter obtaining extra nutrients from algae, bacteria, and other microorganisms that grow in and around it.
greenhouse effect
process in which certain gases trap sunlight energy in Earth's atmosphere as heat
ecological succession
series of gradual changes that occur in a community following a disturbance
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize
cell division
Animal cells have all of the following EXCEPT

A. mitochondria.
B. chloroplasts.
C.  nucleus.

D. a cell membrane.
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
the process of using the energy from sunlight to convert it into food that contains chemical energy
What regulates what enters andleaves the cell and also protects and supports the cell.
The cell membrane
 The job of collecting waste materials from a complex animal's body cells and delivering them to organs that will release them from the body is carried out by the
 excretory system     
nervous system  
 circulatory system
digestive system
Cattle digestion
* have a pouchlike extension of their esophagus called a rumen (plural: rumina), in which symbiotic bacteria digest cellulose. * Animals with rumina, or ruminants, regurgitate food that has been partially digested in the rumen, chew it again, and reswallow it.
* This process is called "chewing the cud."
competitive exclusion principle
principle that states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
radial symmetry
body plan in which any number of imaginary planes drawn through the center of the body could divide it into equal halves
Molars and Premolars
The sharp edges
of these teeth slice and dice meat into
small pieces. These teeth have ridges
that inlerlock during chewing like the
blades of scissors.
A tissue is composed of a group of
a. similar cells c. organ systems.

b. related organelles. d. related organs.
similar cells

What kingdom are animals a member of?
members of the kingdom Animalia
digestive tract
tube that begins at the mouth and ends at
the anus
What is the relationship between diffusion and osmosis? By definition, what's the only substance that undergoes osmosis?
Diffusion applies to everything but water.
Osmosis is the passive diffusion of only water.
Animals often respond to information processed by
their nervous system by moving around, using their
A circulatory system .
B excretory system.
C musculoskeletal system.
D digestive system.
How do microscopes work
use lenses to magnify the image of an object by focusing light or electrons
What characteristics do the
respiratory structures of all animals share?
* a large surface area of moist, selectively
permeable membrane.
* maintain a difference in the relative
concentrations of oxygen and carbon
dioxide on either side of the respiratory
membrane, promoting diffusion.
The developing embryo shown below is a ________________,


a group that includes ____________.

a . protostome; invertebrates other than echinoderms
b. protostome; vertebrates
c. deuterostome; echinoderms and chordates
d. deuterostome; invertebrates
Most chordates that live on land have ___________
a. two limbs.
b. four limbs .
c. six limbs.
d. eight limbs.
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