MIS Exam 10 Flashcards

Computer network
Terms Definitions
Intelligent techniques
page 421
Router
specialized communications processor that forwards packets of data from one network to another network
Knowledge work systems (KWS)
Worms
independent software programs that propagate themselves to disrupt the operation of computer networks or destroy data and other programs
Chat
live, interactive conversations over a public network
Computer forensics
the scientific collection, examination, authentication, preservation, and analysis of data held on or retrieved from computer storage media in such a way that the information can be used as evidence in a court of law
Telematics
wireless services that combine wireless communication with tracking capabilities from the Global Positioning System (GPS)
Maintenance
changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency
Clustering
linking two computers together so that the second computer can act as a backup to the primary computer or speed up processing
HIPAA
the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (page 353)
Satellites
the transmission of data using orbiting satellites that serve as relay stations for transmitting microwave signals over very long distances
Blog
popular term for Weblog, designating an informal yet structured Web site where individuals can publish stories, opinions, and links to other Web sites of interest
Bluetooth
standard for wireless personal area networks that can transmit up to 722 kilobits per second within a 10-meter area
2.5G networks
wireless digital cellular networks that provide higher-speed data transmission rates ranging from 50 to 144 kilobits per second (Kbps) using the existing cellular network infrastructure
Gram-Leach-Bliley Act
requires financial institutions to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer data
Stateful inspection
provides additional security by determining whether packets are part of an ongoing dialogue between a sender and a receiver
Spoofing
misrepresent themselves by using fake e-mail addresses or masquerading as someone else
Exchanges
third-party Net marketplace that is primarily transaction oriented and that connects many buyers and suppliers for spot purchasing
Risk assessment
determining the potential frequency of the occurrence of a problem and the potential damage if the problem were to occur
Security policy
consists of statements ranking information risks, identifying acceptable security goals, and identifying the mechanisms for achieving these goals
Object
software building block that combines data and the procedures acting on the data
Structure chart
system documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure
Enterprise analysis
an analysis of organization-wide information requirements made by looking at the entire organization in terms of organizational units, functions, processes, and data elements
Syndicators
a business that aggregates content or applications from multiple sources, packages them for distribution, and resells them to third-party Web sites
Richness
measurement of the depth and detail of information that a business can supply to the customer as well as information the business collects about the customer
General controls
overall controls that establish a framework for controlling the design, security, and use of computer programs throughout an organization
Packet filtering
examines selected fields in the headers of data packets flowing back and forth between the trusted network and the Internet, examining individual packets in isolation
War driving
eavesdroppers drive by buildings or park outside and try to intercept wireless network traffic
MIS audit
identifies all the controls that govern individual information systems and assesses their effectiveness
Controls
all of the methods, policies, and procedures that ensure protection of the organization’s assets, accuracy and reliability of its records, and operational adherence to management standards
E-mail
the computer to computer exchange of messages
Multicasting
transmission of data to a selected group of recipients
Frame relay
a shared network service technology that packages data into bundles for transmission but does not use error-correction routines
Fiber-optic cable
a fast, light and durable transmission medium consisting of thin strands of clear glass fiber bound into cables
Knowledge discovery
identification of novel and valuable patterns in large databases
System testing
tests the functioning of the information system as a whole to determine whether discrete modules will function together as planned
Information requirements
a detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy
Work-flow management
the process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently form one
Model-driven DSS
primarily standalone system that uses some type model to perform “what-if” and other kinds of analyses
Knowledge network systems
online directory for locating corporate experts in well-defined knowledge domains
Knowledge repository
collection of documented internal and external knowledge in a single location for more efficient management and utilization by the organization
Balanced scorecard
model for analyzing firm performance that supplements traditional financial measures with measurements from additional business perspectives, such as customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth
Sociotechnical design
design to produce information systems that blend technical efficiency with sensitivity to organizational and human needs
Unstructured decisions
nonroutine decisions in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insights into the problem definition
Internal integration tools
project management technique that ensures that the implementation team operates as a cohesive unit
Organizational learning
creation of new standard operating procedures and business processes that reflect organizations’ experience
Formal control tools
project management technique that helps monitor the progress toward completion of a task and fulfillment of goals
External integration tools
project management technique that links the work of the implementation team to that of users at all organizational levels
Systems life cycle
a traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists
Sensitivity analysis
model that ask “what-if” questions repeatedly to determine the impact on outcomes of changes in one or more factors
Local are network (LAN)
a telecommunications network that requires its own dedicated channels and that encompasses a limited distance, usually one building or several buildings in close proximity
Walkthrough
a review of a specification or design document by a small group of people that has been carefully selected based on the skills needed for the particular objectives being tested
Ring networks
a network topology in which all computers are linked by a closed loop in a manner that passes data in one direction from one computer to another
Smart phones
wireless phone with voice, text, and Internet capabilities
Identity theft
theft of key pieces of personal information, such as credit card or Social Security numbers, to obtain merchandise and services in the name of the victim or to obtain false credentials
T lines
high speed data lines leased from communications providers, such as T-1 lines (with a transmission capacity of 1.544 megabits per second)
Pop-up ads
ad that opens automatically and does not disappear until the user clicks it
Business model
an abstraction of what an enterprise is and how the enterprise delivers a product or service, showing how the enterprise creates wealth
Collaborative commerce
the use of digital technologies to enable multiple organizations to design, develop, build, and manage products collaboratively through product life cycles
Message integrity
the ability to ascertain whether a transmitted message has been copied or altered
Intelligence
the first of Simon’s four stages of decision making, when the individual collects information to identify problems occurring in the organization
Rule base
the collection of knowledge in an artificial intelligence (AI) system that is represented in the form of IF-THEN rules
Document management systems
digitize, index, and tag documents according to a coherent framework
Unit testing
the process of testing each program separately in the system
Activity-based costing
model for identifying all the company activities that cause costs to occur while producing a specific product or service so that managers can see which products or services are profitable or losing money and make changes to maximize firm profitability
Computer-aided design (CAD)
information system that automates the creation and revision of designs using sophisticated graphics software
Iterative
a process of repeating over and over again the steps to build a system
Automation
using the computer to speed up the performance of existing tasks
End-user interface
the part of an information system through which the end user interacts with the system, such as online screens and commands
Data-driven DSS
system that analyzes large pools of data found in major corporate systems
Process specifications
describe the logic of the processes occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram
Business process reengineering
the radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminating repetitive, paper-intensive tasks to improve cost, quality, and service and to maximize the benefits of information technology
Electronic records management (ERM)
software dealing with employee issues that are closely related to customer relationship management (CRM), such as setting objectives, employee performance management, performance-based compensation, and employee training
Network operating system (NOS)
special software that routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources
Acceptable use policy (AUP)
defines acceptable uses of the firm’s information resources and computing equipment, including desktop and laptop computers, wireless devices, telephones, and the Internet, and specifies consequences for noncompliance
Business continuity planning
planning that focuses on how the company can restore business operations after a disaster strikes
Topology
the way in which the components of a network are connected
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
system of protocols and technologies that enables cell phones and other wireless devices with tiny displays, low-bandwidth connections, and minimal memory to access Web-based information services
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
protocol used for secure information transfer over the Internet
Transport Layer Security (TSL)
protocols used for secure information transfer over the Internet
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
a group of technologies providing high-capacity transmission over existing copper telephone lines
Intrusion detection systems
tools to monitor the most vulnerable points in a network to detect and deter unauthorized users
Network Address Translation (NAT)
provides another layer of protection when static packet filtering and stateful inspection are employed
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
the communications standard used to transfer pages on the Internet
Joint application design (JAD)
process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions
Drill down
the ability to move from summary data to lower and lower levels of detail
DSS software systems
collection of software tools that is used for data analysis, such as online analytical processing (OLAP) tools, data-mining tools, or a collection of mathematical and analytical models
Forward chaining
a strategy for searching the rule base in an expert system that begins with the information entered by the user and searches the rule base to arrive at a conclusion
Digital credit card payment systems
secure service for credit card payments on the Internet that protects information transmitted among users, merchant sites, and processing banks
Critical success factors (CSFs)
a small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization
Geographic information systems (GIS)
system with software that can analyze and display data using digitized maps to enhance planning and decision making
Electronic billing presentment and payment system
a system used for paying routine monthly bills that enables users to view their bills electronically and pay them through electronic funds transfers from banks or credit card accounts
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