Modern World History 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
heliocentric
sun-centered
San Martin
led Haitian Revolution
Labour Party
party in Britain (liberal)
theocracy
government run by church leaders
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries; mutual defense against possible Soviet attack
Infrastructure
the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization.
EEC
the unity of European Currency (Euro)
Miguel-Hidalgo
Considered the father of Mexican independence, he declared an end to slavery in 1810
Creoles
Colonists born in Latin America, couldn't hold high government office but could become military officers.
U-boats
German submarines mainly used in WWII.
democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
guerrilla
a member of a loosely organized fighing force that makes surprise atacks on enemy troops occuying his or her country
Stalemate
a political situation in which further action is blocked
Nazism
The ideology of the Nazi Party. Anti-semitism.
Boxer Rebellion
1898-1901. Boxers were a secret society. Boxers believed that foreigners (Europeans and Japanese) were responsible for all of China's problems. Opposite effect of what they wanted. More foreigners came into China. It was not successful
Adam smith
European intellectual who wrote about the "invisible hand" of the market
predestination
the idea that God has already determined who will be saved
Nation-state
Nation that had its own independent government. It defends its territory and way of life and represents the nation to the rest of the world.
Johann Gutenberg
Craftsman who invented the printing press, printed Gutenberg Bible
Kamikaze
Suicide bomb attacks performed by the Japanese.
Emilian Zapata
(1879-1919) fought for land in southwest which was not being used in the best interest of the people
conscientious objector
person who refuses to enter the military or bear arms due to moral or religious reasons
Matthew Ridgway
This general took MacArthur's place in the Korean War and was able to hold half of the peninsula from the onslaught on Chinese troops. Burke named his kid after him
European Union
a n organization that unites many European nations for political, social, and economic goals such as free trade and military cooperation
Chartist movement
in 19th century Britain, members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all men
Haitian Revolution
the slave revolt in Haiti in 1791-1804. caused by the French Revolution. only successful slave revolt in history. led by Toussaint Louverture
government
system by which a community makes and enforces decisions
Opium War
Conflict ended by the treaty of nanjing
Camp David Accords
Agreement in which Egypt recognized Israel as a nation. Signed by Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel).
Direct Democracy
The purest form of democracy, citizens rule and make laws for themselves rather than through representatives
SOCIALISM
Is a political system based on common ownrship and control of reources and productive processes, which are administered by the government, but in the interests of the poeple
Utilitarianism
The idea that laws should be judged according to its usefulness.
Gross Domestic Product
total amount of goods and services that a nation produces in a single year; often used to gauge a nation's economic strength
Olympic games
the revival in 1896 at Athens, Greece of the ancient Greek traditions of holding an athletic competition among countries every four years
Hyper Inflation
after WWI. in 1923 in Germany. the germans went through a period of hyper inflation caused by the heavy reparations they were forced to pay to the Great 4 after loosing WWI
Ignatius of Loyola
Spanish knight who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
COMMUNISM
Is the belief that the best way for any group of people to operate is to share equally - sharing the work, sharing the income and sharing the goods, such as food, tools clothing and shelter. Central to communism is the idea that the group of society is mo
General Helmuth von Moltke
______ was the commanding officer in charge of the Shlieffen Plan in World War 1. Moltke, however, gave too-vague orders to the troops on the French front, resulting in a retreat. The Kaiser was displeased with Moltke and removed him from his position as General. Schlieffen Plan - The _________ was constructed by Germany to deal with fighting a two-front war. The plan's strategy was to first defeat France in the West while Russia was hopefully very slowly mobilizing its army in the East, then using Germany's good railroads, cross over to the East and defeat Russia. At first it looked as if the plan would work, but Russia was able to mobilize its army much faster than anyone had anticipated and penetrated the border of East Prussia. Moltke divided the forces on the western to counter the Russian army, greatly weakening his army and forcing them to retreat. Krupp - a German family in the late 1800's that owned a prominent steel cartel in Germany. Eventually producing a lot of armaments, it sold weapons to many countries during WWI, and supplied Germany's military for WWII. Big Bertha - a 43 ton howitzer capable of shooting 2,200lb shells over 9 miles, created in 1914 by the Krupp armaments factory, nicknamed after Alfred Krupp's wife. Battle of Verdun - Germans attacked Verdun, a neighborhood in northern France, in February, 1916 in an attempt to end the deadlock. Though France did not commit their main reserves to the defense of Verdun, the Germans abandoned the attack after 6 months of battle, having sustained as many casualties as the French, with little progress. The Battle of Verdun became a legendary display of determined resistance.Battle of the Somme - the offensive attack planned by the Allies in Northern France in July, 1916 on the River Somme, also intended to end the stalemate. This battle also ended without much success, costing all armies many soldiers. The tank was first introduced into battle on the Somme. Battle of Gallipoli - taking place in 1915 in Gallipoli, an area of Turkey, this battle was a French and British attempt to seize the Turkish capital, known as one of the worst military disasters in history, resulting in a tremendous amount of casualties on both sides. U-boats - _______ employed by Germans in WWI. The boats were initially a great threat to the allied navy and international trade, and threatened to strangle Great Britain. The invention of depth charges and the use of convoys of warships made U-boats a manageable. Battle of Jutland - the one great naval battle of WWI established Allied naval supremacy against the growing German naval threat. The improved German navy was anxious to test its power and loosen a naval blockade that was strangling Germany, but was surprised by a massive British fleet. Germany lost less men and tonnage, but failed to achieve their objective. Erich Maria Remarque - German WWI veteran and author of "All Quiet on the Western Front" written in 1929.Irish Easter Rebellion - a rebellion precipitated in 1916 by German agents working in Ireland with an Irish nationalist, Sir Roger Casement. The Germans intended to weaken Great Britain through domestic unrest, but the rebellion was quickly suppressed by the British government. "Khaki Girls" - women who became employed in the Motor Corps to help the war effort, wearing not the traditional skirt, but khaki uniforms. Armenian Genocide - In 1915 the Turkish government ordered the deportation of all Armenians from the war zone to be resettled in Syria and Palestine. Armenians were suspected of sympathizing with Russia, and hundreds of thousands perished before reaching their destination, leaving virtually no members of the race left in what became the Turkish republic. 32. General Henri-Philippe Pétain - a French army commander who argued against offensive war and believed modern weaponry supported defense. He commanded French defense at the Battle of Verdun, declaring "they shall not pass."General Ferdinand Foch - Another French army commander holding views opposite those of Pétain. He was commander of offensive forces at the Battle of Marne, and in 1918 became commander of all allied armed forces. T. E. Lawrence - ________ became British liaison to the Arabs during their revolt against the Turks and the Ottoman Empire, reporting on Arab nationalism. He fought alongside Arab tribes against the Turks, and became closely tied with the Arab people. He served in the British delegation at Paris after the war, pushing for Arab independence. Sykes-Picot Agreement - an agreement between French and British forces to recognize an Arabic state under Arab control, and to cooperate with such a state in the management of specified nearby areas. Balfour Declaration - declaration by the British Government in 1917 supporting the creation of a Jewish state. The declaration of British commitment to the Zionist cause came in the form of a letter by Arthur James Lord Balfour to Lord Rothschild.Freikorps - German paramilitary organizations formed by returning defeated German soldiers. The Freikorps served as the key paramilitary groups of the Weimar Republic. Paris Peace Conference - beginning in 1919 and lasting a full year, the Allied powers (mainly the Big Four) negotiated the Peace treaties between allied and central powers. Germany and her wartime allies were not permitted to participate.Article 231 - known as the "War Guilt Clause" this article obliged Germany to accept responsibility for losses sustained by the Allies due to the war and aggression of the Central Powers."Big Four" - the leaders of the powerful Allied nations: David Lloyd George of England, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the United States.Georges Clemenceau- The strongly nationalistic PM of France during WWI, who helped negotiate the Treaty of Versailles. Made many demands against Germany to cut down its size and to reimburse France, which had been devastated by the war.Vittorio Orlando - The Italian PM during WWI who attended the negotiation of the Treaty of Versailles. He took over after a WWI military blunder ousted the government of his predecessor. Was generally considered weak and Conservative.Rhineland - The name for the German lands to the east and west of the Rhine river. They were bounded by Germany, France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium during WWI. Following WWI, these lands were occupied by Allied Forces until 1936, when remilitarized Nazi Germany, led by Hitler, retook them. Polish Corridor - A strip of land taken from Germany and given to Poland to allow for Polish access to the Baltic Sea after WWI. The corridor was bounded by Germany on both sides.Danzig - A city that, prior to WWI, belonged to Germany. After WWI, when the lands near it became part of the Polish Corridor, it was declared a "free city" independent of any country. It was reincorporated into Nazi Germany in 1939.Sudetenland - Land comprised mostly of ethnic Germans that was part of Austria-Hungary until WWI. Following WWI, Czechoslovakia took much of the Sudetenland, but conflict remained with the strong German majority who resented being part of Czechoslovakia. In 1933, Germany leader Hitler met with the leaders of France and England, who agreed to give Sudetenland over to Germany.League of Nations - Wilson's idealistic and failure of an idea for a peace-focused international organization following the Peace of Paris in 1919. The US itself did not join when the Senate voted against Wilson's proposal.Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - The leader of the Ottoman Empire after WWI, who promulgated it's metamorphosis into the Turkish Republic in 1923. He was credited with greatly Westernizing the Turkish Republic, while promoting women's rights and separation of church and state. mandates - The former colonies of Germany and the Ottoman Empire placed under the supervision of the League of Nations following WWI. There were three categories, 'A', 'B', and 'C', based mainly on the territory's population and development Tsar Alexander III - Tsar of Russia from 1881 1894 who strongly resisted the liberal movement emerging in Russia at the time. Undid many of his father's liberal reforms, but allowed institutions like zemstvos to continueTsar Nicholas II - Tsar of Russia from 1894 1917, who is largely described as being in the wrong position at the wrong time. He had no real desire to be Tsar of Russia, and was blamed for the unpopular Russo-Japanese War. He proved incapable of managing the state during the time of political turmoil before the end of WWI, and was forced to abdicate his throne during the Russian Revolution in 1917. He was executed with his family shortly thereafter in 1918.Russo-Japanese War [1904 1905] - A war fueled mainly by Japanese imperialism and want for Asian mainland colonies and resources, but propagated also by Russian imperialism. The war ended up as a crushing defeat for Russia, and became a very unpopular political blunder, ultimately fueling the Russian Revolution of 1905. The war ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth.Treaty of Portsmouth - Formally ended the Russo-Japanese War. It was mediated by Theodore Roosevelt, and guarenteed the Japanese possession of China's Liaotung Peninsula and the lower half of the island of Sakhalin, but stipulated that both Japan and Russia withdraw from the rest of Manchuria.1905 Revolution - An anti-tsarist Revolution that sprang up across Russia, fueled by the very recent and very unpopular Russo-Japanese War, and by the emerging liberal and social ideologies. It was repressed mainly by force, and led to such events as the infamous "Bloody Sunday". Ultimately resulted in the issuance of the October ManifestoFather Georgi Gapon - Convinced and headed the group of workers who brought a petition for better workers rights, more personal freedoms, and the election of a Duma, before the Tsar in 1905. About 200,000 in all. "Bloody Sunday" - occurred in January of 1905, when a group of 200,000 peaceably protesting workers led by Father Gapon, were opened fire on by the Tsar's troops. Several hundred were killed. October Manifesto - Issued by Tsar Nicholas II following the Revolution of 1905. It promised Russia a constitution, civil liberties, and a Duma (Parliament) to be elected by all classes. Cadets - The party of liberal Constitutional Democrats who held a majority in the first elected Duma. Their demands were too great and the Duma was dismissed. They fled to Finland and called for mass revolution, which was never actualized. Sergei Witte - Author of the October Manifesto. A highly influential policy-maker, who oversaw much of Russia's industrialization in the late 19th and early 20th century, including the building of the Trans-Siberian railway. He is also credited with negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth for Russia. Duma - Russia's Parliament. It was dissolved four times between it's creation in 1906 and the end of WWI in 1917. It propagated the rise of Lenin and the Bolsheviks.Mikhail Bakunin - Russian revolutionary, "Father of anarchy," critiqued Marxism, involved in the first international and led many revolts in Russia against the tsarWeimar Republic - German republican govt 1919 1933, result of Treaty of Versailles and Kaiser Wilhelm's abdicationFriedrich Ebert - First German chancellor during Weimar RepublicSpartacus League - a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during and just after the politically volatile years of World War IRosa Luxemburg - a Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. She was a theorist of the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland, later becoming involved in the German SPD, followed by the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany. She started the journal Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag). After the support by the SPD for the German participation in World War I, she co-founded (with Karl Liebknecht) the Spartacist LeagueGustav Stresemann - Chancellor of Weimar Republic, awarded Nobel Peace Prize for Franco-German reconciliation (1926)Adolf Hitler - German Chancellor and Fuhrer during World War II, his aggressive tactics were a major factor in the initiation of the second World War. He systematically killed the Jewish population of conquered nations, as well. Beer Hall Putsch - a failed coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi party's Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund, unsuccessfully tried to gain power in Munich, Bavaria, and Germany.Mein Kampf - the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's political ideology of Nazism.General Strike of 1926 - lasted nine days, from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926. It was called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in an unsuccessful attempt to force the government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for coal miners.Irish Home Rule - There were Four Irish Home Rule Bills passed by Great Britain, and they allowed for a greater amount of Irish control over IrelandSin Fein - a political slogan used by Irish nationalists in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth century. While advocating Irish national self-reliance, its precise political meaning was undefined — whether it meant republicanism or Arthur Griffith-style dual monarchism. Its earliest use was to describe individual political radicals unconnected with any party. In the 1890s it was used by the Gaelic League, which advocates the revival of the Irish language.Irish Republican Army [IRA] - a military organization descended from the Irish Volunteers which was recognised in 1919 by Dáil Éireann as the legitimate army of the unilaterally declared Irish Republic, the Irish state proclaimed in the Easter Rising in 1916 and reaffirmed by the Dáil in January 1919.Michael Collins - an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-Chief of the National Army.Eamonn de Valera - one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. Co-owner of one of the Irish Press Newspapers, he served in public office from 1917 to 1973, holding the various Irish prime ministerial and presidential offices. A significant leader of Ireland's struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and the Republican anti-Treaty opposition in the ensuing Irish Civil War, de Valera was the author of Ireland's constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann."Black and Tans" - the Royal Irish Constabulary Reserve Force, which was one of two paramilitary forces employed by the Royal Irish Constabulary from 1920 to 1921, to suppress revolution in Ireland by targeting the IRA.British Commonwealth - A union of Britain and its many current and former colonies.Ruhr Crisis - occurred in 1923 when Germany stopped making their reparation payments required by the Treaty of Versailles. In response, France, under Poincaré, occupied the Ruhr Area. This region had coal mines and was the center of steel production for the Germans. This occupation cost the French the good will of the United Kingdom and the United States, who presumably thought this was too harsh an action and not warranted by the circumstances. In response to this loss of good will, France shifted its policy and began to accept the fact that Germany was once again going to be a major player in central European politics.Dawes Plan - an attempt following World War I for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from defeated post-World War I Germany. When (after five years) the plan failed to operate as expected, the Young Plan was adopted in 1929 to replace it.Young Plan - a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I. It was presented by the committee headed (1929-30) by American Owen D. Young. After the Dawes Plan was put into operation (1924), it became apparent that Germany could not meet the huge annual payments, especially over an indefinite period of time.Washington Naval Conference - a diplomatic conference, held in Washington, D.C. from November 1921 to February 1922. It was attended by nine nations having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia. It was the first disarmament conference in history, and is studied by political scientists as a model for a successful disarmament movement. It resulted in three major treaties: Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty and the Nine-Power Treaty and a number of smaller agreements. These treaties preserved peace during the 1920s but are also credited with enabling the rise of the Japanese Empire as a naval power leading up to World War II.Locarno Treaties - seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5 October - 16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I Western European Allied powers and the new states of central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement, in return normalizing relations with defeated Germany (which was, by this time, the Weimar Republic).Kellogg-Briand Pact - international treaty "providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy." It failed in its purpose but was significant for later developments in international law.Maginot Line - a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and in the run-up to World War II.Carl Jung - a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychologyWassily Kandinsky - was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. One of the most famous 20th-century artists, he is credited with painting the first modern abstract works.Cubism - a 20th century garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. It developed as a short but highly significant artistic movement between about 1907 and 1914 in France. Cubism is a painting of a normal scene but painted so that it is viewed from multiple views while the positions of some of the parts are rotated or moved so that it is odd looking and scrambled.Pablo Picasso - One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. It has been estimated that Picasso produced about 13,500 paintings or designs, 100,000 prints or engravings, 34,000 book illustrations and 300 sculptures or ceramics.Georges Braque - was a French painter and sculptor who, with Pablo Picasso, developed cubism and became one of the major figures of twentieth-century art.Surrealism - a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. The works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequiturSalvador Dali - a Spanish (Catalan) artist and one of the most important painters of the 20th century. He was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking, bizarre, and beautiful images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance mastersMarcel Proust - French intellectual, novelist, essayist and critic, best known as the author of In Search of Lost Time (in French À la recherche du temps perdu, also translated as Remembrance of Things Past), a monumental work of twentieth-century fiction consisting of seven volumes published from 1913 to 1927Remembrance of Things Past - a semi-autobiographical novel in seven volumes by Marcel Proust. His most prominent work, it is popularly known for its extended length and the notion of involuntary memory, the most famous example being the "episode of the madeleine"Franz Kafka - one of the major German-language fiction writers of the 20th century. Kafka's works - including the stories Das Urteil (1913, "The Judgement"), In der Strafkolonie (1920, "In the Penal Colony"); the novella Die Verwandlung ("The Metamorphosis"); and unfinished novels Der Prozess ("The Trial") and Das Schloß ("The Castle") - have come to embody the blend of absurd, surreal and mundane which gave rise to the adjective "kafkaesque".The Trial - a novel by Franz Kafka about a character named Josef K., who awakens one morning and, for reasons never revealed, is arrested and subjected to the rigours of the judicial process for an unspecified crime.James Joyce - an Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. Along with Marcel Proust and Virginia Woolf, he is a key figure in the development of the modernist novel. He is best known for his landmark novel Ulysses.Ulysses - a 1922 novel by James Joyce, first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from 1918 to 1920, and published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. It is considered an important work of Modernist literature.Virginia Woolf - an English novelist and essay writer who is regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. During the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary society and a member of the Bloomsbury Group. Her most famous works include the novels Mrs. Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927), and Orlando (1928), and the book-length essay A Room of One's Own (1929) with its famous dictum, "a woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction".A Room of One's Own - an extended essay by Virginia Woolf. First published in 1929, it was based on a series of lectures she delivered at Newnham College and Girton College, two women's colleges at Cambridge University in 1928.Thomas Mann - a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. His analysis and critique of the European and German soul use modernized German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Goethe, Nietzsche, and SchopenhauerFilippo Marinetti - an Italian poet, editor and founder of the futurism movement of the late 20th century (see 102). He wrote his artistic philosophy in his book Manifesto of Futurism.Futurism - 20th century art movement mainly in Russian and Italy. This reached out to all aspects of art: painting, sculpture, poetry, theatre, music, architecture, etc. Main principles: loathing of ideas from the past (esp. politics and art), love of speed, technology, violence, and the technological triumph over nature. Dadaism - Cultural movement beginning in Switzerland during World War I and reaching its peak in the 1920's. Its unorthodox style was a symbol of decadence to the nationalistic Germany because it was "anti-art" or art that protested previous artistic traditions. It was a sign of overall pessimism created by the horrors of the war. William Butler Yeats - Irish poet, dramatist, and the main driving force behind the Irish Literary Revival. This was a literary movement that celebrated Irish culture as distinct from English culture. Ezra Pound - An American expatriate poet, musician, and critic who was a key figure in the Modernism movement during the late 20th century. Subcategories of Modernism he was famous for expanding were Imagism and Vorticism. (Imagism is more important - remember that one.)T. S. Eliot - Also an American expatriate poet, dramatist, and critic. He was known for his anti-Semitism and is often categorized into the group of authors described as the "Lost Generation," or a group of cynical, bitter artists after World War I.Oswald Spengler - German historian and philosopher whose interests included math, science, and art. His best-known work is The Decline of the West.The Decline of the West - Book written by Oswald Spengler that predicted the fall of American civilization, portraying the western man as "proud, but tragic" and "while he strives and creates he secretly knows the actual goal will never be reached." (Juniors and seniors: this Great Gatsby). This resonated with the general pessimism of post World War II. Ludwig Wittgenstein - Austrian philosopher who made many breakthroughs in psychology, logic, mathematics, etc. Created language games as a tool for emotional growth. J. J. Thomson - British scientist. Discovered the electron, isotopes, and invented the mass spectrometer.Pierre & Marie Curie - Polish-French physicist and chemist. She was especially interested in radioactivity. Pierre - French physicist, specifically interested in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. Both shared the Nobel Prize together.Ernest Rutherford - Nuclear physicist from New Zealand. He created the orbital theory by conducting the gold foil experiment which concluded that atoms are not solid, but are made up of parts. Max Planck - German physicist. Considered to have founded the quantum theory, and therefore one of the most important scientific figures of the 20th century. Quantum physics - A type of science that attempts to describe the behavior of smaller atomic particles, such as electrons, protons, neutrons, etc. Common laws (like Newton's laws) did not apply to small particles, further adding the instability of understanding people believed they had. Sir Alexander Fleming - Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. Fleming published many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His most famous invention was Penicillin (a cure for many bacterial infections).Max Weber - German political economist and sociologist who is considered one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. His major works dealt with rationalization in sociology of religion and government, but he also contributed to economics. Walter Gropius - German architect, considered to be one of the founders of modern architecture. He was the founder of Bauhaus. Bauhaus - An art and architecture school in Germany that operated from 1919 to 1933, and for its approach to design that it publicized and taught. Famous for its furniture design. Fascism - An authoritarian ideology and mass movement with the main goal of putting the nation above all other loyalties. Benito Mussolini - Fascist dictator and prime minister of Italy from 1922 to 1943. He established a nationalistic regime that valued militarism, anti-liberalism, and anti-communism usually deemed repressive because of his censorship of the press, propaganda, etc.Ludwig Wittgenstein - One of a group of intellectual philosophers of the 1920's in Vienna who believed in logical positivism. He sought to introduce mathematics into philosophy, and rejected ambiguities of languages applied to morals and values. Associated with the phrase "God, death, what is higher."J.J. Thomson - A British scientist who discovered electrons and isotopes, and invented the mass spectrometer. He is noted for his observance of cathode rays, which led to the discovery of electrons. Pierre & Marie Curie - Together, the two discovered the periodic elements of radium and polonium. They were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics (1903), which they shared with Henri Becquerel for their study on spontaneous radiation. Ernest Rutherford - A physicist from New Zealand, who is considered the "Father of Modern Physics." He coined the tern alpha, beta, and gamma rays, and won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1908) for his study of "half-lives." He theorized that neutrons in the nucleus kept the atom from blowing apart. Most famous for his gold-foil experiment.Max Planck - German physicist who discovered that energy was absorbed in specific units, which he called quantums. He also realized that energy was not emitted smoothly and continuously, and was not distinguishable from matter, like some thought. Quantum Physics - Coined in 1924 by Max Born, quantum physics is defined as "the behavior of matter and energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles/waves." Involves theories from numerous scientists, including Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, etc. Sir Alexander Fleming - A Scottish biologist, who in 1928 isolated antibiotic penicillin from a fungus (for which he won a Nobel Prize). He also discovered the enzyme lysozyme (1922). Max Weber - German political economist and sociologist who advised German negotiators at the Treaty of Versailles, and was charged with drafting the Weimar constitution. He stressed the importance of religion in economic and governmental policies. His most famous work is The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Walter Gropius - A German architect who is considered one of the founders of modern architecture. In 1923, designed what is now the modern door-handle. He was the first director of the Bauhaus (1919 1925), and established the Architect's Collaborative (TAC) in 1945 (an American architectural firm).Bauhaus - German architectural school (1919 1933) whose style became a foundation for modernist architecture. Its first of three directors was Walter GropiusFascism - Political movement adopted the Italians under Mussolini where the interest of the state supersedes everything. The ideology emphasizes sacrifice and duty for the state and fellow citizens, grants limited individual liberties, embraces elitism, and is very militaristic in nature. States that war is good because it brings out the best courage and heroes in mankind, and allows for territorial expansion.132). Benito Mussolini - Fascist Italian leader who assumed power in 1922 until 1943. Mussolini assumed power in the 1922 March on Rome (government gave power to Fascists because they thought it would bring stability). Black Shirts - Young armed bands of Fascist Italian men who used violence against Communists and ordinary workers in the 1920's. They led the "March on Rome" in October of 1922 - this led to resignation of the liberal-coalition cabinet, and Mussolini's appointment of government premier. Il Duce - Title, meaning leader, assumed by Fascist Benito Mussolini of Italy in an attempt to exhibit himself as the unquestioned supreme leader. Corporative State - Italian system of the 1930's that broke economic life into 22 areas. Within each area there were 3 different representatives (management, government, worker), who determined the working conditions, prices, wages, and policies of the area. Nationally, representatives supposedly devised the country's plans for Italy's economic self-sufficiency. Lateran Treaty of 1929 - Treaty where the Papacy recognized the Italian state and the Italian government recognized the existence of a Vatican City, as an independent state, about a square mile in area. Totalitarianism - Political ideology where the government (or party) has complete control over every aspect of life. Examples include the rule of Joseph Stalin in the USSR, and the NAZIS in Germany. Third Reich - Nazi Germany, also called the German Reich (1933-1945); when the German government was run by Adolph Hitler and the Nazi party. Hitler the First Reich was the Holy Roman Empire, the Second Reich was founded by Otto von Bismarck, and the Third Reich was the German culmination that would last 1,000 years. Alfred Rosenberg - A Nazi who was considered the author of the party's major creeds: its racial theory, persecution of Jewish citizens, German militaristic expansionist policy (to house the growing "pure" race), and abolition of the Treaty of Versailles. Also rejected traditional Christian beliefs.National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZIS) - Dominant German party of the 1930's, through World War II - led by Adolph Hitler. The party believed in the superiority of the Aryan race, embracing biological determinism and the hierarchy of races. NAZI comes from the German pronunciation of the first two syllables in the word national. Of bravery I ever hadLeni Riefenstahl - a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. Her most famous works are documentary propaganda films for the German Nazi Party. "The Triumph of the Will" - a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. The film contains excerpts from speeches given by various Nazi leaders at the Congress, including portions of speeches by Adolf Hitler, interspersed with footage of massed party members. Hitler commissioned the film and served as an unofficial executive producerFalange - an fascist political organization founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 in opposition to the Second Spanish RepublicSpanish Civil War -- a conflict in which the Francoists or Nationalists, led by General Francisco Franco, defeated the Republicans or Loyalists of the Second Spanish Republic.General Francisco Franco - was the effective ruler and later formal head of state of first parts of Spain from October 1936 and then all of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. He led a failed military coup against the democratically elected republican government. The coup evolved into the Spanish Civil War during which he led the right-wing Nationalists against the Republicans. After winning the civil war he presided over the government of the Spanish State.International Brigades - Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the democratic government in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. They fought against Spanish Nationalist forces, who were led by General Francisco Franco and assisted by Nazi German and Fascist Italian forces.Ernest Hemingway - an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. In 1937, Hemingway traveled to Spain in order to report on the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance. While there, Hemingway broke his friendship with John Dos Passos because, despite warnings, Dos Passos continued to report on the atrocities of not only the fascist Nationalists whom Hemingway disliked, but also of the elected, left-leaning Republicans whom he favoredPablo Picasso - One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Franco and the Fascists through his art he did not take up arms against them.Guernica - painting by Pablo Picasso, which he was already working on at the time of the Nazi German bombing of Gernika, Spain, by twenty-four bombers, on April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War, and which he decided to name after it. Great Depression - a worldwide economic downturn which started in October of 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. It began in the United States and quickly spread to Europe and every part of the world, with devastating effects in both industrialized countries and those which export raw materialsKarl Barth - an influential Swiss Reformed Christian theologian. He was also a pastor and one of the leading thinkers in the neo-orthodox movement.John Maynard Keynes - a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments' fiscal policies. He is particularly remembered for advocating interventionist government policy, by which the government would use fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions, depressions and booms. Economists consider him one of the main founders of modern theoretical macroeconomicsRamsey MacDonald - a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He rose from humble origins to become the first Labour Prime Minister in 1924. His third period as Prime Minister was during the crisis of the Great Depression when he formed a "National Government" in which a majority of MPs were from the Conservatives, and as a result he was expelled from the Labour Party.French Popular Front - an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the Socialist SFIO and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period. It won the May 1936 legislative elections, leading to the formation of a government first headed by SFIO leader Léon Blum and exclusively composed of Radical-Socialist and SFIO ministers. Despite its short life, the Popular Front government passed much important legislation, including the 40-hour week, paid holidays for the workers, collective bargaining on wage claims and the nationalisation of the arms industryLéon Blum - French politician, was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. Blum passed legislation extending the rights of the Arab population of Algeria. In foreign policy, his government was divided between the traditional anti-militarism of the French left and the urgency of the rising threat of Nazi Germany. Despite the division, the government managed to engage the greatest war effort since the First World War.Little Entente - an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of defending against Hungarian irredentism and preventing the Habsburg restorationAnschluss - the 1938 annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi regimeNeville Chamberlain - a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. Chamberlain is perhaps the most ill-regarded British Prime Minister of the 20th century in the popular mind internationally, because of his policy of appeasement towards Nazi GermanyEduard Benes - a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement and the second President of CzechoslovakiaSudetenland - the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. Politically, the territories belonged to the Austrian Empire until 1918, from 1918 to 1938 to Czechoslovakia, from 1938 to 1945 to Germany, from 1945 until 1993 again to Czechoslovakia and since 1993 to the Czech Republic.Great Depression - It was a global economic downturn that started in 1929 and lasted till the 1930's. The Great Depression was thought to have occurred because the false prosperity of the 1920's and the weak banking system. Karl Barth - He was a Swiss reformed Christian theologian and a leader in the neo-orthodox movement. John Maynard Keynes - He was a British economist who developed Keynesian Economics and came up with theories as to why the Great Depression occurred. He advocated a form of interventionist policies by the government to regulate the economy and use financial measures to stabilize the economy in the event of a repression or a boom. Ramsey MacDonald (1866 1937) was a British politician and the prime minister of Great Britain three times. He was the first prime minister from the Labour party and his third time in office was during the Great Depression. To improve the conditions he formed a "National Government" which banded together all of the political parties. French Popular Front - It was a French alliance of the country's left wing parties such as the French Communist, the Socialist SFIO, and the Radical and Socialist party. The party was elected to office in the period between World War I and World War II as a response to Hitler Germany.Léon Blum - (1872 1950) He was the first prime minister from the French Popular Front. He was the first Jew and socialist to ever become prime minister of France. It became difficult for him to make decisions for fear of alienating different parts of the Popular Front and led him to resign. Little Entente - The ______ was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia to defend itself against Hungary and the rise of the Habsburgs. France signed treaties with each of the countries. The alliance started to break apart in 1936, completely disbanding in 1938. Anschluss - The 1938 annexation of Austria into nazi Germany. It was one of the first steps in Hitler's plan to create a German Empire. Neville Chamberlain - (1869 1940) He was a British politician of the Conervative Party and Prime Minister of the UK from 1937 to 1940. He left Czechoslovakia to Hitler in his policy of "appeasement" and gave up the Irish Free State Royal Navy ports leading to the Germans being able to stay close to the Irish coast.Eduard Benes - (1884 1948) was a leader of the Czechoslovakian independence movement and the second President of Czechoslovakia. Sudetenland - Sudetenland is the name previously used for the areas of land inhabited primarily by Germans in the areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts of Silesia.Edouard Daladier - (1884 1970) was a French Radical-Socialist politician, and Prime Minister of France at the beginning of World War II.Munich Agreement - It was the solution to the Sudetenland crisis. Germany got Sudetenland and agreed not to claim anymore territory. Appeasement - It's the foreign policy to accept the conditions and action of an aggressor instead of fighting. Rome-Berlin Axis ["Pact of Steel"] - The Alliance between fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. lebensraum - It was one of Hitler's main policies. It meant that German families needed room and living space which would be provided by the East. The Nazi's would kill, deport, or enslave the Polish, Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic peoples.Hitler-Stalin Non-Aggression Pact - Also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, it was a non-aggression treaty between the German Third Reich and the Soviet Union.blitzkrieg - It is a german war for "lightning war" and usually means the initial bombardment followed by the employment of mobile forces attacking with speed and surprise to prevent an enemy from implementing a coherent defense. Phony War ["Sitzkrieg"] - It was a phase in the beginning of World War II marked by few military operations in Europe , in the months following the German invasion of Poland and before the Fall of France. Although war had been declared on each other by the European powers, neither side had started fighting. Winston Churchill - (1874 1965) He was the British prime minister during World War II and won a Noble prize for literature. General Erwin Rommel - one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname "The Desert Fox" for the skillful military campaigns he waged on behalf of the German Army in North Africa. He was later in command of the German forces opposing the Allied cross-channel invasion at Normandy.Afrikakorps - the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II; the term is commonly used to refer to the headquarters plus its attached combat units.Battle of El Alamein - There were two battles of _______ , both during 1942. In Egypt, Allied (primarily Commonwealth) forces under a British Field Marshal Montgomery finally stopped the Germans under the command of Field Marshal Rommel. It was a turning point for World War II.General Bernard Montgomery - "Monty", was a British Army officer. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, and troops under his command were largely responsible for the expulsion of Axis forces from North Africa. He was later a prominent commander in Italy and North-West Europe, where he was in command of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord until after the Battle of Normandy. Albert Speer - an architect, author and high-ranking Nazi German government official, sometimes called "the first architect of the Third Reich"; had a close personal relationship with Hitler. genocide - the mass killing of a group of people. Dr. Josef Mengele - a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. He gained notoriety chiefly for being one of the SS physicians who supervised the selection of arriving transports of prisoners, determining who was to be killed and who was to become a forced labourer, and for performing human experiments of dubious scientific value on camp inmates, amongst whom Mengele was known as the Angel of Death. Wannsee Conference - a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on January 20, 1942. The purpose of the conference was to inform senior Nazis and senior Governmental administrators of plans for the "Final solution to the Jewish question" - the killing of all the 11 million Jews of Europe, a process now known as the Holocaust. Holocaust - the killing of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, as part of a program of deliberate extermination planned and executed by the Nazi regime in Germany led by Adolf Hitler. Auschwitz - largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. Free French - French fighters in World War II, who decided to continue fighting against Axis forces after the surrender of France and subsequent German occupation. Casablanca Conference - held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the European strategy of the Allies during World War II. Present were Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle. Teheran Conference - the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 in Tehran, Iran. It was the first World War II conference among the Big Three (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom) in which Stalin was present D-Day- June 6, 1944 — the day on which the Battle of Normandy began — commencing the Western Allied effort to liberate mainland Europe from Nazi occupation during World War II. However, many other invasions and operations had a designated D-Day, both before and after Operation Overlord. Battle of the Bulge - The goal of these operations as planned by the Germans was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp and then proceeding to encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis's favor. The Ardennes attack was planned in total secrecy in almost total radio silence. Yalta Conference - (Crimea Conference or codenamed the Argonaut Conference) the wartime meeting from February 4 to February 11, 1945 between the heads of the U.S., the U.K., and the Soviet Union — Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin. Clement Attlee - Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951; the first Labour Prime Minister to serve a full Parliamentary term and the first to have a majority in Parliament. He served longer as the leader of the Labour Party than anyone else in British history.Denazification - an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. It was carried out specifically by removing those involved from positions of influence and by disbanding or rendering impotent the organizations associated with it.Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunals - a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, from 1945 to 1949, at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice. Bretton Woods Conference - a gathering of 730 delegates from all 45 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II. International Monetary Fund [IMF] - an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested.
Cash Crop
farming one crop that is grown to make money
War of Spanish Succession
War started because the Bourbon's were going to take control of both France and Spain. Britain won and took control of Gibraltar
Congress of People's Deputies
This body was given power by Gorbachev in 1989 after the first free elections in the USSR since 1917. While the communists were no longer the 100% majority, they were still the dominant party
"The Great Patriotic War for the Fatherland"
This USSR name for WWII was suppose to end Stalin's harsh censorship and begin an era of more Russian Freedoms, Instead Stalin reopened his laboure camps and by 1949 were blaming religious groups for siding with the Capitalists. Overall the terror did end with WWII however
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