More plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
WATER
sporophyte
diploid
snowdrop
lumikelluke
peach
durazno, melocotón
Hophornbeam
Ostrya Virginiana
Sticky soil
Clay
Mountain Flax
.
Sourwood
oxydendrum arboreum
Seed Coat
protective covering
Gametes
haploid reproductive cells
Salix alba
White willow
stub
pařez; nedopalek GB
fibrous roots
absorb water
el tallo
the stem
Mesophyll
Contains photosynthetic cells
peristome
capsule discharges spores through
Magnolia x soulangiana
Saucer magnolia
adhesion
attraction between unlike molecules
cuticle
waxy protective leaf covering
Sapindaceae: Acer pensylvanicum
Striped Maple
frond
leaf of a fern
Open
Stomates ______ when: photosynthetic guard cells make sugar (causing decrease in water potential inside guard cells), guard cells absorb water and become turgid, light stimulates blue light sensors in plasma membrane of guard cells, potassium ion levels increase in guard cells, CO2 levels inside leaf decrease
Cytokinin
promotes cell division or cytokinesis
energy production, CHO production
photosynthesis involves:
pollunation
the process of transferring pollen
monocots
have a single seed leaf
antheridia
plant structure that produces sperm
Stem
supports plants, transports material b/t roots and leaves
flower
the reproductive organ of angiosperms
xylem
made up of empty tubes
plasmolysis
when plasma membrane shrivels away from cell wall
Process in which plants make food
Photosynthesis
evergreens
Many gymnosperms are called __________ because they stay green all year.
Brown Algae
Protist: Complex; thallus (blade, stipe, holdfast)
Example: (Lamiaria)
aerial
dandelion has what type of root
Pollen grain
male gametophyte in seed plants
pollen
plant structure that contains the sperm
auxin
hormone that promotes growth, cell elongation, fruit development
Ovules
house the eggs in the ovaries
root hairs
take in water and minerals
cotyledon
a seed leaf that stores food
Monocot
Has one cotyledon, which basically gives it nutrients it needs to grow into a plant (like a yolk)
Dicots
Have two cotyledons. They have arranged vascular bundles in the stem and leaf veins are branched. Examples are common trees and shrubs. Their flower parts in groups of fours and fives. (4, 5 , 8 , 10, etc
gymnosperms
produces cones, classication of plant which produce seeds which are "naked" (unenclosed). Often grouped into cones.
Sclerenchyma cells
Thicker cell walls than collenchyma cells which provide mechanincal support functions.
Lenticels
openings in the stem for gas exchange
Veins
Carry food and nutrients for the leaf
Herbaceous
__________ stems are usually soft and green, like the stem of a tulip.
angiosperm
a plant that produces seeds in flowers
Vascular tissue system
-Conducts materials throughout the plant body
2-types:
1.) Xylem - Conducts water and inorganic mineral ions from the soil to the leaves
-2-cell types, both are dead at functional maturity
a.) vessel elements= main conductive cell type
b.) Tracheids= more primitive; especially abundant in conifers
2.) Phloem -Conducts the organic products of photosynthesis (carbohydrates usually in the form of sucrose) throughout the plant body
-2 cell types, both are alive at functional maturity
a.) Sieve-tube cells -Main conductive type; No nucleus
b.) Companion cells -Smaller; load/unload materials into and out of the sieve-tube cells
-The companion cell's nucleus controls the activities of both cells
transpiratation
evaporation through the leaves of a plant
roots
absorb nutrients from the soil, anchor the plant, and store food
perfect flower
flower has male and female parts
nectary
contains a sugery sweet solution to attract insects
dicot
an angiosperm that has two seed leaves
Collenchyma Cells
cells are thicker than parenchyma cells, but also irregular in shape. A lot are found in celery stalks.
Functions: supporting plant
Lycophyta & Pterophyta(ferns)
seedless, vascular plants; dominant gametophytes; sporophyte photosynthetic and dominant; formed first forests; flagellated sperm and gametophyte require moist environment; vascular tissue; roots; mature plant has very reduced gametophyte
Woody
Stems that are hard. These stems usually don't die back to the ground during the winter. These are stems we use to make things like furniture and houses. Woody plants include oak trees, maple trees, lilacs, apple trees and magnolias.
Sepals
small, green leaflike parts that cover flower buds
rhizoid
a thin rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients
symplast
in plants, the continuum of cytoplasm connected by plasmodesmata between cells.
Antheridium
male reproductive organ in which sperm are produced in nonvascular plants, alternation of generations
Vascular Tissue
a transport system that conducts water and nutrients throughout a plant
epidermis
covers the entire surface of the root and is modified for absorption
Stigma
Top of the pistil; the pollen landing pad; is very sticky
double fertilization
process that occurs in angiosperms, in which one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form the zygote and one sperm nucleus fuses with the two nuclei that flank the egg nucleus to form the endosperm
photoperiodism
changes of light and its effect on plants
stamen
The part of a flowering plant that produces pollen. It is also the male part of the plant.
gymnosperm
a plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective fruit
annual plants
grows, reproduces and dies in the growing season
water column
formed extended from the roots through the stem and into the leaves, when water evaporates, pressure is created that pulls the water up the column and through the stem
stomata
The hole(s) at the bottom of the leaf.
bundle trace
dotlike scars inside leaf scar broken endso of xylem and phloem
germination
the initial opening of the embryo from the seed, after dormancy (happens when environmental conditions are right)
Leaves
The leaves make sugars that the plant needs to grow.
phototropism
plant grows up in relation to the sun
similar to grayanotoxin
Lily family, grasslike leaves grown from a bulb
cellular respiration
process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
What is the name of the process where pollen from pollen cones is carried from the pollen cones to the seed cones (in vascular plants without seeds)?
pollination
Abscisic Acid (ABA)
The best known of the inhibitor hormones; inhibits growth and prolongs dormancy. Closes stomata during water stress. Produced in/Found in leaves, stems, roots, green fruits.
Pseudotsuga menziesii - Douglas Fir
Flat needles,dense pyramidal habit, rat tail cone
Vascular Plant
a plant that has a vascular system composed of xylem and phloem, specialized tissues that conduct materials from one part of the plant to another
what families are in the order asparagales
iridiaceae, and orchidaceae
The flowering angiosperm plants
attract animals to help with pollination
The species concept that requires knowledge about reproductive isolation between plants is the

a) morphological species concept
b) biological species concept
c) phylogenetic species concept
d) polymorphic species concept
e) typological species conce
b) biological species concept
Compound leaf
An example of this type of leaf is poison ivy
repeated trials
a test of experiment that is done over and over
Meristematic Tissue
The only place on a plant that mitosis occurs, and is found only in the tips of shoots and roots
binomial nomenclature
What is used to give each plant a unique name that helps identify each plant?
What two layers of the plant produce food
palisades layer, spongy layer
stage - fertilization
3rd stage in the life cycle of a flowering plant
Syringa x chinensis - Chinese lilac
loose scales, big purple flowers, long leaf
sunlight, water and minerals, gas exchange, and movement of water and nutrients
what are the four survival needs for plants?
What does the stem do for a plant?
The function of the stem is to carry water and nutrients up from the roots to other parts of the plant.
pineapple
piña
style
????
hueco
hollow
angiosperms
flowering plants
stratification
seed germination
Nonvascular
no vessels
Achillea millefollium
Yarrow
lady palm
single
what mono means
Chinese Pistachio
Pistacia chinensis
translocation
movement of food
solanaceae: leaves
alt, compound
Prunus laurocerasus
Cherry laurel
Lusterleaf Holly
Ilex latifolia
petals
attract potential pollinators (flower)
Embryo
Young plant or sporophyte
cohesion
attraction between water molecules
How are magnoliaceae pollinated
beattles
Plant Type
Dicot (woody growth)
Leaf Margins
Smooth, Teeth, or Lobed
Petal
Modified leaf, usually brightly colored, that attracts insects and other pollen- carrying animals to the flower.
gemma
small asexual reproductive structure in e.g. liverworts and mosses that detaches from the parent and develops into a new individual
guard cells
open and close stimata
leaves: fabacea
alternate stipulate, compound leaves
seed vascular plants
grow from seed
Hesperidium
Thick-skinned septate berries covered with glandular hairs (Citrus)
Sclerenchyma
ground tissue, extremely thick, rigid cell walls, make ground tissue tough and strong
What is a root we eat?
Carrot
Grassland
Perennial bunchgrasses and sedges, now widely replaced by Eurasian species
Sapwood
area in plants that surrounds heartwood and is active in fluid transport
Cambium
Secondary growth. In gymnosperms and dicots, NOT in monocots)
cellulose
plant cells walls are made of
Plants in Ferns
has strobili (cones)
Cycads (Cycadophyta)
Ginko biloba (Ginkophyta)
Gnetae (Gnetophyta)
Agronomy
An agricultural science that deals with crop production and improvement.
Endomycorrhizae
three types (Arbuscular, Ericoid, and Orchidaceous), can puncture the cell wall but not the cell membrane within, some cells become spore vesicles
the food produced y a plant
glucose
toxicodendron
comprising those members of the genus having foliage that is poisonous to the touch
bulb
An underground stem that stores food for the plant.
Pistil
the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
root pressure
medium length movement of water (1m)
ectomycorrhizae
mycelium (mass branches of hyphae) are around root
palisade mesophyll
layer of tall, column-shaped mesophyll cells just under the upper epidermis of a leaf; cells are packed with chloroplasts
Ecological Role of Plants
-Through photosynthesis, plants provide food for ecosystem
-plants continually replenish oxygen in the atmosphere
-plants help create and maintain soil
-broken down plant tissue replenishes soil
- organic matter helps hold water, nutrients
-roots prevent erosion
tracheids
make-up of xylem in seedless vascular plants/gmynosperms
safranin
a counterstain used in gram staining to increase the contrast of the subject
parts of a flower
1. petals
2. stamen
3. pistil
sex organs- asteraceae
ovary inferior, 5 epipetalous stamen
A-PIN1
funnels auxin down inner cells toward root tip
Chlorophyll
green pigment, or coloring. Used to make food through process of photosynthesis. ( This is why most plants are green).
anther
flower structure in which haploid male gametophytes are produced
root cap
contains dead cells and protects the root from injury as the root grows through the soil
tracheids, vessel elements
make up xylem, don't require energy
taproot
the main root of a plant growing straight downward from the stem.
ovary
What is letter "G" in the flower structure picture?
Coniferophyta
One of four phyla of gynosperms. Most common gymnosperm. 500 known species. Can live for a really long time.
transpiration
Water evaporates from the inside of a leaf to the outside through stomata
monoecious
plant with male and female parts on the same plant
Small blandly
_____ or _____ colored flowers usually use wind for pollination
When did plants evolve?
Around 475 million years ago.
stele
the vascular cylinder of the root that consists of vascular tissues surrounded by the pericycle
hypocotyl
part of the seed embry: becomes the lower part of the stem and the roots.
leaf
uses sunlight and air to help plants make food
runners
stems that grow along the ground like those of strawberries
spongy mesophyll
loose tissue beneath palisade layer of leaf
reap
to cut (wheat, rye, etc.) with a sickle or other implement or a machine, as in harvest.
i can manage, i can get by
me puedo apañar
club mosses
-25 cm and grow in woodlands
-NOT A REAL MOS-HAVE VASCULAR TISSUE
MOA of soluble oxalates
hypoCa+ (precipitate Ca+ in soft tissue and cause kidney damage)
Cell respiration
the process in cells in which oxygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules
bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms
what are 4 major groups of plants?
capillary action
action by which the surface of a liquid where it is in contact with a solid is elevated/depressed
What is a example of of a non vascular plant
moss
Cornus serica 'flaviramea' - yellow twig dogwood
all yellow branches and twigs
the law of thermodynamics:
energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another
in any transfer of energy there is a loss of useful energy, usually in the form of heat
stamen, anther
what are the 2 things with the male flower anatomy?
The main function of leaves
is to make food for the plant
fiddle head
the coiled up frond on a fern that is just beginning to grow
life cycle of a flowering plant
1) Pollination: self or cross (insect or wind)
2) Fertilisation: The pollen grain grows a tubule down inside the style. The pollen grain meets an ovule.
3) Formation of fruit and seeds: sepals and petals fall off; stamens, stigma and style wither away; fertilised ovule becomes the seed; ovary forms a fruit
4) Seed dispersal: need to grow away from the plant, so that they do not compete for water, light and nutrients; by wubd, animals, water and an explosive mechanism
What is the great diversity in life the result of?
The greater diversity in the cell.
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