Muscular Tissue System Flashcards

skeletal muscle fibers
Terms Definitions
Leverage implies...
advantageous
Fulcrum(ful)
The pivot point
I (isotropic) band
Thin myofilaments only
Actin
Contractile; have myosin binding sites; bean or pea shaped; twisted together into a helix
Antagonist
Example: Triceps brachiiQ: Is the triceps brachii always considered to be an antagonistic muscle?
Parallel Fibers
-Fasciculi parallel to longitudinal axis of muscle-Flat tendon-Quadrilateral shape-Example: Stylohyoid muscle
Superficial fascia
Also called "hypodermis" or "subcutaneous" tissue
Note #4
Advantageous implies high mechanical advantage-one can overcome the resistance with less force or effortDisadvantegous implies low mechanical advantage-one must expend more force or effort to overcome the resistance-but-this allows for greater control and precision of movement
a structural protein include:
titin, myomesin, dystrophin
muscle tissue characteristics
1. excitability-notable response to stimuli2. contractility-shortens3. extensibility-can stretch4. elasticity-returns to original shape
First Class Lever:
"seesaw" E-Ful-R*Fulcrum in the middleExample: Where atlas articulates with head(atlantooccipital joint)Occurence: Not common in body; may or may not be advantageous
Convergent(triangular) fibers
-Broad origin converging to a point-Muscle has basic "D" or triangular shape-Example: pectoralis major
Structural Proteins
Not as abundant as contractile proteins (actin and myosin); approx. a dozen types; for alignment, stability, elasticity, extensibility, etc. of myofibrils
Myoblasts
Embryonic muscle cells; fuse to form skeletal muscle fiber
*What covers the myosin binding site in relaxed muscle?
tropomyosin
Endomysium is?
_______ penetrates the interior of each fascicle, separates ind muscle fibers (cells) frome ea other, thin sheath of areolar conn tissue
muscle tissue function
1. body movement2. maintenance of posture3. temperature regulation4. support and movement of materials5. support
Muscle Attachment
-Tendon: conn. tissue layers merge to form fibrous tendon-Aponeurosis: thin, flattened sheet-Origin: less mobile attachment of muscle-Insertion: more mobile attachment of muscle-Gaster(belly)
Gross "large" muscle structure
1. Epimysium-around entire muscle organ2. Fasciculi(Fascicles)-A group or bundle of muscle fibers3. Perimysium-surrounds or defines a fascicle4. Endomysium-around each muscle cell5. Sarcolemma-cell membrane of muscle cell6. Muscle cell, muscle fiber, or myofiber
Deep fascia
Deep fascia is the type associated with muscles-it binds and separates muscles, strengthens them, and allows for movement. It gives rise to the epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, tendons, aponeuroses, and tendon sheaths associated with skeletal muscles
Red vs. White skeletal muscle fibers
Red:More MyoglobinMore MitochondriaGreater vascular supply (capillaries)Small to Intermediate fiber diameterWhite:"fast" fibersanaerobictype 2b
Development of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
1. Myoblasts2. Satellite Cells
Reasons for muscle fatigue?
not enough ATP production, insufficient O2, glycogen depletion, inadequate release of calcium ions, depletion of creatine phos, build up of lactic acid
What are thick filaments made of?
300 myosin molecules
anaerobic cell respiration-
glycolysis, glucose is broken down, producing pyruvic, 2 ATP-Pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid
The sarcoplasm is the ?
cytoplasm or the _______
a contractile protein is?
A contractile protein... generates force during contraction, actin and myosin
Types of skeletal muscle fibers
Red and White muscle fibes
Effort(e) or Force(f)
Supplied by Muscle to overcome the weight or resistance
Pennate Muscle fibers
-Fasciculi short compared to length of muscleExample:Unipennate-extensor digitorum longus muscleBipennate-Rectus FemorisMultipennate-DeltoidCircular-Orbicularis oris/oculi & pyloric sphincter-tendon extends length of muscle-fasciculi at obligque angle to tendon
Muscle fibers undergo muscle growth_______, without cell division.
hypertrophy, (without cell division) muscle fiber enlargement.
What is the basic unit of a muscle fiber?
sarcomere
Name 2 properties of muscular tissue...
Electrical Excitability & Contractility which are?
components of connective tissue...
Two types of fascia, including location and structure
Resistance(r) or weight
That which must be overcome by the force or effort supplied by the muscle
Histology: microstructure or a skeletal muscle cell (fiber)
1. Muscle cell(fiber) or myofiber2. Sarcolemma-plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fiver3. Sarcoplasm-cytoplasm of muscle fiber4. Sarcoplasm reticulum-series of membrane enclosed channels; comparable to E.R.5. T-tubule (transverse tubule)-at right angles to long axis of cell; opens to outside of sarcolemma-thus contains extracellular fluid6. Triad-Consists of T-tubule and adjacent terminal cisternae
Describe skeletal muscle?
This _______ functions to move bone, a few may move skin or other muscles, some are striated, * striated, are fibers that have alternating bands
What types of muscle tissue?
(what are these?) skeletal muscle, cardiac, smooth muscle
skeletal muscles are composed of .....
cells (fibers-surrounded by connective tissue), blood vessels and nerves penetrate into muscles
Muscle Tissue Comparisons Cardiac & Smooth
Workbook pg. 116-117Text pg. 312-313
What is Electrical excitability?
The abiity to respond to stimuli by producing action potentials
what is a twitch contraction?
CONTRACTION OF MOTOR UNIT IN RESPONSE TO A SINGLE ACTION POTENTION OF MOTOR UNIT
what are the 2 types of fascia
superficial fascia and deep fascia
where do muscle fiber arise from?
the fusion of myoblasts during embryonic development (mesodermal cells)(what is a_________?)
creatinine phosphate is produced and found how/where?
molecule found only in skeletal muscle fibers, high energy phosphate bonds, ATP from ADP by transfer of a phosphate group
Describe a tendon
a ______ is a cord of dense reg conn tissue, attaches a muscle to the periosteum of bone, some are enclosed within theh tendon sheath (some contain synovial fluid)
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