Music : Baroque Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The Messiah
A famous oratorio
Carissimi, Giacomo
Italian composer, 1605-1674.  
 
One of the finest of the 17th century, chiefly known for his secular cantatas and oratorios.
 
His 16 oratorios were essentailly substitute operas on old Testament themes performed during Lent when opera was forbidden.
 
His finest oratorio is Jeptha, where solo narrator and chorus act as commentators, and the latter even takes the roles of opposing groups in the story.
 
Handel would later expand on this basic scheme.
 
His notable pupils include A. Scarlatti and Charpentier
1715
Antonio Stradivari "Stradivarius" is at heigh of his "violin making" powers
Polarity
Between the treble and bass.
Blow, John
English, 1649-1708.  Composer responsible for teaching Purcell.
 
Organist of Westminster Abbey in 1668.
 
Fluent composer of anthems and services, master of the festive verse anthem.
 
Contrapuntal style, using English false relation and "old fashioned" harmonies, is frequently extremely expressive.
 
His odes contain powerful music, esp the masterly Ode on the death of Mr Henry Purcell (published 1696) for countertenor duet, two recorders and continuo.
conserted madrigals
madrigals with instrumental accompaniment as seen in Monteverdi's fifth through eighth books on madrigals.
Figured bass
Numerical shorthand for Continuo
1664
English composer Henry Purcell is appointed organist in London;
Composes first famous opera, Did and Aeneas in England
1709
Piano is invented by Bartolomeo Cristofir
Scheidt, Samuel
1587-1654.  The first internationally significant German Baroque composer for the organ, he is responsible for the flowering of the new north Gr. style that occurred as a result of the Counter-Reformation.
 
His main genres include instrumental music, mostly for organ (though it is now largely eclipsed by Bach), and his sacred vocal music that is a capella or uses basso continuo
Courtante
French for "running" or "flowing" begins with an upbeat but is in moderate triple or compound meter or shifts between the two. The steps were dignified, with a bend of the knees on the upbeat and a rise on the beat, often followed by a glide or step.
sacred concertos
Setting religious texts that incorporate baso continuo, the concertato medium, monody, and operatic styles from recitative to aria.
gavotte
A baroque dance in duple meter
concerto grosso
genremore soloists involved rather than just one in concerto
Oratorio
This musical form is an extended musical drama for voices and orchestra with texts based on religious subjects. It is not intended to be performed as part of the church service.
Baroque Music Period
Period where instrumental music developed greatly;
Composers devised many new orchestral forms: Dance suite, the concerto for solo instruments, and orchestra and the symphony.
newly invented piano began to rival the harpshichord by the end of the period.
Stile antico
Palestrina's music has often been regarded as the model of classical Renaissance polyphony, esp in its controlled treatment of dissonance, though successive generations have varied considerably in their understanding of it.
 
In the 17th century, his music was taken as the model for what was by then termed the stile antico, but which was nevertheless still cultivated for some types of sacred music.
 
The style of unaccompanied, largely diatonic, polyphonic vocal music
masque
The masque was the English counterpart of the ballet de cour and emphasized dance and musical spectacle.
 
Masques were given both publicly and privately in England during the 1630-1650s. 
 
The masque was basically a theatrical event and served both as a deterrent, and later, as a forerunner of English opera (cultivated soon after the era of the masque by Henry Purcell). 
 
Cupid and Death by the poet James Shirley is an example of a representative masque.  Music for this piece (produced a number of times) was written by both Matthew Locke and Christopher Gibbons
Suite
A collection of dance movements for solo instrument (Bach violin sonatas and partitas and cello suites, Froberger keyboard suites, Bach English, French suite etc) or chamber ensemble or orchestra.
 
The various movements are usually cast in closely related keys (and sometimes even with the same melody - Buxtehude) and follow a fairly standard progression, often beginning with an allemande or prelude, and concluding with the spritely gigue.
early orchestra
Although the French often preformed the viol for chamber and solo music, they created the first large ensembles of the violin family. These became the model. An ensemble whose core consists of strings with more than one player performing ech part. Louis XIII established the Vingt-quartre Violons du boi (Twenty-Four Violins of the King) which typically played music in a five part texture, six soprano violins, tuned lie the modern violin, on the melody, twelve alto and tenor violins, tuned like the modern viola, divided among tree inner parts and six bss violins, tuned a whole tone lower than the modern cello on the bass line.
Zarzuela
a predominant gere of musical theater in Spain for several centuries, which was a light,m mythological play in a pastoral setting that alternates between sung and spoken dialogue and various types of ensemble and solo song.
Brandenburg Concertos
Bach's best known orchestral works. Dedicated in 1721 to the Margrave of Brandenburg who had requested some pieces but composed during the previous ten or so years. For all but the first, Bach adoped the three movement, fast, slow, fast order of the italian concerto as well as its triadic themes, steady driving rhythms, retornello forms and overall style. The Third and Sixth are orchestral concertos without fetured soloists, and the others pit solo instruments in various combinations against the body of strings and continuo.
sonata
In the first half of seveteenth century  cinsisted of a number of small sections differentialed by musical material, texture, mood, character , and sometimes meter and tempo. As composers developed the genre, these sections gradually became longer and more self-contained. Finally, composers separated the section s into distinct movements, so that in time it became a multimovement work with contrast between movements. Theses contrasts were i sympathy with the theory of the affections, which held that music stimulated the bodily humors and could keep them in balance by offering a diversity of moods. Some composers maintained thematic similarities between movements, as in the older variation canzona, but thematic independence of movements was much more common. By about 1660 the most common types were the sonata da camera and sonata da chiesa.
Also common were the solo sonatas and sonatas for large ensembles.
**basso continuo**
baroque accompaniment made up two instruments playing bass line; usually viola d'gamba and keyboardEXAMPLE:all except Organ Fugue in G minor
Opera
drama presented in music, with the characters singing instead of speaking
Concerto
A musical work is a composition usually in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano or violin) is accompanied by an orchestra.
exposition
first section in a fuguesexposes all musical material to be used for the rest of the peacevoices state the subject at different timesonce voices have each stated the subject, the exposition is over
basso ostinato
when repetition occurs in the bass
1722
J.S. Bach makes first book of The Well-Tempered Clavier
Canzona
Derived from the chanson- Most of them start with long short short.
Bach, Johann Sebastian
1685-1750.  Bach served as organist at Arnstadt (1703-07) and Muhlhausen (1707-8), as court organist and later concertmaster in the chapel of the duke of Weimar (1708-17), as music director at the court of a prince in Cothen (1717-23), and as cantor of St. Thomas' school and music director in Leipzig (1723-50).
 
He composed in almost all forms of his time, except for opera.
 
During his time at Arnstadt, Muhlhausen, and Weimar, he wrote mostly organ compositions, including chorale preludes, several sets of variations on chorales, and some toccatas and fantasias which show influences of Buxtehude.
 
At Cothen, he wrote no church music, but rather clavier (WTC, Part 1, 1722) or instrumental works (Brandenburg concerti, and the works for solo violin and solo cello), music for instruction and for domestic or court entertainment.
 
At Leipzig, he wrote his cantatas and other church music, as well as the Goldberg Variations.
 
His style exhibits a mastery of counterpoint and a fusion of Italian, French, and German characteristics.
 
Other elements of his style include the concentrated and individual themes, the copious musical invention, balance between harmonic and contrapuntal forces, strength of rhythm, clarity of form, grandeur of proportion, imaginative use of pictorial and symbolic figures, intensity of expression always controlled by a ruling architectural idea, and the tehcnical perfection of every detail.
Double Fugue
Scholar debate this term.  Some say that a double fugue is when two subjects are stated simultaneously at the outset of a fugue.
 
This means that a subject and countersubject handled in the standard is not a double fugue because they are not stated at the outset.
 
Others state both subjects must be given their own expositions, with the two subjects only combining towards the end.
Goldberg Variation
One of JS Bach's masterpieces for keyboard, it is a set of 30 variations on a sarabande.
 
It is published as Part IV of the Clavier-Ubung.
 
The structure of the piece as a whole is unique: while every variation preserves the bass and harmonic structure of the theme, every third variation is a canon.  The first starts on the unison, the second at the second and so forth on through the ninth.
 
The 30th variation is a quodlibert, a mixture of 2 popular song melodies combined in counterpoint above the bass of the theme.
 
The work ends with a da capo of the theme.
 
The other variations are a potpourri of forms: inventions, fugues, French overture, slow aria
libretto
N:book with the story line of the operaM:text of an opera
minuet
A popular 17th and 18th century dance in moderate triple meter; also a movement in a sonata, symphony, etc, based on this dance
Schein, Banchetto musicale
1617, Musical Banquet, Collection of suites, Varied melodic idea recurs in every dance, 20 suites in five parts (each followes the same pattern)
organ
a keyboard attached to a set of pipes
The Four Seasons
Composition that portray events of the seasons
Exp: Shivering and falling on ice in winter
Viola d'Amore
A 6 or 7 stringed instrument with sympathetic strings used primarily during the Baroque period.
 
Due to the sympathetic strings, the sound was sweet and delicate, and was especially popular in the late 17th C.
 
It fell into disuse like much of the viol family, when the violin's volume and power became the instrument of choice.
Israel in Egypt
A biblical oratorio by Handel, based on the Old Testament story.
 
This biblical oratorio, in addition to Saul and Judas Maccabeus, earned a certain appeal to English audiences in the early 18th C, because this time was also one of prosperity and imperial expansion for the British, and English audiences felt a kinship with chosen people who triumphed with the blessing of God
Cantata
Means to be sung. The term was applied before 1620 to a published collection of arias in strophic variation form. By midcentury, it meant a secular compostion with continuo, usually for solo voice, on a lyrical or quasi-dramatic text, consisting of several sections that included both recitatives and arias. Among the leaders of this genre of the midcentury were Luigi Rossi and Antonio Cesti, Carissimi and Strozzi. Became the leading form of vocal chamber music in the late 17th century.
In 1700, Lutheran theologian and poet Erdmann Neumeister in troduced this as a sacred genre for musical setting. Throughout the seventeenth century, Lutheran composers had ste biblical, liturgical and chorale texts. Neumeister added petic texts, intended to be set as recitatives, arias and ariosos. that brought home the meaning of the day's Gospel readings. The new church genre found widespread acceptance amoung Lutherans.
petit motet
a sacred concerto fo. r few voices with continuo
episode
In a fugue, a passage that does not contain any complete appearances of the fugue subject.
Schutz, Psalmen Davids
1629, modern style compared to stile antico, Basso continuo, Concertato medium, Multiple choirs and groups of solo voices and instruments
Doctrine of Affections
Different moods should be used to influence the emotions of the listener
Kuhnau, Johann
His death in 1722 opened up the canter position at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig that JS Bach filled
Vivaldi's influence on Bach
While at Weimar, Bach became facinated by the music of Vivaldi. He arranged serveral Vavaldi concertos for organ or harpsichord solo, writing out the ornaments and occasionally reinforcing the counterpoint or adding inner voices. As a consequence, Bach's own style began to change. From Vivaldi, he learned to write concise themes, to clarify the harmonic scheme and to develop subjects into grandly proportioned formal structiones based on the reternello idea.
Vivaldi, Op. 3 Concerti (L'estro armonico)
1711, Vivaldi's first publ. collection of concertos, Demonstrates new techniques, Distinct musical forms, Vigorous rhythm, Idiomatic solo writing
das Wohltemperirte Clavier
A collection written by JS Bach in two volumes.
 
Each volume contains an prelude and fugue in all twenty-four major and minor keys.
 
Many of these pieces appear to have grown out of pedagogical exercises Bach set for his children and students.
 
The title itself probably does not refer to equal temperament as we know it.  Rather, it refers to a version of mean-tone tuning used during Bach's time.
 
Bach's work obviously inspired later composers like Chopin, Hindemith, Shostakovich, etc. who wrote similar collections in all twenty-four keys
Story of Dido & Aeneas
Dido is the Queen of Carthage (coast of Africa)
Aeneas is a Trojan war hero.
Aeneas is returning to Italy, his hometown, and wants to be the founder of Rome. He's on the high seas and ends up in Carthage after a storm blows him off track. Meets Dido and they fall in love.
Belinda is Dido's confidant (handmaid).
The Sorceress conspires to undo the love. Commanding Aeneas to go to Rome and fulfill his destiny. Dido let's him go and she builds her own funeral and she throws herself into a bonfire.
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