Music History 32 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Impressionism
...
marcato
stressed; marked
Deutche Messe
...
Allemande
German, 4/4 andante
Liturgical
Relating to church
ostinato
persistently repeated rythmic figure
Rimsky-Korsakov
Composed: Scheherazode
most famous pupil: Stravinsky
orchestration expert; wrote a book on it
Stouts-Pts. 1& 2
Isley Brothers
gigue
Baroque, compound meter- 6/8, polyphonic, imitative
isorhythmic motet
Complicated and convoluted—patterns don't match up but repeat in ratio
One voice isorhythmic and others freely composed
Rhythmic and melodic patterns
phasing
In the compositional technique phasing, popularized by composer Steve Reich, the same part (a repetitive phrase) is played on two musical instruments, in steady but not identical tempo. Thus, the two instruments gradually shift out of unison, creating first a slight echo as one instrument plays a little behind the other, then a doubling with each note heard twice, then a complex ringing effect, and eventually coming back through doubling and echo into unison. Phasing is the rhythmic equivalent of cycling through the phase of two waveforms as in phasing. Note that the tempi of the two instruments are almost identical, so that both parts are perceived as being in the same tempo: the changes only separate the parts gradually. In some cases, especially live performance where gradual separation is extremely difficult, phasing is accomplished by periodically inserting an extra note into the phrase of one of the two players playing the same repeated phrase, thus shifting the phase by a single beat at a time, rather than gradually.
ambrosian chant
milan in northern italy
Ockeghem
1410-1497 Backward looking French composer--more rigidly modal, unmetered rhythm, florid writing that obscures text
Which opera used almost exclusively string instruments?
French
Beethoven symphony
excitement and urgency, inner triumph
Primitivism
a wild or unrefined state, Stravinsky's "Rite of Spring"
Hildegard
The composer _______________ was an abess who was an adviser to popes and kings, and wrote widely in a variety of disciplines.
Nationalism
A 19th century movement promoting music built on national folk songs and dances, or associated with national subjects
fin'amors
ideal love applied to chivalric society
Liturgy
prescribed texts and rites that collectively consitiute the religious services of the Church
Dynamics
the musical element of relative musical loudness or quietness
Mass Ordinary
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Josquin Defrez - "Pange lingua"
Counterpoint/contrapuntal
"note against note" or "melody against melody" Music consisting of two or more independent lines sounding simultaneously. The term contrapuntal is often (but not always) considered synonymous with polyphonic.
monody
an accompanied solo song or the musical texture of solo singing accompanied by one or more instruments.
Swing Music
Rhythmic lilt, increased band size, prohibition over, bar/dance hall/juke box/radio, popular, 1935-1940s, formal arrangements, artistic excellence, jitterbug/lindy hop, after money was involved it became inferior to early jazz. Larger, sax replaces clarinet, swing beat, double bass, vocalists in front, 3 trumpets/3 trombones/ 4 saxs/ piano/drums/bass/guitar. Fletcher Henderson/Duke Ellington/Benny Goodman/Count Basie.
rhythm-and-blues
- music developed in urban centers just after the war. They were new songs built on 12-bar blues or 32-bar popular song formulas.
harmony
2 or more notes being played simultaneously
seven liberal arts
TRIVIUM = grammar, logic, rhetoricQUADRIVIUM = arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
Mendelssohn wrote an oratorio, in the tradition of Handel, entitled
elijah
Which producer owned the Downbeat sound system, Studio One Records and was the first to record The Wailers, yielding over 100 of their tracks?
Coxsone Dodd
Victimae Paschali Laudus
section: naComposer: naDate: 11th centuryGenre: mass
arioso
a short recitative that is melodic but is not an aria
Phrygian mode
scale in which half steps occure between notes 1-2 and 5-6, as if playing all white keys from E to E
Plato endorsed the following two harmoniai for use in education because they fostered temperance and courage:
Phrygian and Dorian
CHANSON
french for song and referring to a French secular polyphonic work, which was generally set to courtly love poems written in one of several fix text forms
William Billings
self taught composer who wrote psalms and hymns and invented the sacred genre of fuging tunes work: Creation
This medieval ruler indirectly spawned the birth of notation
Who is Charlemagne
Henry VIII
King that created the Church of England. It's origins lay more in politics. Henry wanted to divorce his wife, because he needed a male heir so he created the church to allow him to get the divorce.
Free organum
organum with several things at once
What type of staged variety show of the late 1800s/early 1900s contained a lineup of 10 acts by a group of musicians, acrobats, family acts, comedians, jugglers, magicians, and trained animals?
Vaudeville
homophony
music in which one main melody is accompanied by chords.
Recitative
Spoken parts in an opera that imitates the rhythms and pitch of speech often leading to an aria.
21
The New German School
The progressive composers working in Germany in the period after 1850 became known as this. The founders were Liszt and Wagner.
Rhythm
the aspect of music having to do with the duration of the notes in time, also applied to any particular durational pattern
Free School of Music
a tuition free and musically progressive alternative to the Saint Petersburg Conservatory; Balakirev worked as conductor and music teacher
idee fixe
a fixed idea, an obsession; the term used by Berlioz for recurring theme used in all the movements of one of his program symphonies
Alfonso the Wise
collected the songs for the cantigas de santa maria manuscripts (may have wrote some)
3. What is the biggest selling song recording in U.S. chart history?
White Christmas
works of Josquin
formes fixes, adieu mes amours, missa l'homme arme
What was music called that was not in the Guidonian system?
Musica Ficta/Falsa
Orlando di Lasso
The greatest composer of the Motet in the renaissance.
“mystery” or “rosary” sonatas
15 sonatas for solo violin and continuo that project through music the sacred devotion of the rosary
Ars Nova
Music of the late middle ages that was composed with rhythm.
Chant in Rome: Old Roman chant
Manuscripts from the eleventh and twelfth centuries show a different chant being used in Rome. Texts are the same as Gregorian. Melodies are more elaborate. Scholars still dispute whether this tradition represents the original, more elaborate, chant from which Gregorian derived, or a later embellishment to a Gregorian tradition.
Solesmes notation was created for __________.
a. singers of the Schola Cantorum
b. Charlemagne's music teachers
c. Byzantine basilicas
d. readers of the Musica Enchiriadis
e. official chantbooks in the twentieth century
e. official chantbooks in the twentieth century
"Public Prayer to a Worker" ("Plegaria a un labrador")
Victor Jara. "Our father" reference, guitar playing is intense, bloody revolution
What did Rameau mean by fundamental bass?
succession of roots or fundamental tones in a series of chords
What is a syllabic text setting of chant?
Every note has it's own Syllable
What makes the deployment of rhythm in the Ars Subtilior noteworthy?
Voices moved in contrasting meters and conflicting groups, subdivided beats, syncopation, blurred harmonies through rhythmic disjunction
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