Music History 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
classical
Gossec
Virelai
ABbaA
Musorgsky
Boris Godunov
plot
storyline or plan
Ludwig Van Beethoven
1770-1827
Council of Trent
1545-1563
The Fourth of July
Ives
4th MVMT form
sonata allegro
Crumhorn
Renaissance wind instrument featuring an enclosed double reed which sounds like a soft bagpipe. p. 266
Where was Handel Buried?
Westminster Abby
Schumann
Carnaval excerpts: Eusebius Florestan and Coquette
Roll Over Beethoven
Sweet Little Sixteen
R.A.P.M.
Russian Association for Proletariat Music
Renaissance
French for "rebirth." Revival of ancient Greek and Roman culture. New focus on human experience.
Movement
a section of a larger work
Fugue
composition in imitative texture that is based on a single subject and begins with successive statement on the subject in voices
Nicola Vincentino
Advocated half steps and quarter-tones. Built a harpsichord with 36 keys per octave. innovator in tuning systems.
Sequences
A non-biblical textual addition that crosses the boundaries of oral and written tradition.
Jackie Wilson
-Enormous range and sheer power-Sweeping register, rich vibrato, falsetto, breaks was trademark-energetic and agile--better live
Boris Godunov: Coronation Scene
Modest Mussorgsky1868-69 rev.1871-74
pitch/frequency
Relative highness or lowness of sound
Beginning of the French Revolution
July 14th, 1789
ave maria
josquin motet with paired voices, Renaissance
New Objectivity
Nazi Germany
Bruchner & Beethoven were models
Against Expressionism, sought to make music more understandable to a wider audience. Discussed by Ernst Krenek.
Post-Modernism
Take something old and make it new
Musical appropriation
when borrowing becomes stealing / making covers complicated by social inequality & financial profit
mensural notation
when certain symbols correspond to certain notes and values; umbrella term for our form of notation today
rondo
ABACADE one main theme with other themes inbetween very repetitive the audience leaves humming this
The Charlatans
-considered to be start of haight/ashbury scene-contribution more of a social one-planted seeds of rock counter culture
Leading composer of French Violin sonatas?
Francois Couperin
To which label was Elvis Presley signed to when he first began using television to introduce himself to the national audience?
RCA/Victor
Who took Columbia Records to profitability in Rock n Roll?
Clive Davis
Chopin was a composer as well as a
teacher.
21
Camille Saint-Saens
French late romantic composer who was known for writing Danse Macabre, a tone poem and was trained at a conservatory by Liszt.
The text, or book, of a musical dramatic work (opera) is called the
libretto
slow and graceful dance done by courtiers because of their bulky clothing. The dance steps walked and glided one step to one note of music. The cantus firmus was written but usually 3-4 instruments (schawms) improvised polyphony around the cantus
Basse Danse
Lester Leaps In
Swing, Count Basie, 1939, Quotes gershwins "i got rhythm", features Lester Young=best improvisor between Armstrong and Parker, Sax is featured
New Wave
- groups that maintained the nihilism of punk but incorporated trained musical skills
101. Who was the most successful songwriter of secular popular song in nineteenth-century America? [see Class 21 notes]
stephen foster
neumatic chant
multiple notes for each syllable of text (3-5)
Humanism
A shift in the Renaissance from a church-centered mindset to a human-centered mindset
What singer repeatedly hit the 1970s soul charts with smoothly arranged string and horn driven tracks, and became a minister in his own Memphis church while still cutting soul records?
Al Green
Carlo Gesualdo
murdered his wife and children. Io parte
PHillipus de Caserta is one of the most important representative of this style of music in later 14th century
Ars Subtilor
Maurice Ravel Compositions
1. Mother Goose Suite
2. Concerto for the Left Hand
3. Pavane for a Dead Princess
4. Le Tombeau de Couperin
5. Orchestration of Pictures at an Exhibition
Male vocal groups
Smokie Robinson & Miracles / Frankie Valli & Four Seasons
Poetic meter.
The rhythm of ancient Greek music was intimately tied to what?
Frank Zappa
-Satirist with a wicked sense of humor and absurdity-His band- mothers of invention (66)
What early producer recorded both the Carter Family and Jimmie Rodgers for Victor in 1927?
Ralph S. Peer
What Songwriting team penned many hits for Frank Sinatra?
Cahn and Stine
The texts that are said in the mass every day
The Ordinary
Mean-tone and equal temperaments
The era where they're working out tuning systems
Who was John Taverner?
Taverner was the leading composer of sacred music in England for the first half of the 16th century. He composed masses and motets and was known for his long melismas, full textures, and cantus-firmus structures.
15. What creative studio techniques did The Beatles incorporate during the recording of Tomorrow Never Knows for the Revolver album? (two answers)
Tape loops and Backwards tape
Gesualdo is known for
Killing his wife, her lover, and their children
Mozart's Requiem Mass in D minor
Commissioned by Count Franz von Walsegg in 1791; left unfinished at Mozarts death; Completed by Franz Xaver Sussmayr.
What innovation did Beethoven introduce in his Ninth Symphony?
Solo voices and chorus in the finale
Church Modes (Organization of whole and 1/2 steps to main note of mode)
Authentic mode (odd numbers, begin one note below final); Plagal modes (even numbers, begin 4th or 5th below final)
"What Will The People Say" ("Que dira el santo padre?")
Violeta Parra. Mentions JULIAN GRIMOW - communist leader who influenced chileans till silenced to death in Spain.
. What are the periods of Western art music?
• Antiquity before 450 C.E.
(i.e., the fall of the Western Roman Empire)
• Middle Ages 450 - 1450 C.E.
• Renaissance 1450 - 1600
• Baroque 1600 - 1730
• Classical 1730 - 1800
• Romantic 1800 - 1900
• Modern 1900 - 1968
• Postmodern 1968 - present
What was the first hit rock "concept album", and the first to print all of the lyrics on the album jacket?
Sgt Peppers Lonely Hearts club band by the Beatles
Ballada
...
pianissimo
very soft
Minnesinger
German troubadour
Guillaume Dufay (dates)
1397-1474
direct
chant all together
Race Records catalogues
Rag
Spoken Word
Gospel
Blues
totalitarianism
state in complete control.
Palindrome
Same forward and Backward
Big Mama Throton
Unsuccessful female Elvis
two aria styles
Bel canto=beautiful singing--lyricism
florid=flashier/arpeggios
VENICIAN OPERA
The Shangri-Las
white group from Queens
divertimento
Mozart composed serenades and divertimenti in the 1770s and early 1780s for outdoor performances; the most familiar of Mozart’s serenades is Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music, K. 525; 1787)
Italy was represented by which composer?
Verdi
Violeta Parra
Folklorist, musician, visual artist. Her songs are some of most covered latin songs. Committed suicide
jongleur
Lower social class (like jesture)
Sung chanson de geste—long epics of heroic deeds
Honky-Tonk
beer-drinking music / rowdy roadside C&W juke joints / amplified instruments used to play over loud crowds / steel guitar
ballet
dance form featuring a staged presentation of group or solo dancing with music, costumes,
and scenery
Johann Walter
personal friend of Luther (Germany)
Piano style popularized by minstrel shows
Ragtime
cross over
Laurie Anderson, crossover of performance art to music.
Anton Webern
Concept of music history influenced his development
the first instrument was some sort of
drum
hypaton
The lowest tetrachord in the Greater Perfect System
Guido d' Arezzo
music theorist, invented staff notation
cadences
phrases end in resting places. (Where a singer or instrumentalist pauses to draw a breath)
Bela Bartok
worked full time as an ethnomusicologist, music greatly influenced by folksongs. popular work: Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta
Control
Making sure the audience was never confused. Very systematic. There is ornamentation but it is structured.
Shawm
Double reed instrument, similar to the Oboe, used in the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque Periods.
seconda practica
supported by Monteverdi and his brother; believed the text could dictate the music and deviate away from contrapuntal style; heavy dissonances were used; Artusi disagreed with this (he was Zarlino's pupil)
What songwriter changed popular music with deeply personal, highly intelligent and poetic lyrics?
Bob Dylan
Rhythm
Ordered flow of music through time, the pattern of durations of notes and silences in music.
post-modern
eclectic style using older forms in a contemporary context
- laid the foundations of modern music theory
aristotle
Aria
operatic solo; a song sung by one person in an opera or oratorio. Scarlatti is known for the Da Capo version of this.
Pentatonic Scale
Five-note scale; black keys; folk and Asian origins; all genres
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941 Japan attacked O'ahu Hawaii, brought us into WWII
Universal Zulu Nation
Hip hop group by Africa Bambaataa
Guido of Arezzo
wrote Micrologus, and responsible for four line staff.
Marquee Moon
-laid groundwork for many of the guitar based post punk pop groups of the late 70's and 80's-Television album
Kurt Weill
German composer who wrote many works for the stage.
What California vocal group combined surfer themes with jazzy doo-wop vocals and Chuck Berry-style guitar and developed one of the most innovative and successful pop groups of the 1960s?
The Beach Boys
Composer known for film scores like Peter Gunn and The Pink Panther and winning four Oscars and 20 grammys...
Harry Mancini
list a good example of comic opera
La buona figliuola
Italian, melody, emotion, Swiss, country, nature, artificial
Rousseau praised ________ composers' emphasis on _______ and their ability to express any ________ with that melody. He was ______ and thought that you should have pride in your ______, _____, and thought the Baroque was ___________.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Piano Concerto in D major
mvt. 1, Allegro
Major dominant
so, ti ,re, fa (root word of each....so)
Reflecting on the Arts
-The French Revolution brought about momentous social changes
-Romantic writers, artists, and musicians focused on emotional expression
Col legno
playing with the wood part of the bow
talea (isorhythm)
the order of rhythms in an isorhythmic composition
what did the symphonie concertante combine?
orchestral sonorities with virtuoso solos
Pope Gregory 1
pope and writer gave rise to gregorian Chant; codified liturgy&music
What types of organum come out of the Abbey of St. Martial at Limoges?
Melismatic organum
The Greater Perfect System
-a series of tetrachords linked to form a two-octave range of usable pitches
1. Hyperbolaion
2. Diezeugmenon
3. Mese
4. Meson
5. Hypaton
6. Proslambanomenos
New Orleans Jazz
Improvises on a 12 bar blues, a 16 measure strain from rag time, or a 32 bar popular song form.
Social Role of Italian Madrigal
- sung for entertainment of singers themselves
- mixed group of women and men at social groups
11. What three men became the elder mentors to a generation of British blues players like Mick Jagger, Charlie Watts, Brian Jones, Jack Bruce, Ginger Baker, Jeff Beck, Eric Burdon, Eric Clapton, and Mick Fleetwood by the way of guidance and club or band o
John MayallAlexis KornerCyril Davies
Rule of St. Benedict
is a book of precepts written by St. Benedict of Nursia for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot
Canzoni septimi toni a 8 (Gabrieli's Sacrae symphoniae)
- cori spezzati (divided choirs)- contrast and opposition of sonorities- ensemble canzonas 
16. Rockabilly can be described as a blend of what two styles of music? (Two Answers)
b. Hillbilly and d. R&B and
In colotomic meter, which pulse is the most important?
Most important pulse is the last pulse of
the meter
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