music History Antiquity-Baroque 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ritornello
a return or refrain
François Couperin
Baroque composer/harpsichordist associated with court of Louis XIV; developed genre known as "ordre'; treatise explaining Baroque ornamentation
prima practica
musical embodiment of Counter-Reformation; traditional style for church music in contrast to the freer writing found in some madrigals of the late 16th c.
Carlo Gesualdo
late Itallian Renaissance aristocrat/composer; famous for his highly chromatic, non-traditional madrigals (and for stabbing his wife and her lover)
Johann Froberger
Austrian keyboard performer/composer; standardized Baroque dance suite using four principal dances; penchant for composing expressive "laments"
Antonio Vivaldi
late Baroque composer/violinist; worked primarily at a girls school (La Pieta) in Venice; wrote over 400 solo and concerto grossos
cadenza
a technically demanding, rhapsodic, improvisatory passage for a soloist near the end of a movement
passion
a large-scale oratorio-like musical depiction of Christ's crucifixion as recorded in the Gospels
conductus
Middle Ages extra-liturgical piece for 1-4 voices with metrical Latin poems texts in stanzas; serious and moralistic; used for movement of the clergy
prolation
(prolatio) the division of the semibreve into two or three minims in 14th-centruy mensural notation
Filippo Brunelleschi
Renaissance Florentine architect who designed the dome for the Florence cathedral
rondellus
a distinctly English musical technique in which two or three voices engage in voice exchange, or more correctly, phrase exchange
frottola
a catch-all word for polyphonic setting of strophic Italian poetry; flourished 1470-1530; origins in improvisatory, solo singing in Italy during the 1400s
Burgundian cadence
(octave-leap cadence) when three voices are present, the contratenor often jumps an octave to avoid parallel fifths and to fill in texture of final chord
confraternity
a Christian society of laymen emphasizing religious devotion and charity; in Florence performing laude was an essential part of their fraternal life
intabulation
music notated in performance symbols for solo instruments(lute, keyboard); implies a preexisting polyphonic vocal piece arranged for a single instrument
onomatopoetic music
common vocabulary of musical "gestures" that sound out their own meaning: minor for sad; major for happy; musical "sigh," etc.
Giovanni Artusi
conservative music theorist; advocated older style with traditional harmony & counterpoint rules; called Monteverdi's music harsh & offensive to the ear
recitative
a musically heightened speech, often used in an opera, oratorio, or cantata to report dramatic action and advance the plot
lament bass
a descending tetrachordal basso ostinato employed during the Baroque era as a musical signifier of grief
sonata
originally "something sounded" on an instrument; opposed to something sung (a "cantata"); later a multimovement work for solo instrument or ensemble
rondo
refrain (A) set against contrasting material (B, C, or D) to create a pattern such as ABACA, ABACABA, or even ABACADA; usually playful, exuberant mood
pastoral aria
slow-tempo aria employing parallel thirds in step-wise motion, lilting compound meter, slow harmonic change and many subdominant chords
Perotinus
Notre Dame composer of three and four-voice organa during the high Middle Ages; modular musical design in many of his works
Codex Calixtinus
first manuscript to ascribe composers' names to particular pieces (ca. 1150); contains twenty polyphonic pieces
mensural notation
symbol specific notation developed in the late thirteenth century; the direct ancestor of the system of notation used today
close
an independent urban conclave or gated community located next to the cathedral for those employed in the cathedral as clergy, servants or choirboys
cauda
in the vocabulary of the medieval musical theorist, a long melisma on a single syllable; used in a conductus to set off key words
villancico
a devotional song dating from the Middle Ages associated with Spain and Latin America consisting of several stanzas and a refrain
chanson
the French word for song, monophonic or polyphonic
counterpoint
from the Latin punctus contra punctum (one note moving against another note); the harmonious opposition of two or more independent musical lines
shawm
a double-reed instrument with a loud penetrating tone; provided dance music during the Middle Ages and Renaissance; ancestor of the modern oboe
sincopa
the medieval term for syncopation, a temporary shift of the downbeat
carnival song
a short, homophonic piece associated with pre-Lent, Mardi Gras season, the text of which usually deals with everyday life on the streets
L'Homme armé
popular "military" secular song; used more frequently than any other as the cantus firmus for Renaissance polyphonic mass compostitions
Tafelmusik
German name for chamber music, both vocal and instrumental, for the dinner table
Giovanni Palestrina
16th c. Italian composer; his compositions are the model of the carefully controlled, sacred polyphonic style of the Counter Reformation
prelude
a preliminary piece, one that comes immediately before and introduces the main musical event
Musica transalpina
a 1588 collection of thirty-three Italian madrigals published and translated into English; impetus for the explosion of English madrigal compositions
Eng. cross/false relation
the simultaneous or adjacent appearance in different voices of two conflicting notes with the same letter name
theorbo
a large lute-like instrument with a full octave of additional bass strings descending in a diatonic pattern
simple recitative
operatic vocal technique; narrative in text and speech-like in melody; accompanied by keyboard, minimal number of instruments or basso continuo only
William Byrd
late 16th/early 17th c. English composer; preeminent composer for Queen Elizabeth until her death; also composed music for secret Catholic services
ricercar (17th c.)
a tightly organized, monothematic organ composition perfected by Frescobaldi that influenced the later fugal writing of J.S. Bach
cantata
"something sung" as opposed to a sonata, which was "something sounded" on an instrument
da camera
(of the chamber) a seventeenth-century designation for music that was not intended primarily for the church
chorale prelude
ornamental setting of a pre-existing chorale tune intended to be played on the organ before the singing of the chorale by the full congregation
fortspinnung
taking the primary musical idea and "spinning" it out in a seemingly endless melodic strand with uniform rhythmand often deceptive cadences
rank
each group of similar sounding pipes in an organ
style brisé
discontinuous texture in which chords are broken apart and notes enter one by one; such a style is inherent in lute music
semibreve
the shortest of the three basic note values and shapes recognized by Franco of Cologne around 1280 in his classification of musical durations
modal notation
(12th c.) system where rhythm is determined by context as opposed to modern notation in which each sign (note) indicates a specific duration
nave
the western end of a cathedral or large church; public area; used as town hall and civic auditorium as well as for religious processions and votive prayers
motet
(13th c.) each upper voices has its own poetic text that comments on the Latin chant text in the tenor; (later) a sacred choral composition in Latin
choirbook format
layout for religious music from the late Middle Ages onward; soprano voice in upper left, alto or tenor in bottom left or upper right, bass in bottom right
color
the melodic unit that serves as a structural backbone in an isorhythmic composition
contratenor bassus
the lower of the two contratenor voices (the other being the alto); the medieval equivalent of our bass voice
tactus
term used to indicate the beat by Renaissance music theorists
musica ficta
accidentals not found on the Guidonian scale; had to be added by medieval performers because, theoretically "off the scale," and had to be imagined
ballata
a dance song with a choral refrain; one of the three formes fixes of secular music in trecento Italy
bas instruments
(soft instruments) one of the two classifications of instruments in the 15th century: recorder, vielle, lute, harp, psaltery, portative organ, harpsichord
carol
a strophic song for one to three voices setting a religious text, usually associated with Christmas
pes
(Latin for foot) the English name for a bottom voice that continually repeats throughout a polyphonic composition
rotulus
an oblong sheet of paper or parchment on which chansons were inscribed; the sheet music of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Johannes Ockeghem
15th c. Lowlands composer attached to the French Royal Court; known for the first systematic use of imitation as a compositional structural device
ricercar (16th c.)
instrumental piece, usually for lute or keyboard, similar in style to the imitative motet
galliard
a fast leaping dance in triple meter especially popular during the Renaissance
parody technique
when one composer quotes or emulates another by borrowing entire polyphonic sections of an earlier work
basso continuo
bass line that provides a cotinuous foundation for the melody above; a small ensemble of usually two instruments that played this support
St. Mark's Basilica
the "birthplace" of a sacred polychoral, surround-sound compositional style made possible through presence of multiple choir lofts
stile concertato
Baroque music of grand scale and strong contrasts between voices and instruments, instrumental ensembles, choral groups, or soloist(s) and choir
organ verset
an independent organ section in an alternatim organ Mass; a short piece that replaces a liturgical item otherwise sung by the choir
Giacomo Carissimi
17th c. Italian composer known best for his Old Testament oratorios (Jonah, David & Goliath, Jephte); director of music at the German College in Rome
oratory
a prayer hall set aside just for praying, preaching, and devotional singing
gigue
fast dance in 6/8 or 12/8; constant eighth-note pulse; galloping sound; sometimes lightly imitative; often used to conclude a suite in the Baroque
basso ostinato
a bass line that insistently repeats, note for note
tragédie lyrique
French opera in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which was a fusion of classical French tragedy with traditional French ballet
invertible counterpoint
written so that the vertical position of two or more voices can be switched without violating the rules of counterpoint or creating undue dissonance
pedal point
on the organ, a sustained or continually repeated pitch, usually placed in the bass and sounding while the harmonies change around it
accompanied recitative
a recitative that features a full orchestral accompaniment; it appears occasionally in the sacred vocal music of Bach
Franco of Cologne
(late 13th c.) wrote musical treatise defining systematic classification of consonance and disonance; defined three basic note shapes and values
parallel organum
organum in which all voices move in lockstep, up or down, with the intervals between voices remaining the same
Minnesang
in the high Middle Ageas a song of love in old high German
estampie
one of two main dances of the Middle Ages; originally a dance song in which dancers also sang a text; later (14th c.) became purely instrumental
mensuration canon
two voices perform the same music at different rates of speed, the corresponding notes of which grow progressively distant from one another
German flute
what is today called the flute (the transverse flute)
patter-song technique
the rapid delivery of text on repeated notes; often found in 16th c. Parisian chansons
Parisian chanson
(16th c.) French song; rhythm of text begins to determine rhythm of music; generally syllabic; "earthy" subject matters: lovers, drinking scenes, etc.
concerto delle donne
three female singers employed by duke of Ferrara at the end of the 16th c.; constituted the first professional ensemble of women employed by a court
da capo aria
vocal piece with two sections; repeat of the first (ABA); reprise not written out; inscription meaning "take it from the head;" reprise more ornamented
partita
term used by J.S. Bach as a synonym for a dance suite
Royal Academy of Music
Handel's London opera company started in 1719; a publicly held stock company, its principal investor being the king
open ending
the term used in the Middle Ages for what we today call a first ending
carole
one of two main types of dances of the Middle Ages; musical form was strophe (sung by soloist) and refrain (everyone); different stanzas/same refrain
Apollo
Greek god of the sun and music who sat atop Mt. Olympus playing a string instrument
point of imitation
a distinctive motive that is sung or played in turn by each voice or instrumental line
Morning Prayer
the first service of the day in the Anglican religion, an amalgam of Matins and Lauds
couplet
a term used in the rondo form of the 17th and 18th centuries to indicate an intermediate section (episode) distinctly different from the refrain
multiple c. firmus Mass
when two or more cantus firmi sound simultaneously or successively in a Mass
consort song
one of two forms of solo art song in England around 1600; voice is accompanied by a group of independent instruments, usually a consort of viols
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