Music History Final 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
B section
Jupiter Symphony
Cori Spezzati
divided choirs
Ludwig van Beethoven
Italian secular song
Eleanor of Aquitaine
1122-1204 CE
Mendelssohn, The Hebrides Overture
Arnold Schoenberg
Pierrot Lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot)
a group of harpsichord solos
The Beggar's Opera
Gay and Pepusch
The Ventures
-solidified 2 guitar/bass/drum line-up-not originally a surf band-favorite with surf crowd
polytextual, in the vernacular, secular
type of polyphonic composition in which one musical line strictly imitates another at a fixed distance throughout
tan dun composer; crouching tiger, hidden dragon
A musical thought/a coefferent section of music
The following four dance movements characterize the German suite
a. allemande, pavean, sarabande, and galliard
b. pavane, branle. sarabande, gigue
c. allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue
d. galliard, allemande, sarabande, gigue and salsa
Medieval Motet
A polyphonic, polytextual, sometimes polyglout composition with the cantus firmus in the tenor.
Progressive Rock
-music influenced by jazz styles
Tommy Dorsey
American jazz trombonist, trumpeter, and bandleader of the Big Band era.
What british Jazz guitarist contributed his playing to Bitches Brew , later being renamed to Mahavishnu?
John McLaughlin
Gluck's opera Orfeo premired in Vienna in Italian, with a castrato in the title role
Lied (song); texts were usually short, strophic poems (von Goethe, Heine);
Michael Daughtery
American popular music and popular icons
Prof of comp at UMich
an art song for voice and piano
Great Depression
Black Tuesday U.S. stock market crashed in 1929, ended 1941 with our entry into WWII
piece for keyboard instrument or lute resembling an improvisation that may include imitative sections or may serve as a prelude to an independent fugue
playfully; usually in rapid tempo with rhythmic and dynamic contrasts
Otis Redding
-Skillful at delivery ballads with passion-earned a reputation as leading performer of soul ballads-performance at monteray pop festival gained him a ** audience-Died in a plane crash
Squarcialupi Codex
Manuscript which includes 350 pieces of polyphonic music from 12 composers—includes portraits of composers. *Includes madrigal, caccia, and ballata
Twelve-Tone Method
A musical form and compositional technique. The 12-tone method is an atonal form based on the systematic ordering of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale. In this method, the pitches are related to one another instead of to a tonal center. 12-tone music was first invented by Arnold Schoenberg.
Which Chicago record label made both Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry's career?
Who was the composer whose works were sometimes censored?
Modeste Mussorgsky
(1839-1881) He was a Russian composer and was the most unique composer out of the mighty 5. He displayed unusual harmonies and was gifted at writing music for the Russian language. The opera Boris Godunov was his greatest work and was based on a play by Pushkin, from Russian history.
In cantus firmus masses, the borrowed melody is usually found in the
a. tenor
b. altus
c. superius
d. bassus
a. tenor
the simultaneous use of two or more keys, each in a different layer of music (such as melody and accompaniment)
Luis de Narvaez
Suggested that instead of transcribing and altering existing pieces, creating inventive variations.
Simply refers to the way portions of music — movements, sections, phrases — are put together to make a piece
Usually involves repetition and contrast
Letters are assigned; musicians will speak of a da capo aria as having the form ABA
Mass Cycle
A polyphonic setting of the ordinary of the mass [Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei] mass organized around a single concept, scaffold, or idea. Examples include DuFay's Missa Se la face ay pale [in which every movement has a cantus firmus drawn from his ballade of the same name] or Josquin's Missa pange lingua [which has a cantus firmus drawn from the chant "Pange lingua"].
winbchester troper
earliest text of written polyphony- comes from a Benedictine monastery at Winchester- 1000ce.- contains mainly tropes (see chapter 5)- not fully notated- a memory aid not for sight reading
\Who continued to sing protest songs into the seventies, though largely unheard, his life ended in suicide?
Phil Ochs
James A. Bland
Composed "Oh dem golden slippers" which was quoted by Ives in General William Booth Enters into Heaven.
How many concertos?
6 (5 piano and 1 violin)
. Looking at the photos I provided of spaces in which music for theater, worship, and concert has been performed, what do those spaces imply about the socio-economic circumstances of Western classical music?
chromatic tetrachord
comprises a minor 3rd and two semi tones
What was Mussorgsky plagued by?
Sever psychological problems and became and alcoholic
Machaut's Messe de Nostre Dame
Double leading-tone cadences abound— a feature of expanded possibilities of voice leading (manner in which two or more voices move in relation to each other)
Cadences articulated with half-steps that are not notated, i. e., musica ficta; these pitches are "accidental" and "fictive" in the sense that they are not part of the Guidonian system
"Like a Rolling Stone"
-Critics considered it Dylan's magnum opus-(largest composition)
area in front of the stage where the singers sang (chorus)
Who was the young engineer who helped the Beatles create their psychadelic concept albums?
Geoff Emerick
Musical and theatrical characteristics of opera buffa (comic opera)
Light hearted, witty, unstaged; fully sung in italian; Characters were representative of the common folk; sung as well as spoken dialogue; Composers: Pergolesi and Mozart
The term "baroque" first took on a positive meaning in the:
a) seventeenth century
b) eighteenth century
c) nineteenth century
d) twentieth century
c) nineteenth century
Describe the villancico.
audience was the elite class, but the texts were rustic and popular, the music was short, strophic, syllabic, and mostly homophonic, often published for voice with lute, form varies but always includes a refrain (estribillo), stanzas (coplas) begin with two statements of a contrasting idea, stanzas end with a return to the music of the refrain (vuelta), the last line of the refrain text usually recurs at the end of each stanza
3. List Cuban dance crazes in the correct chronological order:
Rumba, Conga, Mambo
Sanjuan (music of ecuador)
Type of song originally played for the festival of St.John the Baptist in june
the Beggars Opera
s a ballad opera in three acts written in 1728 by John Gay. It is one of the watershed plays in Augustan drama and is the only example of the once thriving genre of satirical ballad opera to remain popular today. Ballad operas were satiric musical plays that used some of the conventions of opera, but without recitative. The lyrics of the airs in the piece are set to popular broadsheet ballads, opera arias, church hymns and folk tunes of the time.
The Council of Trent
Council that met off and on in Trent, Italy between 1545-1563 to try to develop ways to improve the catholic church
102. What kinds of songs did he write? Name type of each type. [see Class 21 notes]
parlor songs, minstrel songs
Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima (1960)
• Notates a wide range of notes rather than individual pitches
• Graphic notation: no bar lines, etc.
• Special techniques
o Bowing behind the bridge
• 52 string instruments
• Original title: 8'37"
o Indicates time spans instead of bar lines
. What kinds of compositions will one typically hear in a choral society concert?
~ oratorio - Handel, Messiah or Mendelssohn, Elijah
~ assorted anthems and other choral and vocal works,
as needed to complete the program
. When was the original St. Peter's Basilica built? When was it destroyed?
- built in the 300s (the 4th century) C.E. by the Emperor Constantine
- demolished in 1500
female actor-singers
con fuoco
with fire
Berlioz was interested in
A serious instrumental work.
1557-1602 *English composed English-language madrigals, canzonets, and balletts. *Often Strophic, with each stanza comprising two repeated sections (AABB)
2 new techniques
hocket and isorhythm
Distorted images bordering on grotesque; employed motivs from "primitive" art in defiance of a decadent European culture. "Rite of Spring" is an example of this.
Principal Voice
The original chant melody
L’Orfeo: Tu se morte
Dvorak-who recognized talents at young age?
The orchestra used in Monteverdi's operas are best described as:
a) smaller and of less importance to the drama than that employed by Peri
b) larger, more varied, and of more importance to the drama than that employed by Peri
c) of the same size and of
Jackson Pollock
painter who spontaneously dripped paint on a canvas which was known to be the essence of America
**Associated with the 1st type of Aleatoric Music**
Renaissance Instrumental Music Repertory
-Music for DANCING!
-Intabulations (arrangements) of vocal pieces
-Canzonas and sonatas
-ALL vocal music (secular and sacred)
"Piano trio in dminor"
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
Immanuel Kant
German Philospher the last influencital philosopher of the theory of knowledge (what is knowledge and what is the extent of it?) during the enlightemnent period
Italian meaning mistuning- tuning to something other than the standard tuning
Before radio and television shows, what was considered by the music business to be the most important quality for a song's success?
Medieval polyphony that consist of gregorian chant and one or more melodic tunes.
who was bishop of Meaux
Philippe de Vitry
"tone-color melody" - changes of tone color are perceived as parallel to changing pitches in a melody
According to Boethius, audible music produced by instruments or voices is:
musica instrumentalis
A method of assigning syllables to STEPS in a SCALE, used to make it easier to identify and sing the WHOLE TONES and SEMITONES in a MELODY.
In which city did bach primarily compose ensemble music for courtly entertainment?
a. weimar
b. leipzig
c. coethen
d. arnstadt
e. mulhausen
one stringed instrument used to study pitch, theory and relationship
Style of vocal writing with some characteristics of aria [possibly including melisma and melodic repetition] and some characteristics of recitative [including declamatory-style singing.] Examples include the Pastore's speeches from Monteverdi's L'Orfeo and Rameau's Hippolyte ed Aricie.
closing like the "gloria patri" - praise to the holy trinity
Sergei Diaghilev
Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of Ballets russes.
Timbral School
Threnody, 1960, Pendrcki. Thick and thin texture/tone clusters.
the element focusing on the the relationship of simultaneously-sounding musical lines
a long melodic passage sung to a single syllable of text
Chance music
Music composed by the random selection of pitches, tone colors, and rhythms; developed in the 1950s by John Cage and others
Fauxbourdon and Faburden
Fauxbourdon = french faburden = english.
Terms for two techniques of improvising harmony to plainchant in a way that creates many thirds and sixths
This technique developed a sound that was used in notated music as well
Guillaume Du Fay's Christe redemptor omnium( the hymn for christmas day) (p. 176) is an example of a hymn composed with an added fauxbourdon
Dance Music of Renaissance
*social dancing very popular
*small repeated sections
*distinctives for different types of dance (rhythm, meter, tempo)
*loved paired dances (slow duple then fast triple)
{pavane & galliard} {Passamezzo & Saltarello}
Functional--actually dance to it
Stylized--just in the style of dance music
*in the past dance music was always improvised.
Which of the following is an important precursor to the Italian madrigal?
A) polyphonic chanson
B) burgundian chanson
C) frottola
D) Carol
Beethoven's symphony no. 9
1822-1824; "Choral" symphony, uses chorus and soloist in final movement, Setting of Schillers An die Freude (To Joy),
John Cage - America
Sonatas and Interludes: Sonata V
a manner of performance in which two or more groups alternate
High Renaissance Motet
From Josquin's Ave Maria Virgo Serena.Polyphonic, sacred, vocal piece on Latin text, not Mass Ordinary.Bold Experimentation.Greater variety of texts than Mass Ordinary. More personal expression.Lots of experimentation with forms, textures/ Counterpoints and points of imitation.
What Texas blues artist injected Jazz riffs and progressions into his blues, influencing blues artists since?
T-Bone Walker
Virgil Thomson Works
Variations on Sunday School Tunes, The Mother of Us All
Key Signature
the sharps or flats at the beginning of a piece of music (There are major and minor key signatures)
twelve-tone system
method of composing with the 12 tones solely in relation to one another
Fuging tune
american type of psalm or hymn tune that features a passage in free imitation usually preceded and followed by homophonic sections ex: Billing's Creation
requiem mass
A mass for the souls of the dead.
Jacopo Peri
the first opera is credited to him (Dafne)
12. To what indie-label’s studio did the Rolling Stones go during their first trip to the U.S. to cut the EP Five by Five?
Chess in Chicago
the element of music as it unfolds in time
The sonata in the baroque period was a composition in seveal movements for
1-8 instruments
"clave" rhythm
(3 + 3 + 2)
Took the heaviest kuku beats and just played them
Born in the carribbean
What are the 6 musical elements?
Melody, harmony, tambre, texture, form, rhythm
What famous gospel group did Sam Cooke leave when jumping from Sacred to Soul music?
The Soul Stirers
three movement sonatas were what tempo/ keys
fast/ slow/ fast tonic/ contrasting key/ tonic
The Triumphes of Oriana
25 pieces written by thomas morley and 23 other madrigal composers - 1601
In the Renaissance, secular music was
a. banned by the Church
b. the predominant type of music
c. performed but never written down
d. composed by musicians who also composed church music
e. composed by specialists who never composed church music
d. composed by musicians who also composed church music
Missa Pange Lingua: Kyrie and part of Credonawm 40
Josquin des PrezMass (multipule movements1515-1520F: 1. Hymn of 6 phrasesa) Kyrie: Turgent tight texture driving to cadence 2. Imitation3. Christe hemblas
How did the different tuning systems favor certain intervals?
In Pythagorean intonation all 4ths and 5ths were perfectly tuned, Just intonation had perfectly tuned 3rds and 6ths, and Equal temperament where the 8ves are in tune.
Which of the following Christian practices does not come from Jewish worship?
a. Reading of Scripture
b. The use of melodic formulas for singing psalms
c. Symbolic meal (Jesus' Last Supper)
d. All of the above come from Jewish practices
e. None of the abo
d. All of the above come from Jewish practices
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