Adult Health Nursing Glossary F - P Flashcards

Terms Definitions
micturition
urination
hematemesis
vomiting blood
pediculosis
lice infestation
idiopathic
cause unknown
subluxation
partial dislocation
mydriatic
causing pupillary dilation
hemophilia
hereditary coagulation disorder
 
caused by a lack of antihemophilic VIII, which is needed to convert prothrombin to thrombin through thromboplastin component
pyuria
pus in the urine
intrinsic
caused by internal factors
myeloproliferative
excessive bone marrow production
metrorrhagia
excessive spotting between cycles
suppuration
to produce purulent material
Reed-Sternberg cells
atypical histocytes
 
large, abnormal, multinucleated cells in the lymphatic system, found in Hodgkin's lymphoma
lymphedema
primary or secondary disorder characterized by the accumulation of lymph in soft tissue & edema
nephrotoxin
substances with specific destructive properties for the kidneys, such as certain antibiotics, heavy metals, solvents, & chemicals
nucleus
largest organelle within the cell
 
it is responsible for cell reproduction & control of the other organelles
fibromyalgia
a musculoskeletal chronic pain syndrome of unknown etiology that causes pain in muscles, bones, or joints
HIV disease
symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection that is not severe enough for a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
 
sypmtoms of "this" are persistent unexplained fever, night sweats, diarrhea, weight loss, & fatigue
fistula
abnormal opening between 2 organs
proliferation
reproduction of multiplication of similar forms
labyrinthitis
inflammation of the labyrinthine canals of the inner ear
wheals
irregularly shaped, elevasted areas, white in the center with pale red periphery, with superficial localized edema
 
vary in size
 
(hives, mosquito bite)
laparoscopy
the examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through a small incision beneath the umbilicus
polyuria
excretion of an abnormally large quantity of urine
procidentia
protrusion of the entire uterus through the intoitus
physiology
explanation of the processes & functions of the various structures of the body & how they interrelate
paresthesia
any subjective sensation, such as prickling "pins & needles feeling" or numbness
oncology
the sum of knowledge regarding tumors
 
the branch of medicine that deals with the study of tumors
immunology
study of the immune system
 
the reaction of tissues of the immune system of the body of antigenic stimulation
heart failure
HF
syndrome characterized by circulatory congestion due to the heart's inability to act as an effective pump
 
it should be viewed as a neurohormonal problem in which pathology progresses as a result of chronic release in the body of substances such as catecolamines (epinephrine & norepinephrine)
homozygous
having two identical genes, inherited from each parent, or a given hereditary characteristic
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver resulting from several causes, including several types of viral agents or exposure to toxic substances
tenesmus
persistant, infectual spasms of the rectum or bladder, accompanied by the desire to empty the bowel or bladder
stoma
combining form meaning mouth or opening
stertorous
pertaining to a respiratory effort that is strenuous & struggling, which provokes a snoring sound
sonorous wheeze
low-pitched, loud, coarse, snoring sound
uticaria
itching skin eruption characterized by welts of varying sizes with well-defined inflamed margins & pale centers
 
also called hives
scoliosis
curvature of the spine usually consisting of 2 curves:
the original abnormal curve & a compensatory curve in the opposite direction
ventral
facing forward
 
the front of the body
seroconversion
the development of detachable levels of antibodies
 
a change in serologic tests (ex: ELISA & Western blot) from negative to positive as antibodies develop in reaction to an infection
trichomoniasis
a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis
pernicious
capable of causing great injury or destruction
 
deadly, fatal
human ummunodeficiency virus
HIV
an obligate virus
 
a retrovirus that causes AIDS
hypercapnia
a greater than normal amount of glucose in the blood
hypoxemia
an abnormal deficiency of oxygen in the arterial blood
flatulence
excessive formation of gases in the stomach or intestine
pruritus
- the symptoms of itching
- an uncomfortable sensation leading to the urge to scratch
- scratching often leads to secondary infection
- Some causes of "this" are allergy, infection, elevated serum urea, jaundice, & skin irritation.
pulmonary edema
accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues & alveoli
 
caused most commonly by leftsided heart failure
hirsutism
excessive body hair in a masculine distribution
polycythemia
abnormal increase in the number of RBCs in the blood
hemianopia
defective vision or blindness in half of the visual field
orthopnea
an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably
lymphangitis
inflammation of one or more lymphatic vessels or channels
 
usually results from an acute streptococcal or staphylococcal infection in an extremity
intussusception
infolding of one segment of the intestine into the lumen of another segment
 
occurs in children
introitus
an entrance to a cavity
 
ex: the vaginal _________
immunodeficiency
an abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inability is inadequate & resistance to infection is increased
Glasgow coma scale
a quick, practical, standardized system for assessing the degree of conscious impairment in the critically ill
 
also used for predicting the duration & ultimate outcome of coma, primarily in patients with head injuries
paracentesis
a procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from the abdominal cavity
parenchyma
tissue of an organ as distinguished from supporting or connective tissue
pancytopenia
deficient condition of all 3 major blood elements (RBCs, WBCs, & platelets)
 
results from the bone marrow being reduced or absent
hemarthrosis
bleeding into a joint space, a hallmark of severe disease usually occurring in the knees, ankles, & elbow
Volkmann's contracture
a permanent contracture with clawhand, flexion of wrist & finger, & atrophy of the forearm
 
can occur as a result of compartment syndrome
tachycardia
an abnormal condition in which the myocardium contracts regularly but at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute.
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth due to destruction of normal cells of the oral cavity that may result from infection by bacteria, viruses, or fungi from exposure to certain chemicals or drugs, vitamin deficiency, or systemic inflammatory disease
tissue
an organization of many similar cells that act together to perform a common function
system
an organization of varying numbers & kinds of organs arranged so that they can work together to perform complex functions for the body
occlusion
an obstruction or closing off in a canal, vessel, or passage of the body
immunization
a process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or increased
myocardial infarctiom
MI
an occlusion of a major coronary artery or one of its branches
 
it is caused by atherosclerosis or an embolus resulting in necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle
organ
a group of several different kinds of tissue arranged so that they can work together to perform a special function
heterograft
(xenograft)
tissue from another species, used as a temporary graft
metastasis
the process by which tumor cells are spread to distant parts of the body
leukopenia
an abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs to fewer than 5000 cells/mm3 due to depression of the bone marrow
lymphokine
one of the chemical factors produced & released by T lymphocytes that attract macrophages to the site of the infection in an extremity
mammography
radiography of the soft tissue of the breast to allow identification of various benign & neoplastic processes
paralytic (adynamic) ileus
most common type of intestinal obstruction
 
a disease in or absence of intestinal peristalsis & bowel sounds that may occur after abdominal surgery
palliative
designed to relieve pain & distress & to control the signs & symptoms of disease
 
not designed to produce a cure
passive transport
the movement of small molecules across the membrane of a cell by diffusion
 
no cellular energy is required
pathognomonic
sign or symptom specific to a disease condition
retinal detachment
separation of the retina from the choroid in the posterior of the eye
remission
a decrease in the severity of a disease or any of its symptoms
strabismus
condition in which the eyes are unable to focus in the same direction
 
commonly called cross-eyed
stroke
- an abnormal condition of the blood vessels of the brain characterized by hemorrhage into the brain
- formation of an embolus or thrombus resulting in ischemia of the brain tissues normally profused by the damaged vessels
- The sequelae depend on the location & extent of ischemia.
unilateral neglect
condition in which an individual is perceptually unaware of & inattentive to one side of the body
occult blood
blood that is hidden or obscured from view
immunocompetence /
immunocompetent
the ability of an immune system to mobilize & deploy its antibodies & other responses to stimulation by an antigen
Kaposi's sarcoma
KS
rare cancer of the skin or mucous membranes
 
characterized by blue, red, or purple raised lesions & seen mainly in middle-aged Mediterranean men & those with HIV disease
pneumothorax
a collection of air or gas in the pleural space, causing the lung to colapse
humoral immunity
one of two forms of immunity that respond to antigens such as bacteria & foreign material
 
It is mediated by B cells.
tumor lysis syndrome
- oncologic emergency that occurs with rapid lysis of malignant cells
- most frequently associated with chemotherapy treatment
- It is most commonly a rsult of treatment-related malignant cell death in patients with large tumor cell burdens.
Western blot
a laboratory blood test to detect the presence of antibodies to a specific antigen
 
used in diagnosing HIV
leukoplakia
a white patch in the mouth or on the tongue
rule of nines
division of the body into muliples of nine
 
used to determine the total body surface area (BSA) involved in burn trauma
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