Adult Health Nursing Glossary R - W Flashcards

Terms Definitions
singultus
hiccup
polydipsia
excessive thirst
menorrhagia
excessive menstral flow
myopia
condition of nearsightedness
 
inability to see objects at a distance
nocturia
excessive urination at night
hematuria
blood in the urine
macules
small, flat, discolored blemishes
 
flush with the skin surface
urolithiasis
formation of urinary calculi
spider telangiectases
dilated superficial arterioles
papules
palpable, circumscribed, red solid elevations in the skins
 
smaller than 0.5 cm
neuropathy
any abnormal condition characterized by inflammation & degeneration of the peripheral nerves
multiple myeloma
a malignant meoplastic immunodeficiency disease of the bone marrow
 
the tumor is composed of plasma cells
nevi
pigmented, congenital skin blemishes that are usually benign but may be cancerous
keratitis
an inflammation of the cornea
prostatodynia
pain in the prostate gland
pustulant vesicles
small, circumscribed pus-containing elevations of the skin
flaccid
weak, soft, & flabby
 
lacking normal muscle tone
ketone bodies
normal metabolic products, B-hydroxybutyric & aminoacetic acid, from which acetone may spontaneously arise
leukemia
malignant disorder of the hematopoietic system in which an excess of leukocytes accumulates in the bone marrow & lymph nodes
vesicle
circumscribred elevation of skin filled with serus fluid
spastic
involuntary, sudden movements or muscular contractions with increased reflexes
steatorrhea
excessive fat in the feces
retrovirus
lentivirus that contains revese transcriptase, which is essential for revese transcription (the production of a deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] molecule from a ribonucleic acid [RNA] model)
lipodystrophy
abnormality in the metabolism or deposition of fats
 
Insulin _____________ is the loss of local fat deposits in diabetic patients as a complication of repeated insulin injections.
pinocytosis
the process by which extracellular fluid is ingested by the cells
polyphagia
eating to the point of gluttony
proprioception
- sensation pertaining to stimuli originating from within the body regarding spatial position & musclular activity stimuli or to the sensory receptors that those stimuli activate
- This sensation one the ability to know the position of the body without looking at it & the ability to "know objectively the sense of touch."
plasmapheresis
removal of plasma that contains components causing or thought to cause disease
 
Also called plasma exchange because when the plasma is removed, it is replaced by substitution fluids such as saline or albumin.
neoplasm
uncontrolled or abnormal growth of cells
immunosurveillance
the immune system's recognition & destruction of newly developed abnormal cells
hypocalcemia
a deficiency of calcium in serum
hypoventilation
an abnormal condition of the respiratory system that occurs when the volume of air is not adequate for the metabolic needs of the body
hypoxia
an inadequate, reduced tension of cellular oxygen
immunotherapy
a special treatment of allergic responses
 
involves the administration of increasingly larger doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity
jaundice
yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, & sclera of the eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
keratoplasty
excision of the corneal tissue, followed by surgical implantation of a cornea from another human donor
seronegative
negative results on a serologic examination
 
The state of lacking HIV antibodies
 
confirmed by blood tests
viral load
amount of measurable HIV virions
sibilant wheeze
musical, high-pitched, squeaking, or whistlelike sound caused by rapid movement of air through narrowed bronchioles
sjogren syndrome
dry eye syndrome
 
an immunologic disorder characterized by low fluid production by lacrimal (tear), salivary, & other glands, resulting in abnormal dryness of mouth, eyes, & other mucous membranes
sarcoma
malignant tumor of connective tissues such as muscle or bone
 
usually presents as a painless swelling
surgery
branch of medicine concerned with disease & trauma requiring operative procedures
tachypnea
an abnormally rapid rate of breathing
peripheral
pertaining to the outside, surface, or surrounding area of an organ, other structure or fluid of vision
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body
hypokalemia
a condition in which an inadequate amount of potassium, the major intracellular cation, is found in the circulatory bloodstream
homeostasis
a relative constancy in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival
homograft
(allograft)
the transfer of tissue between two genetically dissimilar individuals of the same species, such as a skin transplant between two humans who are not identical twins
miotic
causing constriction of the pupil of the eye
incision
surgical cut produced by a sharp instrument to create an opening into an organ or space in the body
myringotomy
a surgical incision of the typanic membrane to relieve pressure & release purulent exudate from the middle ear
mastoiditis
infection of one of the mastoid bones
filtration
the transfer of water & disolved substances from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
osmosis
passage of water accross a selectively permeable membrane
 
the water moves from less concentrated solution to a mor concentrated solution
global congnitive dysfunction
generalized impairment of intellect, awareness, & judgment
turgor
the normal resiliency of the skin caused by the outward pressure of the cells & interstitual fluid
 
may be assessed as increased or decreased skin ______.
thoracentesis
the surgical perforation of the chest wall & pleural space with a needle for the aspiration of fluid for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
Snellen's test
eye chart test for visual acuity
 
letters, numbers, or symbols are arranged on the chart in decreasing size from top to bottom
radial keratotomy
microscopic incisions on the surface of the cornea outside the optical area
 
These 8 spokelike incisions flatten the cornea to a more normal curvature, thus reducing or eliminating myopia
tympanoplasty
one of several operative procedures on the eardrum or ossicles of the middle ear designed to resore or improve hearing in patients with conductive hearing loss
phimosis
a condition in which the prepuce is too small to allow retraction of the foreskin over the glans penis
oliguria
a diminished capacity to form & pass urine (less than 500mL in 24 hrs)
 
result is that the end products of metabolism cannot be excreted efficiently
idiopathic hyperplasia
increase, without any known cause, in the number of cells
incentive spirometry
a procedure in which a device (spirometer) is used at the bedside at regulat intrevals to encourage a patient to breathe deeply
ischemia
decreased blood supply to a body organ or part
 
often marked by pain & organ dysfunction
membrane
thin sheet of tissue that serves many functions in the body
 
it covers surfaces, lines & lubricates hollow organs, & protects & anchors organs & bones
pleural friction rub
low-pitched, grating, or creaking lung sounds that occur when when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration
hydronephrosis
the dilation of the renal pelvis & calyces
hypoglycemia
a lower than normal amount of glucose in the blood
 
ususally caused by administration of too much insulin, excessive secretion of insulin by the islet cells of the pacreas, or dietary deficiency
retention
the inability to void even in the presence of an urge to void
residual urine
urine remaining in the urinary tract after voiding
tinnitus
a subjective noise sensation in one or both ears
 
ringing or tinkling sound in the ear
stapedectomy
the removal of the stapes of the middle ear & insertion of a graft & prothesis
vertigo
the sensation that the outer world is revolving about oneself or that one is moving in space
sequestrum
a fragment of necrotic bone that is partially or entirely detached from the surrounding or adjacent healthy bone
sentinel lymph node mapping
diagnostic toll used before therapeutic surgery, which identifies the first lymph node most likely to drain cancerous cells
 
used in axillary lymph node biopsy, specifically in breast cancer staging
postictal period
a rest period of variable length after tonic-colonic seizure
intermittenent claudication
a weakness of the legs accompanied by cramplike pains in the calves
 
caused by poor arterial circulation of the blood to the leg muscles
lordosis
an increase of the curve at the lumbar space region that throws the shoulders back, making the appearance "lordly or kingly"
type 2 diabetes mellitus
DMII
condition in which impaired glucose tolerance results from an abnormal resistance to insulin action
 
 also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
hepatic encephalopathy
a type of brain damage caused by a liver disease & consequent ammonia intoxication
open reduction with internal fixation
ORIF
a surgical procedure allowing fracture alignment under direct visualization while using various internal fixation devices applied to the bone
type 1 diabetes mellitus
DMI
- condition in which impaired glucose tolerance results because of destruction of beta cells in the pancreatic islets
- results in deficient insulin production, but the patient retains normal sensativity to insulin action
- also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
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