Nervous System 14 Flashcards

Sensory nerve fibers
Terms Definitions
tri-
three
epi
upon
-asthenia
weakness
Morphine
Opioid
Sleepiness
somnolence
-gen
produce, create
Parasympathetic system
carniosacral
-pathy
disease, abnormality
Od
Right eye
White Matter
Myelinated fibers.
DUAL INNERVATION
OPPOSING EFFECTS.
Properties of Neurons
excitabilityconductivitysecretion
dur/o
dura mater (root word)
vertebral canal
successive vertebral foramina
Macula
receptor for linear acceleration
found in utricle and saccule of membranous labyrinth
infarct/o-
area of dead tissue
Abnormally decreased sensitivity, particularly to touch.
hypesthesia
ment/o, psych/o
mind (root word) (2)
Excitatory Transmission
excitatory transmitter receptor interaction lowers post synaptic neuron's membrane potential
myelin
*lipoprotein that covers most axons*increases speed of nerve impulses conduction*insulate and maintain axon
Mechanoreceptors
responds to physical distortion, contact, or pressure
neurasthenia
vague condition of body fatigue
_____________ are neurons found entirely within the CNS.
Interneurons
neuroplasty
surgical repair of a nerve
Kyphosis
abnormal flexion of the spine
neuroglia
non-conducting cells of nervous tissue with supportive and metabolic functions
All ascending sensory information is passed through the ________ before being relayed to the cortex
thalamus
Dendrite
Projection off neuron that RECEIVES electrical impulses
Superior Colliculi
Stimulated by outside stimulus (movement)
 
Sensory nerve fibers sensitive to
stretch wrap around the 
___________ fibers.
 
intrafusal fibers
cerebellum
the second largest part of the brain
balance 
Diencephalon
considered the most superior portion of the brain stem; includes the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus
Parkinson Disease
Chronic degenerative disease that affects movement. Signs and symptoms include hand tremors, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, and a shuffling gait.
Sensor Neuron
Carries impulses to CNS receiptors
_____________- also called Efferent neurons.
Motor neurons
pulvinar
integrates sensory info for projection to the association areas of the cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus:
nerve cell bodies that release hormones, coordinates nervous and endocrine control
refractory period
rest-strong stimulus just above threshold issues sodium ions to rush back in
dementia
severe impairment or loss of intellectual capacity and personality integration, due to the loss of or damage to neurons in the brain.
incus
the ossicle between the malleus and the stapes
inhibition
influence net neuron to stop or slow
Which cells are excitable?
Neurons and muscle cells
30. What is stored in synaptic vesicles?
neurotransmitters
gray matter
lacks myeline. neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinates axons, axon terminals and neuroglia.
Cerebral white matter
*communication between cerebral areas and between cerebral cortex and lower CNS centers
increased
during close vision the degree of light refraction is _____
meninges
membrane that encloses the brain & spine
 
PAD
 
1.Pia Mater
2.Arachnoid membrane
3.Dura Mater
Where does teh spinal cord proper end
L1
sensory neurons
Neurons that carry signals from receptors and transmit information about the environment to processing centers in the brain and spinal cord. Neurons carrying messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord. Sometimes referred to as an afferent neuron.
Tic douloureux
Also called trigeminal neuralgia - inflammation of the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve) causing sudden, intense, sharp pain on one side of the face.
NAMEprevents the neuron from generating an action potential
absoulte refractory period
synaptic vesicles
membrance bound sacs filled with neurotransmitters, the molecules that transmit signals across the synnapse
postganglionic fibers
axons connecting ganglion cells with peripheral effectors
Defective closure of the bony encasement of the spinal column.
spina bifida
cerebral Cortex
Frontal -lobe primary motor. Parietal Lobe, touch pain occipital lobe, Visual temporal lobe,Hearing and language organization
Spinal Palpation
palpate to detect any curvature, displacement, masses, swelling, atrophy, pain; start caudally and progress cranially, focal lesions may cause decreased sensation caudal to lesion, pain near lesion, and normal sensation cranial to the lesion; tail is palpated, extened and flexed; downwar pressure on the sacrum often elicits pain with lumbosacral lesions, palpating the thoracolumbar spine lighlty place one hand on the abdomen to detect tensing of muscles, palpate the spinous processes, articular processes, and transverse processes separately; cervical pain is often manifested by tensing of the cervical muscles and twitching of ears, extend and flex the head with one hand and place hand on cervical muscles to detect tensing, caudal neck pain detected by gently rocking the large transverse processes of the sixth cervical vertebra
synapse
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane o
oligodendrite
A smaller neuroglial cell that forms and maintains the myelin sheath around CNS neurons
Membrane Potential
The charge difference between a cell's cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid, due to the differential distribution of ions.
Divergent neurons
One message gets spread to different parts of the body
somatic nervous system
motor pathways of the peripheral nervous system that lead to the skin and skeletal muscles - under concious control
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord. integrates, processes and coordinates sensory input and motor output.
__  _______ ions are pumped ____ of the neuron for every __ _______ ions pumped ____ the neuron
3
sodium
out
2
potassium
into
epithalamus
the pineal gland is located in the ____
alzheimer disease
deficiencies of ACh and Nerve growth factor NGF which shrinks gyri and sulcrus loosing memory, talking, walking, and eating.
T/F tracts are functional organizations in that all of the axons the compose a tract serve several functions.
false; one general function
bradykinesia is slow movement
hyperesthesia is increased nervous sensation
Somatci Nervous System
Glands or muscles carries out command
The dorsal root may also be called the ________ root because it is made of _____ neurons.
sensorysensory
neuromuscular junction
synapse where a neuron contacts a skeletal muscle
What does the Temporal Lobe consist of?
-smell
-hearing
-Auditory Association Area
sensory function
senses stimuli (changes in internal or external environment)
spinal cord
the cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal canal of the spinal column.
inguinal
of, pertaining to, or situated in the groin.
brain
the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions.
cerebrum
the anterior and largest part of the brain, consisting of two halves or hemispheres and serving to control voluntary movements and coordinate mental actions.
Cranial Nerve
A nerve that carries sensory input and motor output for the head and neck region.
Motor (efferent) neurons
Nerves that carry impulses leaving the brain and spinal cord, and destined for effectors
what is the brain stems overall function
control overall movement
autonomic reflex
 what type of reflex is the pupillary light reflex?
2 Types of Synapses
Electrical- allow ion flow directly from one neuron to another via protein channels which connect the cytoplasm of adjacent neurons.Chemical- places where neurotransmitters are released and bound; consist of a synaptic knob, a synaptic cleft & a postsynaptic membrane.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
An imaging process where powerful magnets are used to create images of the body. Takes 30-45 minutes while a patient is lying in tubelike structure.
LEFT HEMISPEHRE OF CEREBRUM
more important for right handed control, spoken and written languages, numerical and scientific skills.
gray matter of the pons
nuclei concerned with involuntary control of respiration, sensory and motor nuclei for CN V, VI, VII, and VIII
nuclei that process and relay cerebellar commands
uni polar
found in most other sensory area, has one projection, that branches into an axon and dendrites
cerebrovascular accident
A blockage or hemorrhage of a blood vessel leading to the brain, causing inadequate oxygen supply and, depending on the extent and location of the abnormality, such symptoms as weakness, paralysis of parts of the body, speech difficulties, and, if severe,
What is a stimulus called that is not strong enough to create an action potential?
Subthreshold stimulus
Spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal superiorly or inferiorly to the corresponding vertebra pedicles?
inferiorly, except SNs C1-C7
What is Cranial Nerve II?
The optic nerve, responsible for vision.
Mental Health - Personality Disorders - borderline personality disorder
characterized by impulsive actions, often with the potential for self-harm, as well as mood instability and chaotic relationships
What are the 4 principle structures of the forebrain?
DiencephalonBasal GangliaLimbic SystemCerebral Cortex
describe a two neuron arc
sensory neuron
synapses in spinal cord with
motor neuron
What is the difference between agonist and
excitation?
Excitation-induced cell damage and agonist stimulated force
Small Gray Matter Areas of Brain Stem
autonomic programmed systems critical to survival; control vital activities (breathing, bp) cranial nerves
What is inside the epidural space in the spinal cord?
Flat and connective tissue
Diagnostic Procedures of the Nervous System - electroencephalography
process of recording the electrical activity of the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp
Define: Grand Mal versus Petit Mal Seizure
Grand Mal: SeverePetit Mal: Staring/Day dreaming
What three basic units make up a neuron?
Cell body, axon, and dendrites
golgi tendon organ and muscle spindles
What receptor types would be activated by the muscle sensations when rowing a boat?
Pathology of the Nervous System - Cerebrovascular Accidents - Transient Ischemic Attack, also known as? symptoms?
T-I-A, temporary interruption in blood flow to the brain, numbness, blurred vision, dizziness, or loss of balance
What is the sympathetic trunk?
Pairs of nerve cords that link the ganglia, and run parallel to the vertebral column.
Autonomic Nervous System (sub of peripheral)
a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands..regulates body largely out of conscious control..
What are the important nerves of the lumbar plexus?
The femoral nerve and obturator nerve.
Mental Health - Phobias - agoraphobia
fear of situations in which a panic attack seems likely and/or dangerous or embarrassing (can't leave home)
22. What are the three parts of a neuron?
soma (cell body), dendrites, and axons
The Central Nervous System - Parts of the Brain - Cerebrum, function?
controls the highest level of thought including judgment, memory, association and critical thinking; processes sensations and controls all voluntary muscle activity
what is a myelin and where does it come from?
a whitish fatty material that covers the long nerve fibers. it comes from the schwann cells
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