Nervous System 33 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sensation, feel
 preganglionic ANS
cellular lining
norepinephrime and epineohrine
balance, coordination, skill
cerebrum or brain
paresis: partial paralysis

paraparesis: partial paralysis of lower extremities
all spinal nerves are____
Spinocerebral pathway
Does not decussate.
Accessory Nerve
Moves neck muscles
gustatory complex-conscious perception of taste
most brain tumors are
wrap around neurons(myelin) which improves speed at which nerve impulses are conducted
Afferent Division
aka Sensory Division
-incoming sensory pathways
-sense ograns to CNS
located below the thalamus
major functions:
heart rate/fear & pleasure/body temp/hunger/water balance/sleep
anatomically distinct collection of neuron cell bodies located in the PNS
Bell Palsy
Paralysis of facial nerves
which system uses acetylcholine
preganglionic sympathetic
preganglionic parasympathetic
postganglioic parasympathetic
Which structures are located within the cerebral hemispheres?
chemical synapse
Synaptic cleft separates the presynaptic cell from the postsynaptic cell, thus, the cells aren't electrically coupled, and an action potential occurring in the presynaptic cell cannot be transmitted directly to the membrane of the postsynaptic cell. Instead, a series of event converts electrical signal of action potential arriving at the synaptic terminal into chemical signal that travels across the synapse and then converts back to an electrical signal
chemical synapses
a neurotransmitter released at presynaptic membrane of a synoptic knob binds to receptor protein on postsynaptic membrane and triggers a transient change in the potential of the receptive cell
Number of connections with other neurons.
Volatage-gated K+ channels oped, K+ diffuses ______?
major emotional disorder in which reality is lost and incapable of meeting daily challenges
Production of ADH, oxytocin, and regulatory hormones?
Different Types: Aphasia: Inability to speak properlyExpressive Aphasia: A person knows what to say but has trouble coming up with the correct word or words.Receptive Aphasia: Random replacement or conjuration of words causing frequent incoherence.
abnorm. sens of burning or tingling
subdural space
doesn't really exist. between arachnoid mater and dura mater
A general term meaning nerve cell.
Knows as water on the brain
the ability to voluntarily control urinary and fecal discharge
Limbic System
System that includes the amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of the thalamus
dora mater
outermost, thcik, made of connective tissue
Sensory receptor that detects continuous touch or pressure; responds to depression or stretch of the skin.
ruffini's end organ
nodes of Ranvier
narrow gaps between Schwann cells
senses changes in the internal or external environment
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
neuron type found in the ventral horn
sudden violent contraction of one or more muscles
Lumbar Plexus (2) 
Supplies anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, and part of the lower extremities (limb)
Radiography of the spinal cord and nerve roots
Composed of nuclei throughout the brainstem Control the arousal of the cerebral cortex; filters sensory information (dampens out extraneous info) Reticular Activating System is an important part of the RF which is responsible for cortical arousal; damage to the area can result in permanent coma; RAS is depressed by alcohol and tranquilizers
What structure is responsible for motor memories and motor sequencing?
Basal Ganglia
brachial plexus
innervates the pectoral girdle and upper limb,consists of contributions from ventral rami C5-T1
A slowly progressive syndrome in which fluid-filled neuroglial cavities form within the spinal cord. These may extend up into the medulla oblongata or down into the thoracic region. Symptoms include neurological deficits, including muscular weakness and a
Regional anesthesia
-temporary interruption of the nerve conduction-inject an anesthetic solution near the nerves to be blocked
where is the positive / negative charge on a resting neuron


noting or pertaining to an involuntary response to a stimulus, the nerve impulse from a receptor being transmitted inward to a nerve center that in turn transmits it outward to an effector.
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane o
afferent nerves
transmit impulses toward the brain and spinal cord
presynaptic neuron
a neuron situated proximal to a synapse
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory, Sensory Nerve, Sense of Smell
taste receptors is a simple or complex sensory receptor?
abducens - motor to one extraocular eye muscle (lateral rectus)
Concentration gradient
more Na+ outside the cell
more K+ in the cytoplasm
maintained by the sodium potassium pump
content of pns
cell bodies are called ganglia
axons are callednerves
doesn't have grey or white matter
Postsynaptic Neuron
The neuron which recieves the signal at a synapse.
Kathy has carpal tunnel syndrome. What nerve is being pinched?
Median Nerve
Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord; also called Polio. Caused by one of three polio viruses.
Any change in the surroundings of an organism that force an organism to react.
Defect or loss of the power of expression, especially speech, but also writing or signing, or of comprehending either spoken or written language due to an injury or disease of the brain.
What neurons are myelinated and unmyelinated?
clinical signs of multiple cartilagenous exostoses
usually progressive, ofteh asymmetrical, focal spinal cord lesion in immature animals
of or pertaining to the side; situated at, proceeding from, or directed to a side:
the branching process of a neuron that conducts impulses toward the cell.
Layers of a nerve
-Endoneurium- wraps around each neuron
-Perineurium- wraps a bundle of neurons fascicle
-Epineurium- wraps around fascicles
inner ear
part of the ear consisting of the cochlea, cochlear duct, vestibular canal, and tympanic canal
What is the charge outside the axon at rest?
What part of the brain is the cardiac / resp/ vasomotor center also controlling vomitting and coughing?
bare nerve endings
What receptor type would be activated by leaning on a shovel?
What is a Neuroglia?
cells that support and protect neurons- made of liquids
What does FSH do?
Initiates the formation of follicle cells to secrete estrogen, stimulate sperm production in testes.
Function of spinal nerves
supply sensory & motor blelow shouldersRoots are spinal column
Potassium (K+) Channel
Protein channel in nerve cell membrane that controls flow of potassium (K+) out of the cell. More potassium inside than outside.
Descending Nerve Tract
carry nerve impulses away from the brain
Hypervitaminosis of cats
severe exostosis of the spine causes by excess dietary vitamin A in cats. Lesions are most severe in the cervical vertebrae. Caused by feeding mostly liver.
alzheimer's disease
a common form of dementia of unknown cause, usually beginning in late middle age, characterized by memory lapses, confusion, emotional instability, and progressive loss of mental ability.
Inside the cell ___ is high and ____ is low? (resting membrane potential)
Na+ K+
Peripheral Nervous System
All nerves of brain and spinal cord outside of cranial vault and spinal column.
Medulla Oblongata (Medulla)
connects the spinal cord and the pons and is anterior to the cerebellum; contains center for regulating activities such as heartbeat and reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, etc.
Areas of the nervous system that are dense in myelinated axons are referred to as...
A) white matter.
B) gray matter.
C) dura matter.
D) arachnoid matter.
E) it doesn't matter.
A) white matter.
What connects the body and the central nervous system?
the peripheral nervous system.
strong stimulus/weak stimulus
no such thing as weak (or strong) impulse
strong stimulus-send lots of impulses
weak stimulus- few impulses-constant
autonomic nervous system
the system of nerves and ganglia that innervates the blood vessels, heart, smooth muscles, viscera, and glands and controls their involuntary functions, consisting of sympathetic and parasympathetic portions.
main function and location of visual cortex
occipital lobe. relates visual experiences. recognition.
Sacral Plexus / Sciatic Nerve
Composed of two nerves,
The Tibial and Common Fibular
they diverge just proximal to the knee
The Central Nervous System - The Spinal Cord - how is it protected?
CSF and the three meninges
How do you process information?
1) memory enhanced if you can associate it with previous long-term memories
2) motor skills- ;earned by repetitions, neurons actually make new connections
-rely on strength of existing neuronal connections
treatment and prognosis of myelodysplasia
no treatment, but deficits do not progress
What is the CAUDA EQUINA?
The CAUDA EQUINA is a collection of spinal nerves, located beyond the conus meduallaris, that resembles a horses tail.
Pathology of the Nervous System - Disorders of the Brain - cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, learning and memory
What do the length of the arrows indicate?
the strength of the stimulus
What is the pathogenesis of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis
Type II degeneration of the L7-S1 intervertebral disc -> disc protrusion compressing the cauda equina -> collapse of the disc space leading to narrowing of the IV foramen and nerve root compression -> thickening and infolding of the interarcuate ligament (ligamentum flavum) compressing the cauda equina
Chemical Neurons have two parts:
An axon terminal of one neruon and the cell membrane of another neuron.
Pathology of the Nervous System - Nerves - Bell's palsy
temporary paralysis of the 7th cranial nerve, causes drooping of the affected side of the face. Other features are pain, inability to close "that" eye, tearing, drooling, hypersensitivity to "that" ear
What are the major divisions of the nervous system?
Brain and Spinal Cord, Somatic and Autonomic
Pathology of the Nervous System - Levels of Consciousness - Persistent vegetative state, what is it and description
type of coma wherein the patient goes through cycles of alternating sleep and wakefulness, although the eyes may be open, there's still no one home
Where does the spinal cord begin and end?
Begins at the foramen magnum and ends at inferior border of Lumbar 1. L1
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