New Imperialism Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
control India
to forcibly place upon
"Dark Continent" b/c unknown
~easy to take over /c there are 100's of diff languages, gov'ts, and cultures and they aren't unified
1867 purchased from russia SI
Middle class, highly educated, politically involved
country that rules a colony
One who dominates the political, social, and economic life of another.
1902, publishes the first significant study of imperialism. Argues that it is part of larger capitalist enterprises, but that is not good for economy in general. First to write about the human costs
Panama Canal
Facilitated movement between Atlantic and Pacific ports
Teller Amendment
U.S. claimed no sovereignty, jurisdiction of control over cuba. Once cuba was free the US would leave control of the government to the people.
(1800-1914) the domination by one country of the politial, economic, and social life of another country/religion
Although some AFricans created a unified resistance this country along with Ethiopia was the only country able to maintain its independence?
Berlin Conference
1884-85. A meeting at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa.
Sino-British War
conflict between China and Britain over the opium trade that ended with the Treaty of Nanking
Britain gained control of Sudan after Egypt by winning in the battle of Omdurman.
Kruger Telegram
Kaiser Wilhelm II dispatched telegram to Boers congratulating them in defeating British invaders without the need of German assistance. Angered Britain.
William Seward
Purchased Alaska for 7.2 million dollars. People called his purchase "Seward's Folly."
Child Marriage
Marrying of younger people, usually girls, to people that are much older
American Imperialism
Increased activity in World Markets
US started investing
Manifest Destiny
The West Coast is Closed for Immigration
1883 is the beginning of the Modern Navy
European Example
a wartime act of cruelty and brutality
Henry Stanley
Person sent to find Dr. Livingstone
Social Darwinism
survival of the fittest rationalized conquest of weak countries by stronger civilized countries
2 types of colonies
-direct rule (paternalism)-indirect rule
Muhammad Ali (background)
"Father of Modern Egypt" 1767-1849 (95 kids)
-was a Turkish soldier who defeated Napoleon
-conquered Arabia, Syrica, Sudan
-Appointed Egypt's Pasha (gov.)
-massacred the Mameluke Aristocracy in 1811(dominated Egypt since 1250)
a military officer who rules a country very strictly
New African Elite
upper class of western educated Africans that rejected their own culture in favor of western ways
something that we are obligated to do as citizens of the world- civilize others
Russo-Japanese War
Russia na d Japan both wanted Manchuria and Korea. Japanese worried about Russian Trans Siberiuan RR. Japanese defeat Russian Fleet off the coast of Korea. Westerners horrified that Japanese defeated a Major western power.
Sphere of Influence
area of economic and political control
East India Company
Dutch trading company worried about colonizing the world
Belgian Congo
Exploited by Belgium King Leopold II (1865-1909) under the Berlin Act, Leopold was supposed to act as a trustee. He violated the agreement and stripped the country of its resources.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Chinese nationalist that sought to overthrow Manchu Dynasty
the belief that one race is superior to another
Isthmus of Panama
Acquired from Columbia by the U.S.
Cecil Rhodes
890s - British. Owned the Kimberly Diamond Mines in Cape Colony. Was millionaire who became head of Brit's Cape Colony. Wanted Brit to have an African empire - from Cape Town to Cairo(S. Af to Egypt). Wanted to start growth with the Boer Republics. Did head north to Bechuanaland, formed S. and N. Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
Direct Rule
System of government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to govern the colony.
Race for Empire
Caused primarily by the industrial revolution
Rudyard Kipling
coined "white mans burden" in a poem
at the Berlin Conference...
European powers recognized Leopold's private claims to the Congo Free State but called for free trade on the Congo and Niger tivers. They further agreed that a European power could not claim any part of Africa unless it had set up a government office there. this principle led Europeans to send officials who would exert their power over local rulers and peoples
Boer War
A war between the British and the Boers because the Boers wanted to keep the British from gaining polictical rights of diamonds and gold
McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson
first 4 presidents of the 1900s
rough riders
Teddy Roosevelt led the cavalry at the battle of San Juan hill
white mans burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
Oil Concessions
Persia was forced to give these to Britain and Russia
Sepoy Rebellion
Revolt or mutiny by Muslims and Hindus in British army in India. Spread to north and central India. Crushed. British ruled India directly by Parliament after 1858.
John j. pershing
was a general who led an expeditationary force of about 15,000 in pursuit of Villa
Open Door Policy
U.S. been interested in China for trade but spheres of influence made matters complicated. John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State suggested in 1899 that there should be an "open door policy" regarding China. Thought there should be equal rights in China for all nations. Later this came to mean preservation of China's territory and independence. His suggestion earned America good will in China. But Europeans did not observe the policy well.
Sir Richard Burton
English explorer who with John Speke was the first European to explore Lake Tanganyika (1821-1890)
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the U.S. was meant to expand from coast to coast.
Karl Marx, "Das Capital"
claimed that the bourgeoisie needed constantly expanding markets to increase profits (this could lead to conquest)
Treaty of Nanjing
1. Britain gets indemnity
2. open 5 ports
3. extraterritoriality
4. Britain gets same rights as any other country
Treaty of Nanking
brought Opium Wars to an end and resulted in the takeover of Hong Kong by British
Purchase of Alaska
the US bought Alaska from the Russians because the Russians wanted to rid of it and the US wanted it for its location
Egyptian National Party
Formed in Egypt in 1879 when France and Great Britain took political and financial control after Ismail could not pay debts - revolt followed. Egypt still "independent"
Alfred T. Mahan
was an admiral and president of the Naval War college in New Port, Rhode Island, he was one of the most outspoken advocates of American Military expansions. He was also the author of The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660-1783
German and British Navy
In competition with each other. Both were superb but Britian was better. Offered suport for Mahan's theory that naval powers= world powers.
What is the name of the way in which Imperial countries pressed their subject people to accept "modern" ways?
Note - Japan had been opened up to outside influence in 1854 by visit of Commodore Perry (U.S.) who exposed it to commercial activity. It then began process of modernization under new dynasty (Meiji) and was the first Asian society to industrialize. Since imperialism gained impetus from industrialization, Japan soon took interest in Taiwan, China and Korea. Russia too had been developing interests in Manchuria and Korea and thus conflict developing between Russia and Japan. In February 1904 the Japanese attacked Port Arthur and destroyed the Russian Far Eastern Fleet. Japanese also won Battle of Mukden in Feb of 1905 and then defeated the Russian Baltic Fleet which had been sent all the way around the world to salvage the situation for Russia. Defeated in battle of Tsushima Straits. Showed increasing Japanese power and weakness of Russian Tsarist regime.
Mahdi of the Sudan
In 1884, the Mahdi was a religious leader. Beseiged the British and Egyptian forces under Gordon at Khartoum. Seige lasted for 10 months and ended in a massacre of Gordon's forces. Mahdi continued to lead the native insurrection in the Sudan until arrival of Kitchener...
role Cuban environment played in deaths of American soldiers
2,061 soldiers died because of food poisoning and disease, while only 385 died in battle. environment killed more people than the war did
1. What did Germany do to block the freedom of the seas?
18. Germany blocked freedom of the seas by declaring the waters around the British Isles a war zone. With their submarines (U Boats) they practice unrestricted submarine warfare.
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