Developmental Flashcards

Terms Definitions
12-18 months
walks alone
Self-conscious emotions:
1-2 year olds
Jealousy
Empathy
Embarrassment
Shame
Pride
Guilt
Maturation
biological processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
Baumrind's Parenting Styles:
Authoritarian parenting
Authoritative parenting
Neglectful parenting
Indulgent parenting
cognition
all metal activities associated with thinking, remembering, knowing, and communicating.
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
temperament
a childs characteristic mood and activity level
anaclytic depression often occurs in...
institionalized babies
who has more difficulties neglected or rejected kids?
rejected
Vygotsky believed that children develop their ways of thinking and understand primarily through..
social interaction
Authoritarian: Parenting/Child reaction
restrictive, spanks frequently, enforces without explaining.

Children: unhappy, fearful & anxious
6-7 months
sits without support, stands holding onto objects
are the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) reversible or irreversible?
irreversible
who argued kohlberg's theory was sexist?
carol gilligan
vygotsky's important concept was..
zone of proximal development
Neglectful: Parenting/Child reaction
very uninvolved.

Children: socially incompetent, low self-esteem, immature, poor self-control and cant handle independence. -Adolescent (truant)
Temperament: Define/Components
an individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding.

Irritability/negativity of emotion
Fearfulness
Activity level
Soothability
Sociability
Critical Period
The time when things must begin development or will never develop.
concrete operational stage
(6/7-11) stage during which children gain the metal operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
accomidation
the process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retinia
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
Average infants
do not fit completely into any category above
When is Female Orgasmic Disorder most common?
younger women
children begin to label themselves ethnically at what age?
5-9 years old
Authoritative: Parenting/Child reaction
encourages children to be independent but still places limits. Warm & nurturant.

Children: cheerful, self-controlled, self-reliant and achievement oriented.
The Strange Situation:
an observable measure of infant attachment in which the infant experiences a series of introductions, separations and reunions with the caregiver and a stranger. Baby attachment based on this.
which age is at the highest risk for not following treatment regimen?
adolescents
marcia's 4 stages of identity are:
diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, achievement
Steinberg's Triarchic Theory of Love: Three dimensions/ their relations to eachother.
Passion, intimacy, commitment
Passion only= infatuation
Intimacy + commitment= affection
Passion + commitment= fatuous (stalkers)
All= consummate.
2 months
can hold chest up when on stomach, can roll from side to back
bowlby states attachment occurs due to what 2 things...
biological preparation & proper environment
define the babinski, moro, & tonic reflexes
-babinski- infant spreads toes-moro- infant grabs for support-tonic- extend arm when head turned
what 4 factors are correlated w/delinquency?
weak supervision, lack of parental rules, erratic discipline, impaired parent-child relationship
Display rules of emotions:
when, where and how emotions should be expressed are not culturally universal. Asians conceal their emotions.
are premature babies different from their peers?
no... with a supportive environment & appropriate medical attention premature infants without significant abnormalities often catch up with their peers
when do the following begin and peak: separation anxiety, stranger anxiety
-separation anxiety- 8months peaks @ 18months -stranger anxiety- 6-8months peaks @ 18months
Gottman's Seven Steps to a Happy Marriage
1. Love Maps- understand each other
2. Fondness and Admiration- sing praises
3. See partner as friend
4. Share power
5. Solve solvable conflicts
6. Overcome gridlock
7. Shared meaning- share goals
do child fears remain the same? when do they decrease?
no they vary w/development > age 5
vygotsky
piaget
effortful control
phonics
phonological awareness
alphabet principle
decoding
Horizontal decalage
formal operational
industry vs inferiority
6 y.o.-puberty
semantic memory in children
dinosaurs
5 y-os have domain specific
sort by similarity
can be organized if interesting
Erie Bronfenbrenner
bioethilogical approach
microsystem, mezosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, croosystem
egocentrism
the inability of preoperational children to take the perspective of another
Dishabituation
Increase in responsiveness after presentation of a new stimulus
Active role
Self-initiated activity: infants ability to act with its environment. Choices of peers and activities.  
Interpretations: trying to understand the world around them. Motivates children to construct informal theories concerning inanimate objects, living things and people.
Self-regulation: regulating behavior, regulate their activities in an increasing range of situations 
Eliciting reactions from others: infants' behaviors influences other people's behavior toward them, which in turn further influences the infant's behavior
Linguistic, logical-math, and spatial are included in psychometric theories of IQ, the other six (musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpsonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential are unique to Gardner)
preoperational stage (2-7 years)
use symbols
imagination
egocentrism
Theory Concepts(a) Freud(b) Erikson(c) Piaget(d) Vygotsky(e) Skinner(f) Bandura
(a)Psychosexual(b)Psychosocial(c)Cognitive (Organization & Adaptation)(d) Sociocultural(e) Operant(f) Social Cognitive Theory
id
Inherited biological instincts & urges. Present at birth,all it wants is pleasure. Instinct drives-sex & agression.In the unconscious mind drive the pleasure principle
self-understanding
The child's cognitive representation of self, and the substance and content of the child’s self-conceptions.
stability-change
whether or not personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan
permissive
parenting style (in Baumrind's model) characterized by low demandingness and high warmth; they submit to their children's desires, make few rules, and use little punishment
Vgotsky
focus on how culture is transmittedhigher mental functions grow out of social interactionscognitive development as a socially mediated process
Adaptation
Building and changing schemas through direct contact with the environment
Grief
Emotional response experienced in the early phases of bereavement
Self-conscious emotions
Emotions, such as embarrassment, empathy, and envy, that depend on self-awareness.
Inductive techniques
Disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child’s sense of reason and fairness.
Phenotype
The observable expression of the genotype, including both body characteristics and behavior.
Carl Rogers
humanistic perspective; suggested that all people have a need for positive regard that results from an underlying wish to be loved and respected. Because it is other people who provide this positive regard, we become dependent upon them. Consequently, our view of ourselves and our self worth is a reflection of how we think others view us.
Diana Baumrind
studied relationship between parenting style and personality development; authoritarian;; permissive; authoritative
specific intellectual abilities
processing speed, verbal comprehension, fluency, memory induction
Risk factors
Conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative developmental outcome
Affordances:
the possibilities for action offered by objects and situations
Which is studied in psychology: genotype or phenotype?
Phenotype
When do children over-generalize abilities across different kinds of animals (e.g., personification)
4-6 year-olds
Severe Impairment to Read and Write.
Dyslexia
Teratogens
Harmful exernal chemicals or substance that affect's fetus' health
Imaginary Audience
Adolescents operate under the assumption that everyone is thinking about the same thing that they are, specifically, THEMselves. Commonly characterized by extreme self-consciousness. The self-consciousness frequently involves an "imaginary audience" or a person/people only present in the adolescent's mind. They believe these people are as concerned with their appearance or behavior as the adolescent is.
independent variable
the thing that is MANIPULATED
gender roles
sets of expectations that prescribe how males and females should act, think, feel
easy babies
a cheerful, relaxed and predictable baby
accommodation
adding to our schemas to understand new stimuli
Attachment
..., An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
Germinal Period
The period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception. It includes the creation of the zygote, continued the cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.
Formal Operational
The adolescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways.
Trophoblast
outer layer of cells- develop into life support systems
Social Role Theory
Eagly's theory that psychological gender differences are caused by the contrasting social roles of women and men
Depth perception
Ability to perceive objects and surfaces three-dimensionally.
Grief work
Working out of psychological issues connected with grief
Down syndrome
A chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21.
ethnicity
A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language.
social policy
a national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
Nature/Nurture

- Interactions before birth: can be seen in teratogens. Can also be seen in fetal learning

-Nature eliciting nurture: babies are cute, eliciting responses from adults. Looking and smiling motivates people, along with cooing and crying
Importance of timing: Timing of exposure to teratogens, perceptual capabilities, auditory development, grammatical development, social, emotional and intellectual development
Interactions: between genetically influenced properties, such as self-esteem
Personal Fable
Occurs during the formal operations stage.  This is adolescent egocentrism belief that she is unique and indestructable. 
preconventional/premoral stage
level 1: should avoid punishment; level 2: should gain reward
stage 1: preattachment
6-8 weeks
prenatal devlopment can recognize mom
infants behaviros elicit caregiving from adults
Sociocultural theory
Vygotsky’s theory of how contextual factors affect children’s development
Equilibration:
the process by which children or balance assimilation and accomadation to create stable understanding
Identity confusion:
an incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self that often occurs in EriksonÕs stage of identity versus identity confusion
Linguistic Context
infer word meanings considering the linguistic context
The tendency for elementary school boys to associate with boys and elementary school girls with girls is called:
gender cleavage
Three-month-old Yueh-Wen grasps a rattle and shakes it vigorously. She probably is using
the ulnar grasp.
Epidural
Injection in lower spine to target area of nervous system affected in body
Anxiety about death is greatest amongs individuals aged:
40-50
Pre-convetional Morality
(Age 4-10) emphasizes COMPLIANCE WITH RULES to avoid punishment and get rewards. Judgment is Self-Centered and people act out of Self Interest.
PUNISHMENT-OBEDIENCE: avoid punishment
INSTRUMENTAL HEDONISM: obedience to rules will get rewards
Ecological validity
Special type of validityAre the results meaningful in the “real” world?Do results obtained in the laboratory match those obtained in the real world?
What is the neo-natal period?
From birth onwards
Erikson Stage 8
late adulthood, integrity vs. despair, sense of satisfaction with life well-lived
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span(139)
Integrity vs Dispair
-Late adults
-When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
gender identity
ones sense of being male or female
XYY Syndrome
A chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra Y chromosome.
Language Acquisition Device
Chomskys term that describes a biological endowment that enables the child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics.
Erik Erikson
created eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages
Expressive Style
Greater use of pronouns and socially linked words
Autonomous Morality
The second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The children become aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, they should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences.
Intelligent behavior
Behavior that is goal oriented and adaptive to circumstance and conditions of life
Standardized test
A test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Many standardized tests allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals.
Validity
- Accuracy: Are you measuring what you intend to measure? - Dart Board – hitting the bulls eye
Genome
The complete set of genes that an organism possesses.
ego
the part of the personality that is rational and reasonable, operates on the reality principle
palmar reflex
hand grasping elicited by placing an object in the baby's hand
pragmatics
study of how people use language to communicate effectively
WM improves comprehension
they can link words together effortlessly
Experimental group
In an experiment, the group receiving the treatment under study
Phonological Development:
the acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of language
Personal Judgements:
Decisions that refer to actions in which individual preferences are the main consideration
Memory Strategies (4)
- rehearsal - chunking- elaboration- expertise
Wraparound Services
mental health services that enable the person to stay at home.
Erickson's psychosocial development
this theorist contended that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs resolution
Controversial children
large number of positive and negative votes
embryonic period
the stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eight week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop
Level 2 of Prosocial Behavior
Needs Based OrientationExpresses concern for physical, material and psychological needs of others even when it conflicts with their own. Verbal expressions of sympathy and reference to self conscious emotions.
Anaclytic Depression
Rene Spitz: describes the syndrome of weepiness, withdrawal, insomnia, decline of health and affect found in babies deprived of maternal attention between 6-8 months old.
Reciprocal Teaching
The dialogue between the teacher and students. For example,they may discuss various problem-solving strategies for math rather the teacher presenting the "correct" strategy.
What did Emmy Werner find?
1. Prenatal/birth complications increase likelihood of physical handicaps, mental illness, and learning difficulties2. Parents’ income, educational level, mental health, quality of relationship with parents also influenced development3. Most children who faced both biological and environmental challenges developed serious learning or behavior problems by age 10.4. But one-third of these children were resilient and developed fine.
What are the 4 perspectives of developmental psychology?
maturationist/nativist, environmentalist/social determinist, constructivist/humanist, cultural context theory
Peer Group
A group of people who share similar social status
longitudinal approach
a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time usually several years or more
Apgar's Scale
1. Heart Rate 2. respiratory 3. Muscle Tone 4. Color 5. Reflex irritability
Deferred Imitation
The ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
Embryonic stage
Second stage of gestation (2 to 8 weeks), characterized by rapid growth and development of major body systems and organs.
Cohort effects
Effects due to a person's time of birth, era, or generation but not to actual age.
adult personality
Freud; claims that it is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality
Correlates of Peer Status: Popular
Attractive, athletic ability, social skills and academic skills, perceived popularity, distinction (wealthy and physically attractive)
Deleterious Recessive Genes
The major evolutionary reason why we don't have sex with close kin (incest).
familial mental retardation
represents the lower end of the distribution of intelligence
not biological damage
less pronounced than organic
insecure attachment: disorganized (disoriented)
confusedwhen mom leaves, and upon return, seems not to really understand what's happening 5-10%
Crossing Over:
The process by which sections of DNA switch from one chromosome to the other. Crossing over promotes variability among individuals
Looming technique
Move object towards infants - see if babies flinch & or try to move away
Limitations in early months 0-3
Relatively poor visual scanning abilities short, jerky movements trouble tracking moving objects scanning restricted to high contrast areas (poor contrast sensitivity)
What IQ test score qualifies mental retardation?
70 or below
comparison/control group
a group of participants in a research study who do not experience the experimental condition
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:
language we use shapes how we think (Eskimos think differently about snow)
limitations of concrete operations
cannot yet contemplate or solve abstract problems, and that they are not yet able to consider all of the logically possible outcomes.
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Kohlberg's third stage of moral development. At this stage, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments.
Conventional Level
(Kohlberg Moral Ladder)
-laws
-Morality of law and social rules: to gain approval or avoid disapproval (don't do it because it's against the law)
anger cry
a cry similar to the basic cry, with more excess air forced through the vocal cords.
Advance directive (living will)
Document specifying the type of care wanted by the maker in the event of an incapacitating or terminal illness
What Do the Friendships of Physically Aggressive Children Look Like?  Those of Relational Aggression?
Physically Aggressive: 
nLow in intimacy
nHigh in physical aggression toward others
nLow in relational aggression toward friend
Relationally Agressive:

nHigh in intimacy
nExclusive
nHigh in relational aggression toward friend
postconventional/morality of self accepted principles
5: attentive to rights and social welfare; 6: makes decisions based on abstract ethical principles
D. Wescher's intelligence
global capacity of a person to act purpsefully to think rationally, to deal effectively with environemnt
Identity Diffusion Status:
A category of identity status in which the individuals does not have firm commitments and is not making progress toward them
Mutual Exclusivity
knowing one of the items is not what you ar elooking for
A common reason for body piercing is:
to commemorate an event
assisted reproductive technology (ART)
a general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy
Brain Development
at birth, 25-35% of adult size. At age 2, about 75%, and at age 5, about 90%. At birth, will contain majority of neurons it will ever have.
Capacity for plasticity.
By 7-8, sensory integration has occured and brain has lateralize functioning. Established handedness and footedness.
By middle childhood, hippocampal development appears complete with capacities for declarative memory emerging in addition to procedural memory.
After age 10, hard to learn new language without accent.
child in context; examination of how children behave in their usual environments—schools, playgrounds, homes, and so on.
Naturalistic observation, strengths and weaknesses
Secular trend in decline of age of menarche?
Environment and genotypeWeight gain/obesitybetter nutritionEXPOSURE TO ARTIFICIAL LIGHT speeds up biological clock
pleasure principle vs. reality principle
pleasure principle (id)-the goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tensionreality principle (ego)-instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society
do ethnic groups have smart genes?
No. environment makes up these differences.
 
How to learn new word
recognize new word and use context clues of surrounding words. social cues, pragmatic cues.
What are the 3 most common causes of death during mid-late childhood?
1-Accidents & Injuries2-Cancer3-Cardiovascular Disease
Reasons for not wanting to live to 100
-declining health
-lack of financial support
-losing control of body and mind
-being alone
-living in a nursing home
What did Senechal's study measure and at what ages?

What were the results of this study, i.e. what was predicted?
Measured of home experiences with reading at beginning of 1st grade, end of 1st grade and end of 3rd grade to predict reading ability.

Results:

- Early measures of language predicted reading @ end of 3rd grade.

- Phonological awareness predicted reading @ end of 1st & 3rd grade

- Prior comprehension and subsequent exposure to books predicted reading later on
TOM toy on the sehfl
2 y-o freq. of naming toy, location and gestures are very different if parent was absent or present when the toy was put on the shelf
John Bowlby advocated which of the following explanations of human mother-infant attachment?
Infant behaviors such as smiling, babbling, and crying are innate social signals that encourage mothers to interact with their infants.
What did Piaget's conservation of substance experiment teach us about learning?
Young children always give the same answer, so it is not taught but logic. They all end up knowing the right answer and they're not learning it from adults.
Describe the three aspects of the prenatal period
1. Involves conception to birth. 2. From one-celled organism to viable human being. 3. Formation of all major organs, bones, skin, and brain.
American girls’ attitudes toward menarche include what?
- it gives girls a sense of identity as women- most girls are happy about their first menses- most girls are concerned about physical discomfort, moodiness, hygiene, and disruption of activities
What is Stage 3 of Vygotsky's theory of the development of thought and language?
External Speech- role playing of conversations. The speech is not about internal meaning but the child is learning how to respond
Age of Onset of Behavioral Disorders
Age 6 for ODD and age 9 for CD.
During what time period does object permanence and separation anxiety develop?
During 7 and 9 months of age, as the frontal cortex is developing.
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