Developmental Psychology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
empirist
locke
Dominant
vsRecessive genes
embryo
developing human organism
internal working model
scaffolding
reinforced turntaking with friends


4 Descriptive Research Methods
 
1)
genetic expression
activity of genes
females
Begins 9 – 11
postconventional level
social contract, constitultionalism, higher law, and personal conscience
Labeling
Identifying the names of objects
Gender stereotypes
Preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior.
Uninvolved Parents
Undemanding and indifferent.  Children are indifferent and undemanding, lack self control, and prone to antisocial behavior. 
metaphors
devloping nonliteral meaning takes time
5 year old, can understand easy metahpor refering to the topic--"you're a fish"
children need content knowledge to understand metaphors
Lobes:
Major areas of the cortex
Researchers have conducted several studies using many different methods and have found that a significant relationship exists between children’s physical attractiveness and their level of:
popularity
Person operates on environment
operational learning
teratogen
harmful substances (drugs of viruses) during the prenatal period that can cause birth defects
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence (164)
Conformity
Acting in accordance with some specified authority
Conscience
internal standards of behavior which usually control's one's conduct.
attachment
An enduring emotional bond between babies and specific peopleBegins at age 6 to 8 monthsKids seek to be near primary caregiverSeparation anxiety
Proximodeistal principle
Principle that development proceeds from within to without; that is, that the parts of the body near the center develop before the extremities.
“slow-to-warm-up” children
Children whose temperament is generally mild but who are hesitant about accepting new experiences
Mitosis
Cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed, each containing the same DNA as the parent cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Peer Socialization (Gender)
 
nMethod:
¨Observational study of preschoolers
¨Observed activity level and gender-typed toy preferences
 
nTime with same-sex peers
¨Males à increases in activity level and sex-typed choices of toys

¨Females à decreasing activity level and increasing choice of  female toys
Autosome
Chromosomes 1-22; contains an equal number of copies of the chromosome in males and females.
language
system that relates sounds (or gestures) to meanings
Visual Acuity:
the sharpness of visual discrimination
Marasmus:
Malnutrition brought on by the ingestion of too few calories
Morpheme
smallest language unit with meaning. I, dog, recliner. eat.
formal operational stage
12-adulthood: abstract reasoning; abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning
Continuously varying traits, such as height, musical ability, or intelligence, are most likely determined by __________ inheritance.
Polygenic
fixation
unresolved conflict caused by over endulgence or frustration
unconditioned stimulus
stimulus thatinvokes a natural response
Stage theories
Approaches that propose that development involves a series of discontinuous, age-related phases
Schema
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
object permanence
awareness that objects still exist when out of sight
Teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development & cause harm
involution
the process by which the uterus returns to normal size
Positive aspects of video games
Inductive Reasoning (order-randomness)improve visual/cognitive abilityimprove spatial abilityeducation potential
Rousseau
argued the nativist view. nature is the mold that shapes development
Separation Protest
Reaction that occurs when infants experience a fear of being separated from a caregiver, which results in crying when the caregiver leaves
niche-picking
tendency of a person, especially after early childhood, to seek out environments compatible with his or her genotype
Enuresis
Repeated urination in clothing or in bed
Puberty
process by which a person attains sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce.
Reliability
- How consistent are your measures- Several people measuring the same thing, is there consistency?- Test- Rate Reliability – are you getting the same results? - Example: Dart board – hit the same spot again and again
Polygenic inheritance
Inheritance in which traits are governed by more than one gene.
chronosystem
underlies each of the other systems, it involves the way the passage of time, including historical events and more gradual historical changes affect children's development


3 methods to study change across time
 
3) 
early intervention
last change
but they both still fall
by age 15, fewer held back, fwer placed in special education.
speak politely to adults and more demanding to peers
Quantitative research
Research that focuses on “hard” data and numerical or statistical measures
Nature:
Our biological endowment; the genes we receive from our parents
Overlapping Waves theory:
An information processing approach that emphasizes the variability of childrenÕs thinking
Brain growth: continuous/discontinuous?
Discontinuous, we develop in spurts
Preferential looking
Preferential looking used to test infants’ visual acuity (among other things).
When the child realizes how to construct and build things with given materials (Erikson)
Industry
induced abortion
the intentional termination of a pregnancy
Gender Identity
(30 months)- awareness of one's gender
Egocentrism
children are unable to take the perspective of the other person.
stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus
care perspective
The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others.
Stranger Anxiety
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display. Beginning by about 8 months of age.
rooting
baby's tendancy to move it's head when stroked on the cheek
linguistic determinism
language may determine the way we think
Erik Erikson
famous for his 8-stage model of psychosocial development; neo-Freudian
shared environmental experiences
siblings' common experiences, such as their parents' personalities and intellectual orientation, the family's socioeconomic status and the neighborhood in which they live.
Passive genotype/environment correlations
parents are providing an environment influenced by own heredity
Infinite Generativity
The ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
Incomplete dominance
Pattern of inheritance in which a child receives two different alleles, resulting in partial expression of a trait
Situational compliance
Kochanska’s term for obedience of a parent’s orders only in the presence of signs of ongoing parental control
Amnion
The life-support system that is a bag or envelope containing a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats.
Erikson's theory
a psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the human life span. each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
Correlates of Peer Status: Neglected
Less sociable, aggressive, disruptive
validity
the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure
conditioned response
a new response produced by a conditioned stimulus that is similar to the unconditioned, or reflexive, response.
skeptical listeners
7-8 years old
b/c people have vested interests when they speak
trust third parties that are independent
Physical development
Growth of body and brain, including patterns of change in sensory capacities, motor skills, and health.
Cerebral Lateralization:
the phenomenon that each hemisphere of the brain is specialized for different modes of processing
Positive Reinforcement:
a reward that reliably follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
Cell Body:
A component of the neuron that contains the basic material that keeps the neuron functions
Developmental psychologists
sutdy how our behaviors and thoughts change over our enitre lifes from birth to deaht
Perceiving Patterns
In addition to visual acuity and scanning, perception requires integrating information into coherent and meaningful patterns and “wholes”.
circular reaction
in piaget's theory, a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity.
Impulsive Aggression
Is often disguised as punishment and is really what most individuals mean when they report using corporal punishment.Aggression is impulsive when it is an immediate, emotional reaction that is maintained by immediate reinforcement.
Cohort
Group of people born around the same time in the same place.
the Interactionist View
Language development results from the combination of nature and nurture. Children have an inborn mechanism for acquiring language, inlfuence by biological and cognitive maturation, as well interaction with the environment.
Cognitive map
what is where - location of information
conventional reasoning
The second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by certain standards, but they are the standards of others such as parents or the laws of society.
Sensorimotor Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage ( from birth to about two years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Theory of Mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
identity v. role confusion
5th stage in Erikson's model; adolescents must develop a sense of identity or suffer lack of direction
deferred imitation
imitation that occurs after a delay of hours and days.
critical period
he first few years of life constitute the time during which language develops readily and after which (sometime between age 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful[
Social Systems Morality
The fourth stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Moral judgments are based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty.
Visual preference
Tendency of infants to spend more time looking at one sight than another
socioeconomic status (SES)
Refers to the conceptual grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
Association areas
Parts of the brain which lie between the major sensory and motor areas that process and integrate input from those areas.
longitudinal studies
reserch in which the behavior of one or more participants in a study is measured as they age
kwashiorkor
a disease caused by a diet low in protein that usually appears after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age. symptoms include an enlarged belly, swollen feet, hair loss, skin rash, and irritable, listless behavior.
children use appropriate reading strats with experience
casual reading vs. textbook comprehensive reading to fit fit the material being rea
Gender Stability
In this stage children have a partial understanding of the permanance of sex, in that they grasp is stability over time.
Sensitive Period:
The period of time during which a developing organism is most sensitive to the effects of external factors; prentally, the sensitive period is when the fetus is maximally sensitive to the harmful effects of teratogens
Memory Strategies: expertise
- domain specific- adults have a better memory base and therefore chunk information better than children
IQ scores correlate to ...?
academic, economic, and occupational success. closer to occupational that socioeconomic.
According to Erikson..
(Society)
Society has an influence on the individual's
cognitive development
 
Society is comprised of parents, siblings and peers
 
Society serves as a basis for the individual's
sexual orientation
Of all Western nations, __________ has the highest percentage of extremely poor children.
The United States
Marital Satisfaction in Parenting
Marital satisfaction leads to good parenting. They are more affectionate with their children when there is successful communication and intimacy in marriage.
Attachment in older children
children can make attachments after 1st year of life and can be of equal intensity and quality. Adopted children can make healthy attachments even in late childhood.
higher order conditioning
neutral stimulus acts as a conditioned stimulusby being paired with another stimulus that evokes a conditioned response
The use of mental symbols, words, or pictures, to represent things which are not physically present.
symbolic functioning
grasping reflex
when touched on the palm of the hand, a baby will wrap his fingers tightly around the stimulus
generativity vs. Stagnation
the 7th stage of Erik Erikson's theory of Psychosocial development where the individual's task is to contribute to his or her community and family, thereby aiding the succeeding generations. Those that fail at this task risk stagnation, a sense of purposelessness, and boredom
The Normative Period - Stanley Hall
o Founder Child Study Development o Unfolding process
Zone of Proximal Development
According to Vygotsky, this is a child's range of abilities with the range being their ability without assistance to their ability with assistance. 
Wher does animal knowledge come from?
Loving animals
Parents encourage it through reading and highlighting things in animals
Cons of Sequential Research Design
- comeplicated- expensive & time consuming
4 Concepts of Mary Ainsworth's study
1- Securely Attached2- Insecure Avoidant3- Insecure Resistant4- Insecure Disorganized
What percentage are gifted/mentally retarded, according to the Stanford-Binet IQ Bell Curve?
15.86%** 13.59% + 2.14% + .13%
In Piaget's theory, horizontal decalage refers to:
the sequential mastery of concepts within a stage of development
Han notices a change in his behavior: He jumps and experiences fear whenever he hears a toilet flushing
a conditioned stimulus
genetic epistemology
Started by Piaget- the study of how we construct reality and how that changes over history and the lifespan.
How do young children choose playmates and friends, and why are some children better liked than others?
Preschoolers choose playmates and friends who are like them and with whom they have positive experiences.Aggressive children are less popular than prosocial children.
At what time do babies first show signs of inhibiting impulses?
7 to 9 months.
Kinsey's findings on early puberty
Kinsey found that people who developed earlier tend to be more sexualRelated to:- sex drive- willingness to engage in casual sex- timing of first sexual fantasies
At what age can infants see as well as adults?
8 Months
Fathers vs. Mothers Interactions with Children
Fathers engage more in physically play. Mothers engage in more calm play. Parents spend more time with children of the same sex.
Iconic stage, Bruner Theory
knowledge of world is based on images that stand for perceptual events - usually visual images
Social Contract or Utility and Individual Rights
The fifth Kohlberg stage of moral development. At this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law.
What are the major cognitive abilities that develop during the second decade?
Metacognition; high order thinking & executive functions like planning, stragegizing, organizing
Validity and Reliability Issues in Testing Kids
-only what kid does at that time.-younger kids are harder to test
Patterson's Coercion Model of Aggression
1. Children learn to be aggressive by observing coercive and antisocial behavior in parents. Poor parenting reinforces coercive behavior on child's part and escalating cyle ensues.
2. child with conduct problems experience academic failure and peer rejection.
3. child experiences a depressed mood and more likely to join a group of deviant peers.
What Caveats Do We Need to Keep in Mind Regarding Gender Differences in Development?
 
nAverages
nNot true for all individuals
nSmall magnitude
nMay be more applicable to extreme ends of the distribution
gardner's IQs are from different parts of the brain
example: spatial IQ comes from the right hemisphere
What are the three basic functions of a family?
1. Survival of offspring2. Economic function3. Cultural training
What were the IVs and DVs in Charity's study?
IVs: repetition of SE sentences; familiarity with SE

DVs: reading ability (word identification, word attack [pseudo-words], comprehension)
What is Stage 2 of Vygotsky's theory of the development of thought and language?
Stage of naive psychology- the two systems begin to come together.
Preterm 
vs
Small-for-gestational-age
Socioeconomic Status
Menarche
Girl’s first menstration
hypothesis
a scientific prediction
infancy
birth to 18-24 months
Criteria for scientific description
ObjectiveReliableValidity
Animism
the tendency for peroperational children to give inanimate objects human qualities
Anticipatory Smiling
Infants communicate preexisting positive emotion by smiling at an object then turning their smile toward an adult
Permissive
In Baumrind’s terminology, parenting style emphasizing self-expression and self-regulation.
---development is discontinous (occurs in stage)---innate knowledge---"noble savages"(inherently, good and pure)---development occurs naturally---child is an active learner (seeks out what is best for growth)---education is laissez faire
rousseau
preschoolers give mroe elaborate mesages to listeners who lack critical information
Language Production:
Actually speaking to others
Gardner's 8 Frames of Mind
1-Verbal2-Mathematical3-Spatial4-Bodily-Kinesthetic5-Musical6-Interpersonal7-Intrapersonal8-Naturalist
Foreclosed
directly influenced views by others
assimilation
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas (149)
Attachment
pattern: Avoidant
Child:Little affective sharing in play. Little or no distress on departure, little or no visible response to return, ignoring or turning away with no effort to maintain contact if picked up. Treats the stranger similarly to the caregiver. Parent:Little or no response to distressed child. Discourages crying and encourages independence.
temperament
an individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionally responding.
Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Committed compliance
Kochanska’s term for wholehearted obedience of a parents orders without reminders or lapses.
Organogenesis
Organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development.
normative age-graded influence
biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
Individual differences
 Stability over time: moderate individual differences over time. Stability in both genes and environment.
Prediction of future individual differences: the relative stability of most children's environment contributes to these long-term continuities of psychological functioning
Potential contributors to individual differences: genetics, experience
Identify 5 teratogens and describe their effects on developing embryo/fetus
decoding
1st step in actual reading--IDing individual words
"sounding out"
older kids do it with uncommon words
step 1 2 months
cooing
all vowel-like sounds
Sociocultural Theories:
Approaches that emphasizes the contribution to children development of other people and the surrounding culture
Proactive Aggression:
Unemotional aggression aimed at fulfilling a need or desire
Neuropsychology
subgroup of psych. studying brain behavior which affects development
emergent theories
theories that bring together information from many disciplines in addition to psychology and that are becoming comprehensive and systematic; not yet established and detailed enough to be considered grand theories
Transitivity
Ability to mentally sort objects (Concrete operational stage)
the infant's behavior would be inconsistent or disturbed
Disorganized
Microgenetic
children are observed intensively over a relatively short time period while a change is occurring.
Social Clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events like marriage, parenthood, and retirement
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
-physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
-symptoms - mental retardation, misproportioned head (too small), other deformities
Carol Gilligan
offered a feminist critique of Kohlberg's theory, suggesting that it does not reflect a female perspective
fetal period
the prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception and last for seven months on average until birth.
Teen brain vs adult
Development of frontal lobesusceptibility to drugsdifferent reward center activation
harry harlow
hypothesized that infants might attach to those who provide contact comfort
Reciprocal Socialization
Socialization that is bidirectional in that children socialize parents just as parents socialize children
Homozygous
Possessing two identical alleles for a trait
Sensory memory
Initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information
Procedural knowledge
Acquired skills stored in long-term memory.
Experimental Design
- Looking for cause and effectIndependent Variable Dependent Variable Experimental Group Control Group
Anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder in which individuals starve themselves because of an extremely distorted body image.
social development
the way in which individuals' interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life.
innate knowledge systems
1)physical knowledge
child is a physicist
naiive physics
show infants possible v. impossible events and measure looking time
look longer at box without support
social referencing
infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environment lookk to parents as if searching for cues to help them interpret the situation
less likely to play with scary object if parent looks upset, but more likely if they're happy
infants can use expressions , facial or vocal, alone to decide
it's precise,
by 14 months, they remember, by 18 months gets more precise
 
Qualitative change
Change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication
Gender Roles
Are the reflection of those stereotypes in everyday behavior.
Polygenic Inheritance:
Inheritance in which traits are governed by more than one gene
Collective Monologues:
young childrenÕs talk with one another in which the content of each childs turn has a little or nothing to do with what the other child has just said
Secure Attachments
infants explore the environment when the parents are around, but are sad when they leave but come to parents when they return.
When do children determine which actions go with which objects
1.5-2 years
Form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and other's feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one's thinking and action.
Emotional Intelligence
carrier
a person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype
democratic/authoritative family (p.79)
children and adolescents participate in descions affecting their lives
Phonological Dyslexia
person cannot read non-word aloud, i.e. "squilfish"
Otherwise, reading is near perfect
Abselutisim
niave belief in a truth and unquestioning authority
authoritarian parenting
restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort. The authoritarian parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange.
Basic Trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
preoperational stage
Piaget's theory: the stage from 2 y.o-7 y.o during which a child learns to use language but does not comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
Discrete emotions theory
The pleasure derived from physical contact with another; a hypothesized need or drive for physical contact with another
rooting reflex
infant reflex wherein the baby will, when touched on the cheek, turn its head toward the direction of the touch and search for a nipple
sucking reflex
an automatic response to suck on anything placed in the babys mouth.
The Mature reader- Frith /Ehri
-Automatically identifies words
 
-Connects sight/sound/meaning
-
Finds it difficutl to ignore menaign (stroop)
-Able to focus on meaning
-Novel words by decoding, anaology, or predicting
Morphology
The units of meaning involved in word formation
Genes
Small segments of DNA located in the definite positions on articular chromosomes; functional units of heredity
Disorganized-disoriented attachment
Pattern in which an infant, after separation from the primary caregiver, shows contradictory behaviors upon his or her return.
Bulimia nervosa
Eating disorder in which a person regularly eats huge quantities of food and then purges the body by laxatives, induced vomiting, fasting, or excessive exercise.
interrater reliability
the amount of agreement in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior.
Evidence for aggression correlating with media
 
nField Study
¨“The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers”

n5 - 7 year olds, Watch Rangers or complete other Activity, Observed in “natural environment”

For boys
nViolent TV at 8 predicted

¨Aggressive behavior at 19 (r = .31), Level and seriousness of criminal acts at 30,  Aggressive behavior at 8 DID NOT predict TV viewing at 19

¨No effect for girls
Later studies

¨Effects for girls
¨Reciprocal relations
How did PLato believe children obtained knowledge?
it was innate
Strange Situation paradaigm
good for studying attachment, but criticized for emphasis on separation and reunion as the primary means for assessing quality of attachment
appropriate response to spearation may not be the same in all cultures
now we use !-set cratings
How TOM helps development
Brain mechanism, the TOM module
social interactions--why autistic kids have probs
processing skills--develops with other cogn. skills
 
Ethnic group
A group united by ancestry, race, religion, language, and/or national origins, which contribute to a sense of shared identity.
Plasticity:
the capacity of the brain to be affected by experience
Infantile amnesia:
The inability of most adults to remember anything of their lives before the age of 3 years and little more before the age of 5
what is syntactic development?
learning rules for combining words
When the child realizes they have done something that isnt good enough (Erikson)
Inferiority
scientific method
a way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data-based conclusions
Sibling Relationships
Siblings are playmates for each other. They are affected by favoritism, especially in blended families. They model their relationships after other's relationships.
Normative history graded influences
biologica and environment influences associated with a particlar historical moment
Symbolic Representation
With the emergence of language near the end of the sensorimotor stage, the child becomes more capable of symbolic representation.
Retroactive interference
the forgetting of old information when new information is learned. An example: Frank learned Spanish in high school. Since he took French 101 in college, however, he can’t remember very much of his Spanish.
justice perspective
A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions.
Cross-Sectional Study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
-Trust vs Mistrust
-Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt
-Initiative vs Guilt
-Competence vs Inferiority
-Identity vs Role Confusion
-Intimacy vs Isolation
-Generativity vs Stagnation
-Integrity vs Despair
Wernicke's Area
An area of the brain's left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehension.
Child-centered parenting
child's autonomy is more in control of parenting. Parents are responsive but not authoritative enough
Immanent Justice
Piaget's concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
Fast mapping
Process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation
cohort effects
Effects that are due to a subject's time of birth or generation but not age.
Corpus callosum
A dense tract of nerve fibers that enable the two hemispheres of the brain to communicate.
Patterson's Coercive Family Interaction
Children learn to be aggressive through a coercive family interaction pattern.  Parent's teach their kids to be aggressive by modeling aggressive behavior (e.g. hitting) and positive reinforcement of aggressive behavior.
brain plasticity
the capacity of vairous parts of the cerebral cortex to take over functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize
pendulum problem
which string and weight will swing the fastest
concrete investigate randomly
formal op. approach it systematically
Emotional Intelligence:
A set of abilities that contribute to competence in the social and emotional domains
Darwin - Evolutionary Perspective
Certain social and behavioral traits have survived because they have been useful
Connectionist THeory
all words are connected in a vast network in your brain.
independent variable
the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable
socialization (p.81)
the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within the individual is born and will live
GILLIGAN'S approaches to Moral Reasoning
JUSTICE perspective: males prefer justice, which emphasizes fairness
CARING perspective: dilemna in females is conflict of own needs versus needs of others. Women think less about abstract jsutice/fairness than men, and think more about responsibilities to specific people
Infant calls many items a "rona"
Semantics - word meaning
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
4 sequential and discontinuous stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Influence of fathers on the infant
Interaction is different across certain cultures.
Social Cognitive Theory of Gender
The idea that children's gender development occurs through observation and imitation of gender behavior, as well as through the rewards and punishment children experience for behaviors believed to be appropriate or inappropriate for their gender
What are the stages of development?
1. Prenatal2. Infancy3. Early Childhood 4. Middle Childhood5. Adolescence6. Early Adulthood 7. Middle Adulthood 8. Late Adulthood 9. Death and Dying
Identity Diffusion (Marcia)
According to Marcia, this is the 1st stage in choosing a career.  The adolescent has no thought as to what they want to be.
african american english
he be tired = he usually is tired
many AAs learn both, and they switch back and forth depending on the situation
Case study
Study of a single subject, such as an individual or family
Dishabituation - definition
Noticing a change in the stimulus and the stimulus becomes interesting again
Quinn & Eimas (1996)
Tested 3 and 4 month-olds’ ability to distinguish between cats and dogs.
What kinds of tests are women usually better at?
Reading and Language
Typical characteristics of an abusive parent:
Female, married, history of abuse.
Instrumental aggression vs. hostile aggression
being blocked from goals, percieved threat & malice
What physical changes do adolescents experience, and how do these changes affect them psychologically?
Puberty is triggered by hormonal changes. Puberty takes about four years, typically begins earlier in girls than in boys, and ends when a person can reproduce; but the timing of these events varies considerably. Sexual attraction seems to begin at about age 10, when the adrenal glands increase their hormonal output.During puberty, both boys and girl undergo an adolescent growth spurt. The reproductive organs enlarge and mature, and secondary sex characteristics appear.A secular trend toward earlier attainment of adult height and sexual maturity began about 100 years ago, probably because of improvements in living standards. The principal signs of sexual maturity are production of sperm (for males) and menstruation (for females).
piaget's stage of moral development
Moral judgment of the child; 4-7: imitates rules behavior and doesn't question; 7-11 understands and follows rule; 12 and older: applies abstract thinking and can change rules
Pros of Sequential Research Design
- compares the groups of different cohorts to eliminate error- compares cohort patterns of behavior
What are some of the most fundamental aspects of our experience?
Perceptual and motor skills
Sweden's Corporal Punishment Laws
Sweden passed a law in 1979 forbidding parents to physically punish children (by spanking or slapping, for example). Since the law was enacted youth rates of delinquency, alcohol abuse, rape, and suicide have dropped.
Skills evolve from social interactions
We have the basic mental functions, but how we think and interpret our surroundings is affected by the demands of values of our culture
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
A test performed within 24 to 36 hours after birth to assess newborns' neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people.
What are the implications of the finding that the "good enough" environment theory is apprently not good enough to support universal attainment of certain cognitive capabilities?
To assure attainment of cognitive capabilities, more deliberate training in certain skills is needed. We can't assume that exposure to a non-detrimental environment is sufficient!
What are the three leading causes of death in infants?
1- Motor Vehicle Accidents2- Drowning3- Poisoning
Cognitive growth IN CONTEXT with has an influence
Cannot be separated from culture – NOT UNIVERSAL
What are the gender differences in dyslexia, and how do they differ by sample type?
In clinical samples, more boys exhibit dyslexia.

In community samples, however, no gender difference exists. They may be failing to document female dyslexia symptoms because they tend to be more internalizing.
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
not based on test scores, but on child development, studies of brain damage, and studies of exceptionally talented people
Colby's Research on Moral Development
Stages 1 and 2- decrease with age. Stage 3- the most constant. Stage 4 - does not appear at all in 10 year olds, reflected in 62% of the 36 year olds Stage 5 - doesn't ever appear until age 20 and never characterized in more than 10%. Stage 6- removed from the Kohlberg moral judgment scoring manual because no one ever reaches it. The moral stages appeared later than Kohlberg initially envisioned and reasoning at the higher stages is rare.
What 2 factors predicted literacy at 4 1/2 years in the Crain-Thorensen study? What did not predict?

What cognitive ability was measured and what was it predicted by?
AMOUNT OF STORY READING & ENGAGEMENT predicted literacy, while early language precociousness did NOT predict (e.g. nature vs. nurture)

IQ was measured and predicted by amt. of READING & ENGAGEMENT as well.
What is the most important idea of Piaget's?
Mistakes are a natural part of learning.
zygote
fertilized ovum
Multicultural
Culture SpecificCountry, orgin
Moral Development Theorists
PIAGET
GILLIGAN
KOHLBERG
Glial cells
Cells that mylinate


4 Methodological Concerns
 
4) Usefulness
gene
units of hereditary information
Habituation
Decreasin responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
Mary Ainsworth's "Strange Situation" Experiments Types of Attachment
Secure
Insecure-avoidant
Insecure-resistant
**Results of environment-correlated to a mother's sensitivity to her infant's needs during the first year of life**
Autism
Pervasive developmental disorder of the brain, characterized b y lack of normal social interaction, impaired communication and imagination, and a highly restricted range of activities and interests.
gender
The psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male.
BehaviorismReinforcement
Experiences that increase the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur againpositive: adding a stimulus that increases the likelihood of the behaviornegative: removing a stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behavior.
Savants
individuals with mental retardation who actually show musical intelligence, or intelligence in one domain
Reactive Aggression:
Emotionally driven atagonistic aggression sparked by ones perception that other peopleÕs motives are hostile
In Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, connections between parents and school are in the
mesosystem.
Exosystem
involvement with several settings which do not effect the child (parrent's workplace)
internalization
the process of absorbing information from a specified social environmental context
Schemes
In Piaget: actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.
insecure attachment
unhealthy levels of attachment. Avoidant, anxious-ambivialent, or disorganized
Plasticity
Modifiability, or “molding” of the brain through experience.
Self-concept
Sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one’s abilities and traits
Popular
Many liked nominations and few disliked


4 situations in which couples should seek genetic counseling

 
semantics
study of words and their meaning
average english speaker has 150,000 words
Personification:
generalizing knowledge about people to infer properties of other animals
Heritability:
A statistical estimate of the proportion of the measured variance on a trait among individuals in a given population that is attributable to genetic differences among those individuals
Dyslexia
Normal intelligence, but can't read well. 3-5% of people.
Gilligan’s research on Kohlberg’s moral dilemmas suggests that women have a morality of ________ whereas men have a morality of ________.
care; justice
qualitative research
research that considers qualities instead of quantities
Relationships amongs pre-adolescent siblings are characterized by:
Conflict & closeness
Language and thought develop in seperate, paralell straems
Vygotsky
Menopause
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Fetus
developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
sensorimotor
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to 2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their impressions and motor activities
Freud's Stages
1. Oral2. Anal3. Phallic4. Latency Stage 5. Genital Stage
Heritability Estimates
measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
Irreversibility
Inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem then reverse its direction, returning to the starting point
Moral Development
Changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong
State of arousal
An infant’s physiological and behavioral status at a given moment in the periodic daily cycle of wakefulness, sleep, and activity.
Pragmatics
The practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes
Formal operations
Piaget’s final stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly.
correlational research
research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists
No formal discipline is recommended until what age?
18 months.
2. biological knowledge
understanding of living and non-living
hopping frog v. hopping car
cars can't self-locomote
cut heals itself
3 year old can't say whether plan is living or not
measuring behavior in infants
over emotional expressions
scowling, anger, happiness
but it's only one component, it doesn't mean they're actually feeling it.
physilogically, it follows adults too
when babies smile, the left frotnal cortex has more activiity, like in adults
Ethnic gloss
Overgeneralization about an ethnic or cultural group that obscures differences within the group
Androgony
Scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics.
Cognitive Development:
the development of thinking and reasoning
Critical Period:
the time during which language develops readily and after which (sometimes between age 5 puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful
Oral stage
infants seek pleasure through their mouths. Freud thought that people fixated at this stage might overeat, smoke, and in general have a childlike dependent on things and people
 
Erikson's Principles
 
3
 
The resolution at a stage may have a greater or lesser
impact or influence on later stages
 
All kinds of things have an influence 
What percentage of people reach the POST-CONVENTIONAL Stage of Moral Development?
10%
schema (p.71)
a conceptual framework that aperson uses to make sense of the world
Cognitive Play
1. Repetitive Play: simple repetitive muscular movements
2. constructive play: uses materials to construct or create something
3. imaginative play: involves fantasy and drama, taking on pretend roles. Crucial role in allowing children to try out new roles and master difficult feelings.
4. Formal Games with Rules: Development and adherence to rules while playing games varies with children's ages.
From the general to the specific
Deductive reasoning
mind-set
The cognitive view, either fixed or growth that individuals develop for themselves.
accommodation
process by which we modify our schemas to fit new information
Insecure-Resistant (Ainsworth SSE)
exhibit insecurity by seeking the caregiver's attention, bit then rejecting it (clinging to and also fighting against them)
Self-awareness
Realization that baby has a seperate identity in this world.
size constancy
the recognition that an object remains the same even though the retinal image changes as you move to and from the object
ASD Overall
-Local level bias linked to central coherence not to executive function
 
-Poor plannin glinked to executive dysfunction
 
-Weak central coherence and executive dysfunction independent in visuo spatial domain
 
- Weak central coherence linked to theory of mind deficits
Developmental Quotient (DQ)
An overall developmental score that combines subscores on motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gesell assessment of infants
Average Children
Children who receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers
Active euthanasia
Deliberate action taken to shorten the life of a terminally ill person in order to end suffering to allow death with dignity; also called mercy killing.
Autobiographical memory
Memory of specific events in one’s own life
Substance abuse
Repeated, harmful use of a substance, usually alcohol or other drugs.
experimental control
the ability of the researcher to determine the specific experiences that children have during the course of an experiment.
Developmental Changes in Friendship
- Interactions among preschool-age friends and nonfriends persist and become more sharply defined.
- Friends and communicate more and better with each other and cooperate and work together more effectively
-Level of importance and intimacy increases
 
BehaviorismSocial Learning/Social Modeling
social learning provides a potential short-cut to learning. (we learn from watching other people's mistakes and successes)Bandura Bobo doll experiment showed that when adults were punished, children less likely to imitatewhen positive reinforcement/control condition children were more likely to imitate aggressive behavior and add onWe imitate "admired individuals" and "similar others"
Don't plan ahead
why most children don't solve problems
believe they can:
solve by boldly forging ahead, without an explicit plans, like not reading directions
planning is hard, so if you fail, why waste the effort
children expect parents to solve it for them
foundations of reading
improve from preschool onward
4 yeawr olds know about half the letters
learn when in literacy-related activieis
step 2, 6 months
babbling
dah
bah
single syllable of consonant and vowels
becomes more elaborate in coming months
precursor to real speech, not mindless, fundamentally linguistic, b/c opens slightly wider on the right side, due to the left hemisphere's control of language
Life-span development
Concept of human development as a lifelong process which can be studied scientifically
Adaption:
the tendency to respond to the demands of the enviroment in ways that meets oneÕs goals
Social Scaffolding:
A process in which more competent people provide a temporary framework that supports childrenÕs thinking at a higher level than children could manage on their own
Motor Development
All humans develop the same basic motor skills in the same sequence, as we age, they differ from person to person
 
Ex) 5-1/2 month babies roll over
8-9 months they stand
15 months they walk
 
But this does not apply to everyone because parental and environmental factors have slight effect
When do children remember what they intended to draw?
3-4 years
What is the standard deviation in the Stanford-Binet IQ test Bell Curve?
15
cross-sequential research
a hybrid research method in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages and then follow those groups over the years
Aggression and Gender
Boys are more directly aggressive (over physical or verbal acts openly intended to cause harm). Girls are more indirectly aggressive in adolescence (attempts to damage a person's social standing).
Disorganized-attached children have what level of cortisol during the Starge Situation?
Elevated throughout (secure have higher as caregiver leaves, and lower as she returns)
Piaget & Peers
Peers are highly infuential in cognitive development. Through interaction with peers, child confronted with different worldviews and may recognize their worldview may be not viable. Parents are too congitively advance and removed intellectually to play much of a role in this.
autonomous morality
The second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age or older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences.
Erikson Stage 1
0-1yr, trust vs. mistrust; sense of security
Apgar Scale
a widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth. The Apgar Scale evaluates infant's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.
food and attachment
continual food rewards can lead to unhealthy attachment
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children (age appropriateness) and the uniqueness of each child (individual appropriateness). Such practice contrasts with developmentally inappropriate practice, which has an academic, direct instruction emphasis
Ambivalent (resistant) attachment
Pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during his or her absence, and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return.`
cross-cultural studies
Comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures. These provide information about the degree to which to which children's development is similar, or universal, across cultures, and to the degree to which it is culture-specific.
Parietal lobe
The lobe of the brain that governs spatial processing as well as integrating sensory input with information stored in memory.
Goodness of Fit
Thomas and Chess said that differences in temperament are biologically based and if it doesn't match parent's care giving style it can lead to maladjustment. Goodness of fit --> temperament matches envionment.
statistical learning capacity
infants' ability to analyze the speech stream for regularly occurring sound sequences, through which they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they whill later learn meanings.
false-belief tasks
3.5 year olds think sally knows the marble is in the box, four year olds understand Sally's beliefs are incorrect
Cross cultural
 
Disorganized/disoriented attachment:
a type of insecure attachment in which infants or young children have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the Strange Situation. Their behavior is often confused or even contradictory, and they often appear dazed or disoriented.
WISC-III Scores (3)
- verbal IQ- performance IQ- full scale IQ
Pragmatic Cues
Use of aspects of social context to learn word meanings. "THERE! or WHOOPS!" can greatly affect it. so can gaze direction
intimacy vs isolation
20-40s: young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
age of viability
the age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus might survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available
authoritarian family (p.79)
parents attempt to control, shap, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of children and adolescents in accordance with a set code of conduct
Gene facts
Of 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs are AUTOSOMES (unrelated to sex). The 23rd pair are sex chromosomes, 1 from father (X or Y), 1 from mother (X).
XX= female, XY= male
term for the state of affairs in which there is a balanced, or harmonious, relationship between one's thought processes and the environment
Piaget
conventional level, stage 4
maintain law and order, do your duty
Broca's Area
An area in the brain left frontal lobe involved in speech production.
developmental period
refers to a time frame in a person's life that is characterized by certain features
Identity Foreclosure (Marcia)
According to Marcia this is the 2nd stage in choosing a career.  The youngster may commit to an occupation choice suggested by a parent. 
infants can't "count" the way we count
probably perceptual
perceptive to shapes and color
maybe infants are senstive to quantity, and small numbers are fairly obvious to infants
Longitudinal Design:
A method of study in which the same children are studied twice or more over a substantial period of time
Pros of the Longitudinal Research Design
- tells us about stability
Research Designs
The blue prints for how you are going to 
investigate the behavior
 
Research designs enable you to draw certain 
conclusions about the behavior
To think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.
Creative Thinking
Frequency of sex in later life is most highly correlated with:
Available partners
development results from maturational factors and environmental experiences
piaget's 4 theories of cognitive development
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
<2 years - Sensorimotor
2-6 years - Preoperational
7-11 years - Concrete operational
>12 years - Formal operational
What are the 5 characteristics of development?
1. Multidirectional 2. Multicultural 3. Multicontextual 4. Multidisciplinary5. Plasticity
infants and words stress
how they tell words apart from each other
7-8 month old pay more attn to a word they've heard repeatedly
6 months, infants pay more attn to nouns, verbs, than function words, articles prpositions
know mommy and daddy
Why study children (3 pts)
- fastest development in any species- childhood experiences can affect adulthood- we need to understand to intervene children at risk
Early-maturing adolescent girls are more likely to:
- develop feelings such as depression- have a negatively affected prestige status- develop eating disorders
The Brain Structure Perspective of Gender Development
Evidence of small, but consistent differences in the physical structure of male and female brains. There may be a higher proportion of cortical gray matter (information processing, language) in the female brain, whereas the male brain has a higher proportion of white matter (information transmission, spatial processing)
Thought is based primarily in action
Means-end behavior, separation of self from external environment, object permanence, deferred imitation
How does the self concept develop during early childhood, and how do children develop self esteem?
The self concept undergoes major change in early childhood. According to neo-Piagetians, self-definition shifts from single representations to representational mappings. Young children do not see the difference between the real self and the ideal self.Culture affects the self-definition.Self esteem in early childhood tends to be global and unrealistic, reflecting adult approval.
Zygote (processes of duplication, division, differentation)
Formed by the joining of two haploid cells (an ovum from a female and a sperm from a male) which combine into a single diploid cell, thus containing DNA from both mother and father to form a new individual. . A zygote receives one set of chromosomes from two gametes,After multiple cell divisions and cellular differentiation, a zygote develops into an embryo. Human zygotes exists about 4 days; turn into a blastocyst on the fifth day.
What do World Views do?
Attempt to explain the nature of man's being
Full breast development finishes around age 14
1/3 of all girls develop some pubic hair before their breasts begin to develop
What are the 4 main stages in reading acquisition? What is each stage comprised of?
Prereading ("conventions of print", phonemic awareness), Phonological skills (decoding), Fluency (direct retrieval, sounding out), Comprehension
What was found if the biological father of an adopted son was a criminal, and the adoptive father was not?
Son more likely to be a criminal
Perceptual Development of Touch and Pain
Touch is 1st sense to develop and thought to be most mature during first months of life. Infants may feel pain on 1st day of life and become more sensitive in days after delivery.
What are the four types of memory that neuron changes are the basis for?
1- motor2- sensory3- cognitive 4- affective.
What historical trends do we see in the media’s portrayal of thinness?
- Woman just keep getting thinner and thinner
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