Developmental Psychology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nativist
Rousseau
Monozygotic
vs
Dizygotic twins
vs
Clone
Explicit memory
Explicit memory
slow-to-warm up child
adolescence
11-12 to 18-22 years


4 Descriptive Research Methods
 
4) 
SIDS
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
males
Begins 11 – 12
productive language
ability to produce words
Crystallized Intelligence
An individual's accumulated information and verbal skills; continues to increase with age. Ability to solve problems based on acquired knowledge; depends on education and culture
Authoritative
In Baumrind’s terminology, parenting style blending respect for a child’s individuality with an effort to instill social values.
18th-19th century
Economic *growth of democracies---education was important---child labor laws (1st in 19th century)---compulsory education(socially mobility)*Medicine As Science---adult health depends on childs health---child healt is UNIQUE*Industrial Revolution---better living standards---progress through science---faith in science to answer lifes questions (instead of religion)
fluid IQ
sequential reasoning, induction, quantitative reasoning
Kwashiorkor:
Malnutrition brought about inadequate protein
Know the specifics concerning ADHD.
Syntatic stage
where sentences are produced
easy babies
cheerful, relaxed; follow predictable patterns of eating and sleeping
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects(150)
Babbling
The repetition by infants of meaningless language sounds
Socialization/Self-regulation
when children develop habits, skills, values and motives that make them responsible, productive of society.
Gilligan
argued that women's moral development is based on a standard of caring for others and progresses to a stage of self-realization. Men on the other hand base their morales on justice
Down syndrome
Chromosomal disorder characterized by moderate-to-severe mental retardation and by such physical signs as a downward sloping skinfold at the inner corners of the eyes.
Attachment
Reciprocal, enduring tie between two people, especially between infant and caregiver, each of whom contribute to the quality of the relationship.
Genotype
A person's genetic heritage; the actual genetic material.
fetus
developing baby; 3rd month until birth
Prosocial Behavior Development
 

Overall increase with age

¨Empathy emerges at 12-18 months
¨Helping increases between 3 and 6 years
¨Sharing increases between 6 and 12 years
How is sex determined? 
(xx vs xy)
ads and children have limited scientific skills
underextension
overextension
too narrow definitions
car only rfers to family car
 
overextension
too broadly
dogs refer to all four legged animals
more commonfast-mapping rule: if you can't remember the name of an object, say the name of a related object
Intersubjectivity:
the mutual understanding that people share during communication
Synapses:
Microscopic junctions between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendritic branches or cell body of another
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
operant conditioning increases favorable outcomes and decreases unfavorable outcomes. consistency is key.
assimilation
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
According to Erikson's theory, a mother who is sympathetic and loving is fostering her baby's sense of
trust
changes in mental processes and behavior over the life span.periods of live:prenatalinfancyearly childhood middle childhoodadolescenceearly young adulthoodmiddle adulthoodolder adulthooddevelopment is a life long processDevelopmental IssuesStability/ ChangeContinuity/ StagesNature/ NurturePopular Ideas in PsychologyThe Mozart Effect - correlationChildhood: Cognitive Developmentaccording to PiagetBiological Theory of Knowledge:AssimilationAccommodationStages of Cognitive Development:Sensorimotor PeriodPreoperational PeriodConcrete Operational PeriodFormal Operational PeriodChildhood: AttachmentBowlby's Ethological Theory of Attachment Attachment - a bond between an infant or child and their care giverProximity-closeness = securityBehavior of the caregiver has to be: available, responsive, safety secure or insecureMeasuring the Quality of Attachmentthe Ainsworth Strange SituationAttachment types:Anxious Avoidant - \"can't count on you\"Anxious Resistant - \"nor sure if i can count on you or not\"Secure - \"i can count on you\"
individuals first encounter with rules
anal stage
Reliability
the degree to which independent measures of a given behavior are consistent.
Alzheimer's disease
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and - finally - physical functioning
preoperational stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development (2-7yr), during which the child represents and manipulates objects with symbols (language) and is egocentric (animism, artificialism)
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm(141)
Childhood Egocentrism
-the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view (2-6 years)
-different from adolescent egocentrism
postpartum depression
involves a major depressive episode characterized by strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair in new mothers, making it difficult for them to carry out daily tasks.
What causes precocious puberty?
Weight gain/ obesityEnvironmental chemicalsSexualized imagesFamilial stressabsenece of father
elenor maccoby
argues that young children are segregationist in that they seek out peers of the same sex even when adults are not supervising
Flynn Effect
The worldwide increase in intelligence test scores that has occurred over a short time frame
Cell death
In brain development, the normal elimination of excess brain cells to achieve more efficient functioning
Systems of action
Increasingly complex combinations of skills, which permit a wider or more precise range of movement and more control of the environment
Declarative knowledge
Acquired factual knowledge stored in long term memory.
Plasticity
The capacity to change - Molds, shapes- Durability in hard times
Behavioral genetics
The science concerned with how variation in behavior and development results from the combination of genetic and environmental factors.
cohort effects
Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.
PKU
Disease in which the body can't metabolize phenylalanine, a protein that (in excess) results in mental retardation; can be avoided by specific diet
Boche
Egocentrism in Preop
with different objects that discriminantly different from each other
4.5 year olds are better than 3.5 year olds, but not by much
b/c situation is easier to discriminate, they are not as egocentric
extroversion
blend of positive affect and activity level
inhibited children more likely to be introverted
but temperament can be poorly related with adult personality
Normative
Characteristic of an event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a group
Gender Labeling
During preeschool years children can label the sex of themselves and others.
Neurons:
Cells that are specialized for sending and reciecing messages between the brain and all parts of the body as well as with the brain itself
Evolutionary Perspective
- aka ethological and sociobiological- Darwin- Critical period- Mostly nature, but experience does matter
Acuity
Acuity = ability to see “fine detail”
What does IEP stand for?
Individual Education Program
spontaneous abortion
the naturally occurring termination of a pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is fully developed
sublimation (p.82)
the process of rediricting sexual impulses into learning tasks
Object permanence
A critical accomplishment during the sensorimotor stage.
The ability to understand that objects continure to exist independent of the child's involvement with them. Maintain a mental imagge (representation) even when the object is not present. Relates to the development of Stranger Anxiety and Separation Protest.
Aids in memory retrival
associations, context, and mood.
centration
The focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.
Zygote
the firtilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
primary sex characteristics
the reproductive organs and external genitals
nondeclarative memory
a way of thinking without using language by picturing an intended action
Intimacy vs. Isolation Love
Individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families; forming intimate relationships
initiative v. guilt
3rd stage in Erikson's model; preschoolers must learn to start and direct creative tasks, or they may feel guilty about asserting themselves
correlational coefficient
a number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables
Information Processing
human mind as symbol processing, uses flow chart and believes in continuous development
Phoneme
The basic unit of sound in a language
Germinal stage
First 2 weeks of prenatal development, characterized by rapid cell division, blastocyst formation, and implantation in the wall of the uterus.
Theory of mind
Awareness and understanding of mental processes.
Gateway drugs
Drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, the use of which tends to lead to use of more addictive drugs.
development
the pattern of movement or change that starts at conception and continues through human life span
Average
Receive an average number of liked or disliked nominations
importance of the study of child development (juts a list)
-for policies-teachers
Incomplete view of animals
Preschools don't know about genes
Plants aren't thought of as living things, not until 7 or 8 years old
5 year olds can be convinced if they realize that plants have goals, moving toward sun or venus fly traps
Socioeconomic status (SES)
Combination of economic and social factors describing an individual or family, including income, education, and occupation.
Self:
A conceptual system made up of oneÕs thoughts and attitudes about oneself
Contrast sensitivity:
the ability tot detect differences in light and dark areas in a visual pattern
Intimacy versus isolation
Young adults who established stable identities then must figure out how to balance their ties and efforts between work.
 
How much time is spend on ourselves and our families?
 
patterns in this stage will establish the effort spent on selef and others in the future.
Intermodal perception:
integrating input from two or more sensory systems (modalities)Touch and sight (tactual  visual) Speech sounds and lip movements (auditory  visual)
overextension
an early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly, to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate.
scientific observation
a method of testing hypotheses by unobtrusively watching and recording participant's behavior in a systematic and objective manner
Gender Role
a set of expectations that prescribes how males and females should think, act, and feel
Human development
scientific study of the ways people change and stay the same from conception to death.
Maternal Substance Abuse
Prenatal risks of teratogens (cocaine, ETOH, smoking)
-Poor nutrition, inadequate prenatal care.
- disorganization & chaos, + multiple caregivers
Decentration
concentrating on 2 or more sepects of problem
heteronomous morality
The first stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory, occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
Formal Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning at the age of 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Cross-Sectional Study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
industry v. inferiority
4th stage in Erikson's model; children must master the skills valued by their society or feel inferior
proximodistal pattern
the sequence in which growth starts in the center of body and moves towards the extremities.
critical period
he first few years of life constitute the time during which language develops readily and after which (sometime between age 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful[
Heteronomous Morality (Piaget)
The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring at 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
IQ (intelligence quotient) tests
Psychometric tests that seek to measure intelligence by comparing a test taker’s performance with standardized norms
correlational research
The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics.
Frontal lobe
The lobe of the brain associated with organizing behavior and the one that is thought responsible for the human ability to plan ahead.
Anal Stage
2nd stage of Freud's theory.  Ages 1 - 3.  Fixation results in anal-retentive (stingy, selfish, OCD) or anal-expulsive (cruel, destructive, messy) personality.
experience dependent brain growth
growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures
experience with test contents
tests reflect cultural heritage of test creators, economically advantaged European Americans, biased against low Socioeconomic from other groups
Good of fit:
the degree to which an individualÕs temperament is compatible with the demands expectations of his or her social environment
Case Studies
- intense one on one relationship with one individual- interview over and over and gether data- use of one person to generalize population
Examples of tests used to evaluate kids. 3 of them
Bayley, Mullen, Battelle.
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
human genome project
an international effort to map the complete human genetic code
object permanence (p.72)
a child realization that an object exists even when he or she can not see or touch it
Effects of early physical maturation
Boys: enjoy more positive psychological adjustment, with better scholastic performance, better self image and greater popularity.
Girls: mixed effects, high academic achievement and independence, but lower self esteem, poorer body image and more conflicts with parents. (when they lower academic achievement, become more popular with more positive self image).
The fourth stage of Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development
formal operational stage
3 Types of Temperament
Easy, difficult, slow to warm up (shy)
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children
Sequential Research
- Several groups and ages over time to study - Combines both Longitudinal and Cross sectional
Formal Operations Stage
This is the 4th stage in Piaget's theory.  Goes from age 12 +.  Adolescents can deal with abstraction and child constantly asks "Why".  Not achieved by everyone.  Includes the personal fable and imaginary audience. 
arithmetic in elementary school
some grasp of it, 2+4=4+2
but not good at placing digits on a number line (5 year olds)
Quantitative change
Change in number or amount, such as in height, weight, or size of vocabulary
Habituation - definition
Means you're getting used to some form of stimulus in your environment to the point that you don't notice it anymore
What are the 3 Infant Intelligence Testing Pioneers (and Systems)?
1-Brazelton (infant intelligence) 2-Gessel (Regular vs. Abnormal)3-Fagan (Infant Information Processing)
Describe the 5 types of Bullying.
*race and religion*speech or looks*physical*rumors*sexual enuendos
Delinquency in adolescence is most associated with
weak parental superision & parental rejection
function of vestibular organ
sense of balance, provides info about movements & body positions
genetic epistemology
the idea that the best way to answer WHAT we know is to look at HOW we came to know it and what came before- where our ideas came from
How do young children advance in understanding regulating and their emotions?
Understanding of emotions directed toward the self and of simultaneous emotions develop gradually. According to Erikson, the developmental conflict of early childhood is initiative versus guilt. Successful resolution of this conflict results in the “virtue” of purpose.
Erikson's stage of development conflicts and outcomes
1)trust v. mistrust = trust; 2) autonomy v shame and doubt = independence; 3) initiative v. guilt = purpose; 4) industry v. inferiority = competency; 5) identity v. role confusion = sense of self; 6) intimacy v. isolation = love; 7) productivity v. stagnation = productivity/caring; 8) ego integrity v. despair = wisdom and integrity
Age related change in information processing abilities
Short term memory capacity increases with age
The mechanism behind the learning seems to be guided by what?
the perceptual info at each stage
Gender and Self-Regulation and Risky Behaviors
Females are better at self-regulating their behaviors and can resist temptation and follow orders. Females are more cautious in risky situations. Boys are not as good at self-regulating. They also are more likely to explore the risk.
major functions of spinal cord
acts as messenger to brain, filters sensory impulses
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME)
Instrument to measure the influence of the home environment on children’s cognitive growth
Why might they prefer some form of discovery learning to direct instruction?

Identify 3 reasons.
Discovery learning implies active participation, and thus more involvement.

1. Metastrategic understanding increases with discovery learning and may not be accessed when following an instruction.


2. If a strategy is learned in direct instruction, the individual may not be able to generalize the learned strategy when they resume control of their own behavior.


3. Inquiry as a complex, multifaceted activity; thus, to assure studies are involved in "authentic" science, it's whole integrity and all phases of inquiry must be respected.
Validity and Reliability Issues in Testing Kids
-only what kid does at that time.-younger kids are harder to test
"We saw 2 sheepes on the farm"
Morphemes - aware of gramatical ENDINGS
What is SPECIFICITY in diagnosis? What is the opposite of this?
The correct labeling of a disability. Opposite = false positive
why are japanese and taiwanese better at math
give teachers more time to prepare lessons and correct work
improve teacher training and allow them to work with more experienced teachers
organize instruction around sound principles of learning--multiple examples of concepts and giving adequate opportunities to learn skills
set high standards for children
Characteristics of Parents that use corporal punishment
Parents that are aggressive and in the midst of marital conflict are more likely to use corporal punishment
List 3 main reasons that can account for reading deficits shown in those who aren't as familiar with School English.
1.Interference Theory: a lack of fit exists between words sounds and written words in AAE and SE (e.g. using "dare" for "their")

2. Teacher bias towards and negative stereotypes associated with those who use AAE.


3. Children using AAE may have less Metalinguistic Awareness - i.e. awareness of general language rules
What is Stage 4 in Piaget's theory of infant intelligence?
The Coordination of Secondary Schemes (8 to 12 months)- will search for a lost object at the point where it disappeared- major development in object permanence
difficult'
unhappy
irregular schedules
intesnely to unfamiliar situations
trust vs. mistrust
baby
Post-conventional
Social Contract, Conscience
Watson
Classical conditioning (stimulus conditioned)


4 Methodological Concerns
 
2) Reliability
Accommodation
Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
Diana Baumrind's Parenting Styles
Authoritarian
Permissive
Authoritative
Heritability
Statistical estimate of contribution of heredity to individual differences in a specific trait within a given population
Negative Correllation
downward to the right
5 Principles of Human Development
lenneberg
critical periods
likes birds who learn songs
birth to adolescence
exposure to lang. tied to hemispheric laterality in adolescence (this is probably not true)
 
Cons of Observational research
- misinterpretation
Kernel
basic thought of the sentence
self-awareness
consciousness of oneself as a person
secondary sex charecteristic
nonreproductive sexual charecteristics such as female breasts hips male voice and body hair
doula
a caregiver who provides continuous support before during and after birth
Extraversion/Surgency
A Rothbart and Bates' classification of temperament uncluding "positive anticipation, impulsivity, activity level, and sensation seeking"
Myelination
Process of coating neural pathways with a fatty substance (myelin) that enables faster communication between cells
Recall
Ability to reproduce material from memory
Body image
Descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one’s appearance
macrosystem
involves the culture in which individuals live
Studied the genetic basis of maze-running ability in rats
Tryon
Polygenic and multifactorial nature of many human traits
Baddeley's WM
what's in consciousness
cnetral exec. coordinates verbal slave and visuo-spatial slave
limited capacity
spacial and verbal both increase at relative linear rate
less likely to devleop secure attachments when they slept with other chidlren, inconsistent attn when they became upset overnight
more likely to have secure when mom has 3 months of responsiveness training
infants can attach to caregivers who are emotio
Reference:
in language and speech, the associating of words and meaning
Phonemes:
the elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce languages
sex-linked
mutations that effect the X chromosome
Baumrind found that the least self-reliant, explorative, and self-controlled children were those with parents who were:
permissive
reinforcement
a technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired
Most common cause of MR?
Embryonic problems
Language becomes a tool for thought
Vygotsky
rejected children
Children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers.
menarche
the first menstrual period at about age 12.5, marks female fertility. Male fertility marked by ejaculation of semen with viable sperm at about age 14.
gender roles
sets of expectations that prescribe how males and females should act
Personal Development
growth of enduring personality traits that influence the way individuals interact with their physical and social environments
preoperational
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6/7) during which a child learns to communicate using symbols (language) but does not demonstrate mental operations of concrete logic.
Moro Reflex
a neonatal startle response that involves arching its back throwing its head back and flinging out its arms.
Blastocyst-
Hollow, fluid filled ball of cells (starts about 4rth day 70 cells)
Tertiary Circular Reaction
Toddlers repeat behaviors with variation
Controversial Children
Children who are frequently nominated both as someone's best friend and as being disliked
Polygenic inheritance
Pattern of inheritance in which multiple genes at different sites on chromosomes affect a complex trait
Social interaction model
Model based on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, which proposes that children construct autobiographical memories through conversation with adults about shared events.
Prosocial behavior
Any voluntary behavior intended to help others.
developmental psychology
documents the course of social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development over the life span
Genes
Sections of chromosomes that are the basic unit of heredity in all living things.
Konrad Lorenz
ethology; his work demonstrated the importance of biological determinants in influencing behavior patterns, ulimately led developmentalists to consider the ways in which human behavior might reflectinborn genetic patterns
What part of the brain mediates thinking?
Cortex.
first words
around first birthday
come out of babblings
contextual-->they're using the words
dada mama go
18 mos. - 15-20 words
2 years - few hundred
5 years - 10,000
Imprinting
Instinctive form of learning in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother.
Myelination:
the formation of Myelin (a fatty sheath) around the axons of neurons that speeds and increases information processing abilities
Authoritative parents
set, consistent standards for their children's behavior, but the standards are reasonable and explained
 
Produces the most desirable and beneficial home environment
 
more socially stable and perform better academically
Hypothesis
A statement or prediction about a behavior
that is derived from a theory that can be 
proven true or false
What disease is often confused with Hyperactivity in children?
Depression
allele
a slight, normal variation of a particular gene
social developement
ways in which individuals interact w/each other. How relationships grow,change,& remain the same
Bullying
16% of students report being bullied. Girl tend to use or receive verbal or psychological bullying. Most severe forms happen outside of school where there is less adult protection. Bullies are insecure and have low self esteem. Aggressive behavior before 8 is more likely to be involved in violent behavior.
Victims are at risk for violent behavior, depression and low self esteem. conditions of victims: behaviors that encourage bullying (crying, submissiveness) and peer rejection.
Syllogisms
arguements made up of 2 propositions called premises
Project Head Start
A government-funded program designed to provide low-income children with the opportunities needed for school success.
concrete operational stage
Piaget's 3rd stage of cognitive development (7-12 yr), child develops simple logic and masters conservation concepts
social referencing
observing the behavior of others in social situations of obtain information or guidance
Stranger Anxiety
-fear of strangers that infants often display
-beginning by about 6-8 months of age, peaking at ~13 months
Self-Concept
Our sense of self; our total pictures of our abilities and traits.
Fragile X Syndrome
A genetic disorder involving an abnormality in the x chromosome which becomes constricted and often breaks. Prominent ears, high arched palate, soft skin, retardation
coregulation
a speaker may adjust their words or tone of voice based on their perceptions of a listener's facial expressions or body language - and this may occur on an ongoing basis. studied by fogel
Cognitive Mechanics
The "hardware" of the mind, reflecting the neurophysiological architecture of the brain as developed through evolution; involve the speed and accuracy of the processes involving sensory input, attention, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization
Direct Instruction Approach to Learning
A teacher-centered approach characterized by teacher direction and control, high expectations for student's progress, and maximum time spent on academic tasks
Visible imitation
Imitation with parts of one’s body that one can see
Laboratory
A controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the "real world" are removed.
Gender-schema theory
Theory, proposed by Bem, that children socialize themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of information about what it means to be male or female in a particular culture.
independent variable
the experience that children in the experimental group receive and that children in the control group do not receive.
Gender Intensification
- Such uncertainty and insecurity also can further promote conformity into one's gender role, or "gender intensification." During early adolescence, boys may emulate "macho" role models and be quite homophobic; girls may adhere to strict dress codes (e.g., that which is "in") and play down their intellectual talents and abilities. The timing of puberty may also have significant implications for adolescent gender development.
BehaviorismOperant Conditioning
Training an organism to engage in complex behavior by "rewarding" them every step of the way. Creating complex behavior via schedules of rewards and punishments(ex: rats press a lever to get food)
does temperament remain stable
fearful preschooler swere unhibited adolescents
moderately stable throughout infancy
more likely, but it is not a sure thing
some infants are naturally disposed, and others can act in these ways,but only if it's nurtured by parents
Information-processing approach
Approach to the study of cognitive development by observing and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information.
Pragmatic Development:
The acquisition of knowledge about how language used
State:
Level of arousal and engagment in the enviorment, ranging from deep sleep to intense activity
Continuous Development:
Idea that changes with age occur gradually, in small increments, like that of a pine tree growing taller and taller
Genie the Child
caretakers did not facilitate language learning so she never spoke well
Direction of Development
From the simple to the complex
 
(No regression in Developmental Psychology)
What are the (5) Sociometric Stages of Peer Status?
(1)Popular(2)Average(3)Neglected(4)Rejected(5)Controversial
classical conditioning
the learning process that connects a meaningful stimulus with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning
Contingency trap
is a combination of two choice alternatives, each with some contingent consequence.One way of behaving (i.e., impulsively) produces a minor but immediate reinforcer whereas the other way of behaving (i.e., self-control) leads to a major but deferred reinforcer.
The goodness-of-fit model developed by Thomas and Chess proposes that healthy development requires a match in:
temperment and environment
Identity Achievement (Marcia)
Actively struggled with and explored several options then developed own set of goals and values. Resolved the crisis and made a commitment.
Thought is abstract and hypothetical (logical and abstract)
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (systematic and complete approaches to problem-solving)
social role theory
A theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women.
permissive parenting style
sets no firm guidelines for behavior and tends to give in to demands of the child
Postconventional Level
(Kohlberg Moral Ladder)
Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles (don't do it because it's not the right thing to do)
Babinski reflex
when stroked on the bottom of the foot, a baby will spread its toes
fine motor skills
motor skills that involve finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity.
Dual Representation
Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
Monozygotic twins
Twins resulting from the division of a single zygote after fertilization; also called identical twins.
Gross motor skills
Physical skills that involve the large muscles
eclectic theoretical orientation
An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories.
Glial cels
Cells in the brain that provide a variety of critical supportive functions.
Genital Stage
5th stage of Freud's theory.  Ages 12 +.  If this stage is reached successfully, without fixation at an earlier stage, the person mature sexuality is the outcome. 
brain development-->myelination of neurons
increased processing speed allows for higher cognitions
Identity Achievement Status:
A category of identity status in which, after a period of exploration, the individual has achieved a coherent and consolidated identity based on personal decisions regarding occupation, idealogy, and the like. The individual believes that these decisions were made autonomously and is committed to them
Piaget: challenges to the preoperational stage (2)
- centration- egocentric - conservation
Bronfenbrenner's Head Start Program
promotes readiness for school thru social, cognitive, and physical development for children and families.
Single-parent families tend to be characterized by:
male heads of households
X-linked
referring to a gene carried on the x chromosome; girls are more likely to be carriers
representational thought (p.72)
intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind
Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment
10% of babies, clingy and becomes upset when mother leaves the room. When she returns, they are happy and reestablish contact, but may show ambivalence by kicking, squirming, or crying. They do litte exploring and are ambivalent towards stranger and mother. Parenting style is inconsistent and insensitive.
a basic life function that helps the organism adapt to its environment
cognitive equilibrium
preconventional level, stage 2
do the right thing to further self-interests, gain reward
grasping reflex
a reflex that when the infants palm is touched they grasp tightly
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Widely used scales for assessing infant development. The current version has five scales: cognitive, language, motor, socio-emotional, and adaptive; the first three are administered to the infant, the latter two to the caregiver
microgenetic design
a method of study in which the same children are studied repeatedly over a short period of time.
Identity Moratorium (Marcia)
According to Marcia, this is the 3rd stage an adolescent goes through when choosing a career.  The youngster is exploring various options and may feel confused about what to do. 
sternberg's version of intelligence
cogn. ability to learn from exp, reason well, remember impot. information and cope with demands of daily life
Cross Sectional Design:
A research method in which children of different ages are compared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period of time
 
Erikson's Principles
 
2

The Resolution at any one stage may change at a later
time due to experiences
 
One may have passed stage one and trusting, but if raped in adolescence, one may go back to mistrust 
Four-year-old Vanessa believes that all birds fly, but her father has just read her a book about flamingos who are birds but cannot fly. This new information likely
brings about a state of disequilibrium.
Theories of successful aging
Activity: old age is fulfilling when you're active & involved
Disengagement: Natural & graceful withdrawal from life roles (largely discredited)
Reach menarche around age 12
characteristics of puberty and sexual maturation
Kohlberg Stage 3 Interpersonal Relations
Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships.
What Socialization Factors Predict Aggression?  For Example, is Physical Punishment Associated with Aggression? 
- Many children whose parents often use harsh but nonabusive physical punishment are rone to problem behaviors in the early years, aggression in childhood, and criminality in adolescence and adulthood.
- Varies cross-culturally
- Abusive punishment is likely to be associated with the development of antisocial tendencies regardless of the group
more complex sentences (2.5 years)
due to learning the rules
Wug and Wugs
it's a nonsense word, so you know you're not just imitating adults
-ed to denote the past tense on everything
Trust versus mistrust
The sense of trust or mistrust when ur a baby
will carry throughout the rest of our lives
 
Substance abuse is defined as:
prolonged use of drugs that endangers self or others
Erikson's stages & succesful result:
Trust vs. Mistrust = Hope
Autonomy vs. Doubt = Will
Intiative vs. Guilt = Purpose
Industry vs. Inferiority = Competence
Identity vs. Role Confusion = Fidelity
Intimacy vs. Isolation = Love
Generativity vs. Stagnation = Care
Ego Integration vs. Despair = Wisdom
Rousseau's view on child development
1. Parents and society should give children maximum freedom from beginning2. Children learn through their own spontaneous interaction with people and objects around them3. Children should not receive formal education until age 12, when they develop a sense of reason
On what basis do adolescents make moral judgments?
According to Kholberg, moral reasoning is based on a developing sense of justice and growing cognitive abilities. Kholberg proposed that moral development progresses from external control to internalized societal standards to personal, principled moral codes.Kholberg’s theory has been criticized on several grounds, including failure to credit the roles of emotion, socialization, and parental guidance. The applicability of Kohlberg’s system to women and girls and to people in nonwestern cultures has been questioned.
Give an example of each type of memory: cognitive, motor, affective.
Cognitive: names, phone numbers.Motor: typing, riding a bike.Affective: nostalgia.
Studies by McClelland and colleagues have indicated that:
how parents feel about their children has an important influence on what their children think and do as adults
Ex: We look at a particular type of thing. Maybe how often children hit each other in a preschool classroom. We would hit the number of times a boy hit another boy or a girl hit another girl.
Naturalistic observation, time sampling
Development of an Ethnic Identity
Children between 3 - 4 can begin to describe differences in ethnicity such as physical characteristics.  At age 5 - 9 they accurately apply ethnic labels to themselves and others. 
Cons of the Longitudinal Research Design
- expensive, takes a long time- cohort effect- practice effect (they get better at it as time goes on)- mortality/attrition
Did not seem to appreciate individual differences as much
Alternative accounts can be given for some aspects of cognitive development
counting doesn't mean they fully grasp numerosity
 
given the puppet 2 toys is easy
give him 4 is harder
4 year olds can't tell appearance from reality
picture of girl with rattle who is sad, but smiling not to hurt her uncle's feelings
7 year old gets it
temperament
phenotype
observable characteristics
Germinal period 
vs
Embryonic Period
vs 
Fetal period
(significant developments and age of viability)
Pre-conventional
Obedience & punishment
Gender-typing
Socialization process whereby children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles.
Parent-offspring (maternal blood pressure - mother's vs fetus' point of view; food aversions)
inhibited, or shy, child
prostconventional, stage 6
to promote justice
7. Habituation
decreasing responsivenesss with repeated stimulation as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to visual stimulus their interest wanes and they look away
Ultrasound
Prenatal medical procedure using high-frequency sound waves to detect the outline of a fetus and its movements, so as to determine whether a pregnancy is progressing normally.
variables
attributes that vary across individuals and situations, such as age, gender, and expectations.
What is a developmental theory?
(grand theories vs emergent theories, including how they emerged)
4. formal op
adolescent onward
abstract
hypothetical
deductive reasoning
Cross-sectional
research used participants of different ages to compare how certain varaibles may change over the life span.
produces quick results results but can also be vague  Ex) a developmental researcher might be interested in how our ability to recall nonsense words changes as we age
 
 
Natal Periods
Prenatal: (conception-1st few weeks)Perinatal: (7 months- 1st postnatal month)Postnatal: (1st month-1st year of birth)
sensorimotor
infants coordinate their sensory inputs and motor capabilities, forming behavioral schemes that permit them to "act on" and to get to "know" their environment
schema
framework of basic ideas and preconceptions about people, objects, and events based on past experience in long-term memory
authoritarian parents
impose rules and expect obedience
prepared childbirth
Lamaze. Controlled breathing and pushing during pregnancy to alleviate pain.
Wisdom
Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters
Language
Communication system based on words and grammar
Irreversibility
Piaget’s term for a preoperational child’s failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions
Self-definition
Cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself.
socioemotional processes
changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions , and personality
Outlined four stages of cognitive development
Piaget
Carol Gilligan
asserted that KOhlber's moral development theory was biased towards males because it was dominated by rules instead of compassion
alternatives to Piaget
Neo-piagetians
qualitiy stages in cog. development
not pbraod applicability
diff areas of cog develop at different rates
WM capacity of efficiency
more specific that Piaget
consistency of attachment
predicts future parent-child relationships
but consistency is far from perfect
stressful life events are associated with insecure attachment in adolescenece, even if you were secure before
Socialization:
the process through which children acquire the values , standards, skills, knowledge, and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate for their present and future role in their particular culture
What perspective did Piaget take?
Maturationist perspective
cooing
pleasant vowel-like noices made by infants beginning around 2 months of age.
DNA
the molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth-2 yrs (until language acquisition), primary learning through sensory observation and gaining control of motor functions through activity, exploration, and manipulation of the environment
Grammar
includes syntax & phonetics (how sounds put together)
puberty
the early adolescent period, makred by accelerated growth and the onset of the ability to reproduce
Contact Comfort
The pleasure derived from physical contact with another; a hypothesized need or drive for physical contact with another
Erikson's Theory
Includes 8 stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved
Experimental
Cause and effect, but may not translate to real world
Propositional Thought
Adolescents' ability to evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances
Habituation
Type of learning in which familiarity with a stimulus reduces, slows, or stops a response.
Animism
Tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive
Imaginary audience
Elkind’s term for observer who exists only in an adolescent’s mind and is as concerned with the adolescent’s thoughts and actions as the adolescent is.
conventional level
based on society's rules and conventions
Synaptogenesis
The process by which neurons form synapses with other neurons, resulting in trillions of connections.
cognitive development
development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person's behavior.
infants also learn words better when they're at the beginning and end of sentences, b/c of the pause
Sample
Group of participants chosen to be represent the entire population under study
Accommodation:
the process by which people adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experiences
Narratives:
Descriptions of past events that have the basic structure of a story
Preconventional
 
Their moral reasoning is limited to how the choice affects themselves
 
Ex) the man should not steal the drug because he might be put in prison
authoritative parenting
parent is demanding and responsive, children usually have the highest self esteem, self reliance, and self confidence
Popular prosocial children
combine academic and social prominence.
self-effiacy
in social learning theory, the belief of some people that are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context
Exo system
influences that in compass societal
ex)places of worship
piaget's contributions
Set the foundation for cognitive development
state
a particular condition of mind or feeling:
moro
startle reflex; when exposed to a loud noise or sudden drop, the neonate automatically arches his or her back, flings limbs out, and quickly retracts them
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
afterbirth
the third stage of birth when the placenta umbilical cord and other membranes are detached and expelled.
Turner Syndrome
A chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X is making or the 2nd X is partially deleted. webbed neck mental deficiency
disorganized attachment
Lack a coherent method for dealing with stressful situations
Joint Attention
Occurs when the caregiver and infant focus on the same object or event
Preconventional Reasoning
The lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The individual's moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishment.
Elicited imitation
Research method in which infants or toddlers are induced to imitate a specific series of actions they have seen but not necessarily done before
Twin study
A study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins.
Self-esteem
The judgment a person makes about his or her self-worth.
direction-of-causation problem
the concept that a correlation between two variables does not indicate which, if either, variable is the cause of the other.
The idea that there are windows for organizing systems that are most sensitive to environmental input including traumatic experience is an example of the concept of:
primacy
counting strategy progression
3+5
1. fingers
2. count fingers w/o counting slowly
3. short cut sum
 (1....8)
4. sum from first (3...8)
5. Min (5...8_
6. Retrieval
Dependent variable
In an experiment, the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the independent variable
Environment:
Every aspect of a individual and his or her surroundings other than genes
Three memory components
Sensory memory -> short term/working memory -> long term memory
Hostile Attribution Bias
An expectation that others are hostile.
Peer acceptance
Refers to likability. The extent to which a child is viewed by a group of agemates as a worthy social partner.
XX
23rd pair of chromosomes that become a female
Ethnic and Cultural Influences/Authoritarian Parenting
Euro-American Children-not high. High use of physical discipline, and high levels of problem behaviors.African American Children- positive developmental outcomes. High academic competence. Low levels of deviant behavior. Measured physical punishment. Chinese Children-Mothers more likely to believe that children owe unquestioning obedience to parents. Use scolding, shame and guilt to control children.
Sensitive period
In terms of cognitive and emotional development, "sensitive" period is preferred. During this period, stimulation and learning has more of an impact than it will at any other time (children learn languages best & easily betwen 1-3)
Reproduction becomes possible
Interest in dating and sex increase
Authoritarian (Baumrind Parenting Style)
parents impose rules and expect results ("Don't interrupt." "Why? Because I said so.")
integrity v. despair
8th stage in Erikson's model; when reflecting at the end of life, an older adult must feel a sense of satisfaction or experience despair (feelings of having wasted one's life)
What factors mediate the impact of divorce on children?
Children's individual characteristicsage of child at divorcecontact with noncustodial father
Gender Identity
Involves a sense of one's own gender, including knowledge, understanding, and acceptance of being male or female
Recessive inheritance
Pattern of in heritance in which a child receives identical recessive alleles, resulting in expression of a nondominant trait.
Apgar Scale
A widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth. The Apgar Scale evaluates infants' heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.
Micro-genetic Design
- Give kids a task to complete, (novel) - Follow the plan to solving the task - A puzzle and watching the problem solving - Peer help, etc
Occipital lobe
The lobe of the brain that is primarily involved in processing visual information.
Answorth's Patterns of Attachment
Different attachment patterns are the direct result of how responsive the caregiver is to the child's needs. 
stage 2 (2 mos.) cooing
elongated vowel sounds
parents talk back, and that's important, b/c it sets up the social function of language
Insecure/avoidant attachment:
A type of insecure attachment in which infants or youn children seem somewhat indifferent toward their caregiver and may even avoid the caregiver. In the Strange Situation, they seem indifferent toward their caregiver befeor the caregiver returns. If they get upset when left alone, they are easily comforted by a stranger by a stranger as by a parent
Overextension:
the use of given word in a broader context than is appropriate
Pragmatic cues:
Aspects of a social context used for word learning
Boys early puberty
- develop lean (mesomorphic) body type that is approved by society- positive body image- do better in school- get into less trouble- higher aggressiveness and hostility
Theory of Mind pros and cons
pros:-interact more favorably-persuade otherscons:-bullies-heightened sensitivity to criticism
Which gland in the body (also known as the “master gland”) secretes the hormones into thebloodstream that trigger the changes at puberty?
pituitary
race
a group of people who are regarded as genetically distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance
Self-efficacy
know what has to be done and you believe you can do it.
KOCHANSKA'S development of CONSCIENCE
Found development of conscience is related to early temperament as well as parenting styles. Found development of conscience in later children was positively + correlated with high inhibitory control and low impulsivity in early childhood. Parenting style that involves mutual positive affect between mother and child, lower power assertion by mother, and maternal empathy.
Why study child development?
1. Raising Children2. Choosing Social Policies3. Understanding human nature
development proceeds...
from head to tail, center of the body outward, enabling baby to lift its head, roll over, sit, creep, stand, and walk - in that order. Proliferation of dendrites at rapid rate is a major way the brain changes during childhood
slow-to-warm child
a child who has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood.
Low birth weight
Weight of less than 5.5 lbs (2500 grams) at birth because of prematurity or being small for date.
Failure-to-thrive (nonorganic) - (FTT)
A condition in which infants become malnourished and fail to grow or gain weight for no obvious medical reason.
What accounts for increased variability in children's cognitive skills during the second decade (vs. infancy and childhood)?
Blooming and pruning of neuronal pathways account for variability.

As we get older we display gene and environment interaction though our search of situations that are consistent with our internal structures. The ones we seek are strenthened (bloom), while ones we ignore become weaker (pruned).
Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, or WISC-IV
subtests for verbal and performance skills
like standford-binet, administered to one person at a time
Recessive Allel:
the allele that is not expressed if the dominant allele is present
Senses of Newborn Babies
Babies can hear before birt, hearing is most dominant sense due to poor vision at this time
 
Love the taste of sugar and respond to higher sugar levels
 
Like to look at faces and facelike objects
 
 
In the Organismic World View
Behavior is...
Behavior is Qualitative and Discontinuous
butterfly effect
the idea that a small effect or thing can have a large impact if it happens to tip the balance, causing other changes that create a major event
Genetic & Environmental influences
Genetic = heredity, the inborn genetic endowment that a person receives from their parents. Environmental is outside influences, beginning in the womb.
Suggested that environmental affects outcome more significantly in the early years than later (i.e. variability in IQ)
laboratory setting; a method that involves presenting an identical situation to each child and recording the child’s behavior
Structured observation, advantages and disadvantages
Basic vs. Complex Emotions.
Basic - First 6 months, basic emotions such as happiness, interest, distress. Complex - Next 6 months, joy, surprise , sadness, etc. These are reactions to events that have meaning for a child.
Kohlberg's Levels in Moral Development
-Preconventional: What is right is the obediance to authorities. Conscience due to fear of punishment, moral action due to this fear. Does not consider interests of others.
-Conventional: Good behavior is doing what is expected by people who are close to the person or what people generally expect of someone in a given role.
- Postconventional: Right behaviors involves upholding rules that are in the best interest of the group, are impartial, or were agreed upon by the group.
apa task force defn' of intelligence
ability to understand complex, adapt, learn from exp., engage in various reasonings, to overcome activties taking thought
Gender and Development
How we develop our ideas about what it means to be male and female and in developmental differences between genders
 
different culrtures encourage different geder roles, which are behaviors that a culture associates with a gender
intentional (goal directed) behavior
a sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberately coordinated to solve a problem
Factors predicitve of poorer adjustment in children whose parents have divorced:
Rapid remarriage of one, exposure to parental conflict, continuance of unhappy marriage, failure to allow child relatiohsip with non-custodial parent
What is the difference between Vygotsky's and Piaget's language use theories?
For Piaget, language goes from egocentric to social. For Vygotsky, language goes from social to private. Both are probably right in different ways.
Gender Identity, Stability, and Constancy – What Are They, and When Do They Emerge?
 
nGender identity: 2 ½ - 3 yrs
- Difference between girls and boys
nGender stability: 3-4 yrs
- Understand gender is unchanging
nGender constancy: 5-7 yrs
- No longer fooled by appearances
problems with behavioristic approach to language development
ease and rapidity (4 years to master complex language)
staging is unviersal, cooing to babbling, across culutrues
diff. environments, right?
children produce novel sentences and novel words
not direct imitation of adult speech
What function is performed by peer groups?
Peer groups give children experience with relationships in which they are on an equal footing with others.
What is the Apgar scale?
A measure of newborn fitness. 2 points each: Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration
Survival of the Fittest(outcome of 3 principles of natural selection)
Nature selects the genotpyes that show (via their phenotypes) the greatest evidence of successfully fitting their particular survival and/or reproductive niche.
Stanford Binet IQ
Mental Age / Chronological Age X 100
What is the developmental view of infant development?
The speed of development does not matter as long as each stage is passed through in the right order.
What was the study done by Karen Adolph?
things learned while crawling are not generalized to walking
Typically enter the growth spurt by age 10.5, reach a peak growth rate by age 12, and return to a slower rate of growth by age 13 to 13.5
Most girls gain only about 2.5 cm in height after menarche
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