Developmental Psychology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Placenta
Interaction effect
laboratory
A controlled setting.
Bornsteen
created sensitive period
Cephalocaudal trend
Head to tail
Low birthweight
vs
 Very low birthweight
vs
Extermely Low birthweight
4 Concepts of Age
1.Chronological2.Biological3.Psychological4.Social
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
Self-awareness
-consciousness of one's own existence
-"babies in the mirrors" experiment (babies shown reflection of themselves, observed if babies tried to remove smudge from their own face or the mirror/other baby)
Conduct Disorder
Age-inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, society's norms, and the personal or property rights of others
hypotheses
Assertions or predictions, often derived from theories, that can be tested.
Differences between psychoanalysts and behaviorists
attachment
according to Bowlby, enduring socialemotional relationships make you more likely to survive
Prosody:
the characteristic rhythm, tempo, cadence, melody, intonation patterns and so forth with which language is spoken
Popular children
get many positive votes.
Nativist
perception in an inate mechanisim
Lev Vygotsky
sociocultural theory of cognitive development- emphasized role of the environment (nurture) and gradual growth (continuity) in intellectual functioning
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing (164)
locomotion
Movement from one place to another
lateralization
specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex of the other.
John Bowlby
suggested that infants are biologically predisposed to form attachments
canalization
limitation on variance of expression of certain inherited characteristics
Encoding
Process by which information is prepared for long-term storage and later retrieval
Representational mappings
In neo-Piagetian terminology, second stage in development of self-definition in which a child makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms.
context
the setting in which development occurs that is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors
Is Peer Status Cross-Cultural?
Most hold true
Importance of social support, parental alliance, and parent-infant bonding
understanding emotions
kindergarten know that unpleasent events make people angry or sad
remembering sad event can make you sad again
worry that it will recur
 
Dynamic Systems Theories:
An information-processing approach that emphasizes how varied aspects of the child function as a single, integrated whole
Heritable:
Refers to anything influenced by heredity
Bronfenbrenner's Theory
development is inseparable from environment.multiple levels of environment.all aspects of environment are connected
The system of negative conceptions, feelings, and action orientations regarding the members of a particular religion, race, or nationality is referred to as:
prejudice
conditioning
the processed by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place; repetition
Delinquent adolescents are most likely to have parents who are:
Uninvolved
Adaptation
Modifying scheme to fit new experience. Consists of assimilation + accomodation
Individuals who interact with the child on a regular basis
Meso-system
Teratogens
Agents, such as chemical and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
cohort sequential study
combines cross sectional and longitudinal to correct for cohort effects
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by preganat woman drinking
Developmental Psychology
branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span
Moro reflex
infant startle response; when alarmed, the baby will fling his limbs outward, then retract them and hold them close to his body
Niche Picking
individuals seek out environment most compatible with their genetic predispositions
peer relationships
young children naturally seek out relationships with peers that are their same sex
Care Perspective
The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan; views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others.
Scaffolding
Temporary support to help a child master a task
Withdrawal of love
Disciplinary strategy that involves ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for a child.
zygote
new cell formed from sperm and ovum
Multifactorial
Refers to the involvement of many factors in any outcome.
dependent variable
the variable that researchers measure in an experiment and expect to change as a result of the experimental manipulation
Main goal of teratology and several factors that determine whether a specific teratogen will be harmful
motherese
infant directed speech
sexagerrated, sing-sony, slower, high pitched make sounds high pitch
draw infants' attention
Culture
A society’s or group’s total way of life, including customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, and physical products—all learned behavior passed on from parents to children.
Gender Indenty
The private face of gender, identifying oneself as feminine or masculine in characteristics.
Mutation:
A change in a section of DNA
Intermodal Perception:
the combination of information from two or more sensory systems
blank-slates
Some people think that humans are helpless and without any skills or reflexes
Developmental Psychology
Research Designs
Experimental- Concludes cause & effect
 
Cross-Sectional- Concludes group differences on
a group behavior
 
Longitudinal- Concludes Behavioral change
What are 6 Functions of Friendships?
1-Companionship2-Stimulation3-Physical Support4-Ego Support5-Social Comparison6-Affection & Intimacy
behaviorism
a grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior; also called learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned
maturation (p.64)
internally programmed growth of a child
Heteronomous Morality
(Piaget) Morality of Constraint: the first stage (ages 5-10), egocentric children think rigidly about moraltiy, children cannot imagin emore than one of looking at moral issue. Rules are decided upon by authority figures, cannot be changed, must be followed without questions and any offense deserves punishment (unless they are the offenders)
Empiricist
perceptions are learned based on past experiences
controversial children
Children who are frequently nominated both as someone’s best friend and as being disliked.
gender schema
the mental set of what society considers appropriate behavior for each of the sexes
sociocultural theory
Lev Vygotsky, empahasized the role of enviroment and gradual growth in intelletual functioning
Identity vs Role Confusion (Erikson)
-Adolescence
-Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity or they become confused about who they are
Social Referencing
using another person's reaction to a situation to form one's own assessment of it; the use of others' emotional expressions to gain information or infer the meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations
3 Reasons Babies have emotions.
1. To communicate needs/desires/intentions. 2. to mobilize action in an emergency. 3. To promote exploaration of the environment.
blastocyst
The inner mass of cells that develops during the germinal period. These cells later develop into the embryo.
Atypical dev. Fodor 1983
 
 
 
Strict modularity, innate, no overlapping
Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning
Start with a prediction about outcomes then they deduce logical, testable inferences
Moral Identity
The aspect of personality that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives
Invisible imitation
Imitation with parts of one’s body that one cannot see
Avoidant attachment
Pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact upon his or her return
Overt aggression
Aggression that is openly directed at its target.
experimental designs
a group of approaches that allow inferences about causes and effects to be drawn.
Conscience Development
Conscience of a young child reflects primarily internalized parental standards.
 
-Toddlers prone to fear tend to exhibit more guilt . Development of conscience is promoted by mother's use of gentle discipline including reasoning, constructive suggestions and providing nonmaterial incentives for compliance.
-In fearless children, a positive parent-child relationship in which there is cooperation and secure attachment is necessary.
Both plato and aristotle believed that the long term welfare of society depned on children being ____ _____
raised properly
convergent thinking
using info provided to determine a standard correct answer
1. count on finges from both hands
2. count both hands simultaenously
3. arithmetic instruction in first grade - counting mentally
4th and 5th grade-memorized single-digit integer addition tables--for easier problems
Historical generation
A group of people strongly influenced by a major historical event during their formative period
Adult Attachment Models:
Working models of attachment in adulthood that are believed to be based upon adults perceptions of their own childhood experiences-especially their relationships with their parents-and of the influence of these experiences on them as adults.
Preoperational Stage
Approx 2-7 yrs old
 
We start to use symbols to represent real world objects,
 
Ex) beginning og language, the most important cognitive development of this stage
What factors aid in word learning?
Biases
Fast Mapping
Mutual Exclusivity
Social Pragmatics
Linguistic Context
What does IDEA stand for?
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
case study
a research method in which one individual is studied intensively
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
A clinical disorder characterized by angry, defiant behavior that is age inappropriate and persistent
Age of fastest rate of vocabulary increase
30-36 months
Constructivism
Develop of new knowledge based on the foundation of previous learning and interacting with object and events in the environment. In schooling, emphasis placed on student, rather than the teacher (facilitator to assist students to construct their own concepulatizations and solutions to problems).
the process by which children try to interpret new experiences in terms of their existing models of the world, the schemes they already possess
piaget
myelination
Process by which the nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed at which information travels through the nervous system.
Longitudinal Study
Research in which the same people are restadied and retested over a long period
Trust vs Mistrust (Erikson)
-Infancy
-If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
intimacy v. isolation
6th stage in Erikson's model; young adults must form close, satisfying relationships or suffer loneliness
amnion
the life support system that is a thin bag or envelope that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats.
autonomy vs self-doubt
when child is developing walking and language, there is an expansion of a child's exploration and manipulation of objects. With these new abilities comes a sense of independence (autonomy) Too much criticism at this stage leads to self-doubt
Universal Ethical Principles
The sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights.
Autonomy versus shame and doubt
Erikson’s second stage in psychosocial development, in which children achieve a balance between self-determination and control by others
continuity-discontinuity issue
The debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
Mutation
A change in a section of DNA. Mutations can contribute to genetic diversity among people, but most have a deleterious effect on the individual.
Heteronemous Mortality
According to Piaget, kids between 4 - 7 maintain heteronemous morality which is where rules are viewes as absolute and unchangeable. 
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response.
classification abilities
dogs and cats
are there more dogs or animals
b/c that's easier to focus on than all the animals
Discrete emotions theory:
a theory about emotions discussed by Tomkins, Izard, and others in which emotions are viewed as innate and discrete from one another from very early in life and each emotion is believe to be packaged with a specific and distinctive set of bodily and facial reactions
Scale Error:
The attempt by a young child to perform an action on a miniature object that is impossible due to the large discrepancy in the relative sizes of the child and the object
Goal of dynamic testing
knowing the child's potential to acquire better skills
Learning Theory Pros and Cons
Pros: -lots of research-practical applicationsCons:-ignores individual differences
identity vs role confusion
teen-20's:teens work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
monozygotic (MZ) twins
twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development (identical twins)
critical period (p.75)
a specific time in development when certain skils or abilities are most easily learned
Secure Attachment
65% of babies are warm and responsive. When exposed to a stranger, the baby seeks closeness and comfort, shows moderate distress upon separation and greets mother with enthusiasm on return. Associated wtih sensitive and responsive caring parenting style.
stimulus discrimination
failure to respond to a ne stimulus when generated in place of old one
preconventional level, stage 1
do the right thing to avoid punishment
Seperation Anxiety
may appear from about 6 months apears to be related to temperament and may be related to cognitive development.
Securely Attached Babies
Babies who use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment
behavioral and social cognitive theories
theories that hold that development can be described in terms of the behaviors learned through interactions with the environment
Post-Conventional Stage (Kohlberg)
The 3rd stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development.  Age 13 +.  Formal operational thinking needed.  People conform and behave morally because of our conscience rather than social/ physical rewards.  Less than 10 % achieve this.
culture fair intelligence tests
include test items based on common experiences from many ultures
patterns
although, ethnic differences remain
familiarity with test-items is not the key factor responsible for differences
Functionalist Approach :
A theory of emotion proposed by Campos and others that argues that the basic function of emotions is to promote action toward achieving a goal. In this view, emotions are not discrete from one another and vary somewhat based on the social environment
Key Ideas to Piaget
- kids are active motivated learners- interaction with the environment is critical to cognitive development- Kids organize what they learn
Preferences for certain faces
12 hours after birth prefer Mom’s face
Name 3 situations in which a nonverbal IQ test is given.
(1)foreign(2)deaf(3)unable to speak
Assessing perceptual abilities in infants: what and when can various dependent measurements be used?
Sucking: 1-4 months
Reaching: 12 weeks +
Heartrate: any age
Head Turning: 5.5 months +
Function of autonomic system
directs activity of smooth muscles & glands
How did Carol Gilligan criticize Kohlberg?
-She argued that Kohlberg's results are not generalizable to all of society due to the fact that he only researched men
-She thought men and women perceive morality in different ways (Men - justice oriented/absolute, Women - relationship-based, caring, relative to the situation)
What are the 3 domains of development?
1. Physical 2. Cognitive3. Social/Emotional
phonics instruction is most essential
need to be taught it explicitlymap letters to sounds
Cons of Case Studies
- biased, you only look for things that support your theories- one person does not represent a whole population
Erikson's Principles
 
1
 
Each of us in society are accountable and responsible
to each other's social behavior
 
We have a big brother role, but need to be 
aware of social interaction with others.
It could have a lasting impact
 
We have to be careful because we don't know
how someone else's day is going 
Stage 4 of Moral Reasoning
Social System and Conscience Right is fulfilling one's duties, upholding laws, and contributing to society or one's group. Wrong is causing the system to break down.
Provided good foundation for notion of development of intelligence
Practical implications that educators can use
Conventional morality (or morality of conventional role conformity)
Second level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning in which standards of authority figures are internalized.
The "weaker" sex - x-linked genes and examples of male vulnerablity
x chromosomes potentially contain deleterious recessive genes - for males, some only have one "x" and if they have a 'bad' x-linked gene they are stuck with it while a female's can be offset with a good x-linked gene.examples of male vulnerability: hemophelia (no clotting)red-green color blindnessfragile x syndrome: mutation on the FMR1 gene.Y-sperm are faster but potentially more fragile, so more embryos start off male, but more also don't survive before they are noticed.male embryos are at greater risk of birth complication and show higher levels of:language/reading delayautism/asperger syndromeseizures/ticsweaker immune systemgreater risk of cancer/heart disease
Reaching stages:postural control, good reachingadjusting hand, reach in the dark, know limits
3. 7mos: postural control, good reachingadjusting hand, reach in the dark, know limits
Testes & scrotum grow and drop
Sperm production beings age 13 – 14.5
What is SENSITIVITY in diagnosis? What is the opposite of this?
The correct detection of a disability. Opposite = misses
Do babies prefer some faces to others?
Yes - babies prefer attractive faces to unattractive faces
In terms of divorce, the "sleeper effect" refers to:
the appearance of symptoms in females who seemed to be doing well at the time of the divorce 10 years earlier
Why might they claim that Piaget was both right and wrong about the nature of cognitive change in the second decade?
The idea of an "immaculate transition" to a singular cognitive structure is not supported due to evidence supporting a range of reasonsing skills that vary among kids - reading skill less consistent. Also debunked by microgenetic research.

However, they support Piaget in that a change DOES exist, especially in the development of metacognition amd executive control.
What was found by study on 14 genetic males with missing/micro-genitals raised as females?
Female behavior does not evolve from female gender assignment
Piaget
schemes
sensitive caregiving
4 Methodological Concerns
 
sociocultural
vygotsky's major ideas
initiative vs guilt
3-5 y.o.
mechanical requirements of writing
mechanics
grammar
capitlizatino
much slower than oral, when we don't have to pay attention to it
children spend so much time mastering print that they forget about other aspects of writing
spelling and good sentence structure are hard for younger writers
frustrated
oral agressive personality, argumentative senicle
animism
belief, often demonstrated by preoperational children, that inanimate objects have thoughts and feelings
Thanatology
Study of death and dying
Continuity/discontinuity
In individual differences: stability of individual differences over time. I.e., intelligence, personality and social. Degree of continuity is generally lower in social, emotional and personality than intellectual
Question of stages: Theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Freud's theory of psychosexual development, Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Share: developmental progresses through a series of qualitatively distinct stages, when children are in a given stage, a fairly broad range of their behavior exhibits the features characteristic of that stage, the stages occur in the same order for all children, transitions between stages occurs quickly.
Core Knowledge Theorists
'active child
emphasizes sophistication of thinking that have important evolutionary history
different from Piaget
innate knowledge systems that are specialized and help deal with world
 
SS 5 (12-18 mos.)
experimentation
purposeful still
right at locomotion and walking and motor skills
affords cog. opportunities
Low Birth Weight
Less than 5.5lbs
Heredity
(nature)
genetic material recieved by biological parents
Factors that influence thee micro-system in less direct manners
Macro-system
Mary Ainsworth
her "strange situation" research categorized type of attachment based off how the baby reacted to and after the temporary absence of mother
Embryo
developing human organism from 2-8 weeks
emerging adulthood
developmental stage proposed by Jeffrey Arnett; period between adolescence and assumption of typical adult roles (18-29, perhaps?)
Organization
internal process of rearranging and linking schemes
Mental Representations
Internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
Hospice care
Warm, personal patient- and family-centered care for a person with a terminal illness
Power assertion
Disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control.
selection
the more frequent survival and reproduction of organisms that are well adapted to their environment.
Bioecological approach
the perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals
Piaget's adaptation
happens through assimilation, fitting new information into existing ideas, and accommodation, modification of cognitvie schemata to incorporate new information
reaidng comprehension depends on WM, general knowledge, and strategies for reading
Extended family
Multi-generational kinship network of parents, children, and other relatives sometimes living together in an extended-family household.
Symbols:
systems for representing our thoughts feelings and knowledge and for communicating them to other people
Most developed sense in the womb
Hearing
Essentialism
Essentialism: living things have essence inside them that makes them what they are
object permanence
the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems
Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem
LORENZ Attachment Theory
Nonhuman prinates demonstrate attachment behavior patterns that are instinctual. IMPRINTING, certain stimuli are capable of elciting innate bahvior patterns during a CRITICAL period. Ducklings imprinted on him betwen 12-17 hours after birth and continued to follow him even with other ducks available as models.
Types of verbal learning
serial, free-recall,paied-associate, serial-antcipation
operations
In Piaget's theory, internalized sets of actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically.
assimilation
process by which we incorporate new information into our existing cognitive structures or schemas
cohort effect
observed group differences based on the era when people were born and grew up, exposing them to particualr experiences that may affect results of cross sectional studies
sensorimotor stage
Piaget's theory: stage from birth-2 y.o. during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
gender typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
continuity discontinuity issue
the issue regarding whether development involves gradual cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)
ethology
the view that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
Ethnographic studies
participant observation of a culture or distinct social group; by making extensive field notes, May be biased
Accommodation
Creating new schemas or adjusting old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment fully
Chromosomes
Coils of DNA that consist of genes
Operant conditioning
Learning based on reinforcement or punishment
Meiosis
A specialized form of cell division that produces cells withonly one copy of each chromosome. Meiosis forms eggs and sperm (or gametes).
Identification
In Freudian theory, the process by which a young child adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of the parent of the same sex.
cognitive processes
changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, nd language
Peer Status
Assessed by sociometric: procedure for assessing the degree to which children are liked or accepted by their peers.
Oral Stage
1st stage of Freud's psychosexual theory.  Ages 0 - 12 months.  Fixation results in dependence, passivity, and oral habits (smoking, eating, etc)
Erik Erikson
life span development; viewed each stage of life as having its own unique psychosocial conflict to resolve
phonological memory
more important than heredity in accounting for vocab size
find it hard to remember unfamiliar words
Correlational study
Research design intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between variables exists.
Egocentrism:
the tendency to perceive the world solely the oneÕs own point of view
Prereaching Movements:
Clumsy swiping movements by young infants toward the general vicinity of objects they see
Fetus:
The name given to the developing organism from the 9th week to birth
Carolina Avecedarian Project
comprehensive enrichment program for low income families. caused LONG TERM benefits.
Obese adults are at greater risk of:
diabetes
At birth, the __________ is/are nearer than any other physical structure to its adult size.
brain
sexual orientation
a person's impulses and internal direction regarding sexual interest
Avoidant attachment:
Anxious in presence of mom, uninterested in the environment, show little distress when she leaves, may avoid her when she returns.
EQUILIBRATION
Describes the need for and striving towards equilibration or balance between the person and the outside environment, as well as among the person's schemata. This need determines the extent to which they use assimilation or accomodation to organize experiences.
For example, if a child doesn't understand a new situation using their current schemata, they accomdation, develop new patterns and restore equilibrium.
Discontinuous development
changes with age include occasional large shifts
symbol
a signifier in which the relationship to the referent is not arbitrary
Alzheimer's disease
a fatal degenerative disease in which brain neurons progressively die, causing loss of memory, reasoning, emotion, control of bodily functions, then death
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development(156)
Preoperational (Piaget's SoCD)
-Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning
-Pretend play
-egocentrism
-language development
cross sectional approach
a research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at onetime
shape constancy
the recognition that an objects shape stays the same despite its orientation
Gender Roles
A set of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, or feel
Top-Dog Phenomenon
THe circumstance of moving from the top position in elementary school to the youngest, smallest, and least powerful position in middle or junior high school
Psychometric approach
Approach to the study of cognitive development that seeks to measure the quantity of intelligence a person possesses
Mental Testing Movement – Binet
o Stanford University Intelligence Testo Used for a scale to rate intelligence
third-variable problem
the concept that a correlation between two variables may stem from both being influenced by some third variable.
nature vs. nurture
nature: emphasis is on discovering inherited genetic traits and abilitiesnurture: emphasis is on environmental influences that affect a person's development
androgen
hormone that if present in fetal stage will make fetus male
temperements and cultures
biologically rooted and should be evident regardless of specific environment and cultures the child develops in
Ethnographic study
In-depth study of a culture, which uses a combination of methods including participant observation
Third Variable Problem:
The concept that correlation between two variables may stem from both being influenced by someone third variable
Moral Judgements:
Decisions that pertain to issues of right and wrong, fairness and justice
Blink reflex
eyes close in response to bright lights or loud noises-> protects the eyes
Bilingualism
easier to learn early. clear evidence shows this. ERP stuides. raises IQ.
competence vs inferiority
6-puberty: children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
Popular antisocial behavior
Aggressive children who are popular but are poor students.
23rd pair
the chromosome pair that, in humans, determine the zygote's sex
Reciprocal Socialization
the mutual influence that parents and children exert on each other
Disorganized-disoriented Attachment
Exhibit no clear strategy in dealing with the mother. They may be unresponsive, or avoid and resist the mother upon return. Most striking is their fear and confusion towards mother. The least secure pattern of attachment and commonly associated with abuse of the infant or unresolved abuse issues in the caregiver.
Internal validity
the degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the variables that the researcher intentionally manipulated.
intimacy in friendships
Self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts.
Habituation
A process in which one becomes used to and therefore pays less attention to a repeated stimulus
marasmus
a wasting away of body tissues in the infants first year, caused by severe protein-calorie deficiency.
Ethology and Evolutionary developmental psychology
an approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
Difficult Child
A temperament style in which the child tends to react negatively and cry frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and is slow to accept change
Postmature
Referring to a fetus not yet born as of 2 weeks after the due date or 42 weeks after the mother’s last menstrual period.
Behavior genetics
The field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development.
nonnormative life events
unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person's life. the occurrence pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals
Cognitive Factors Predicting Prosocial Behavior
Role-taking:
- Increased ability to recognize when others need help, increased concern about others needs
 
Prosocial reasoning:
- Shift from hedonistic reasoning to importance of empathy and internalized values
 
Prosocial self-concept:
- As children get older, they describe themselves in more stable, trait-like ways
Natural Selection - 3 principles
Principle of Variance: Individuals show differences in their phenotype (morphology, behavior, physiology)Principle of Inheritance: Part of this variance is inheritable.Principle of Adaptation: Some genotypes(via phenotypes) are better able to solve the adaptive problems associated with survival and reproduction.
counting principles
1. numerating, one to one mapping on objects
2. stable order (one two three four, skipping numbers is done consistently)
3. order irrelevance
left to right, even if you mix up order of pics
4. item indifference
4 penguins and a candle is 5 items
5. cardinality rpinciple
last number represents the total.
Dominant Allele
: the allele trait that, if present gets expressed
Longitudinal Research Design
- Follow the same subjects over time
Cerebral organization differs depending on what?
when the 2nd language is learned
Name 2 effects the NEGLECTFUL parenting style has on children.
(1)poor self control(2)low self-esteem(3)socially incompetant
dynamic-systems theory
a view of human development as always changing; life is the product of ongoing interaction between the physical and emotional being; flux is constant and each change affects all others
Resistant attachment:
Anxious in presence of mom, very upset when she leaves, ambivalent when she returns, and may resist her attempts at physical contact.
2 Views on agression
Social leaning (modeling) & social cognition (perception of threat)
developmentally appropriate practice
Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children ( age-appropriateness) and the uniqueness of each child( individual-appropriateness)
Centenarians have these things in common -
-physical activity
-goal centered (set and follow goals)
-positive outlook on life (continue to look to future)
-stay involved in world around them
Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
An orientation hat does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it.
Ecological theory of perception
Theory developed by Eleanor and James Gibson, which describes developing motor and perceptual abilities as interdependent parts of a functional system that guides behavior in varying contexts.
Individual Differences in Prosocial Moral Behavior
Child Factors:
- Gender (females are greater. males value justice and rights, females value care)
-Emotional Factors (empathy, sympathetic arousal leads to prosocial behavior. self-oriented distressinhibits altruism)
- Cognitive Factors (role-taking, prosocial and moral reasoning, prosocial and moral self-concept, not true in little kids)
External Factors:
- Parental Socialization (secure attachment, authoritative parent, discipline with induction)
- Peer Socialization (socialization of prosocial behaviors, collaborators, rather than superior authorities who can constrain and challenge the child's judgement)
- Cultural/ Societal Values (non-industrialized countries much higher in altruism)
conventional/morality of conformity
level 3: gain approval; 4: follow law and authority
teaching the building blocks of writing
planning, drafting and revising
the POW TREE
Neural Tube:
A groove formed in the top layer of differentiated cells in the embryo that eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord
Language development onset variance
quite large. doesnt affect later language.
“I am a boy; therefore, I want to do boy things; therefore, the opportunity to do boy things isrewarded.” This best describes the position of which theory?
cognitive-developmental
science of human development
the science that seeks to understand how and why people change or remain the same over time
Development of Hearing
Well developed at birth and thought to be acute before birth. Newborns have ability to distinguish sounds, i.e. new/familiar speech. Prefers female voices, able to recognize speech as separate class of sounds.
Strengths and weaknesses of interviews
Advantages(1) Efficient – Yield a great deal of data quite quickly.Inexpensive(2) Provide in–depth information about individual children.(3) You can do it remotely.
Important lesson WWII bombings in London?
Children were less affected by bombings and more affected by separation from parents following evacuation of London
What is the media’s role in our beliefs about appearance/attractiveness?
 
nMedia’s role
¨Standards of beauty
¨Pervasiveness of images
¨Impossibility of the ideal
nTrends

¨Diet commercials
¨Increase in thin models
¨Playboy centerfolds and Miss America contestants
how to increase vocabulary if you're a parent
describe pictures carefully
view television, like Sesame Street, not cartoons
helpful interactions
reading rich things
children are more likely to understand new words when in activies that force them to understand the meaning of new words and use them
Why to refer kids to the neuropsych clinic?
development disorders, general learning disabilities, autism, adhd
List and describe the (3) Levels of Moral Development.
(1)Pre-Conventional- before age 9;controlled by external rewards & punishments.(2)Conventional- Ages:6-18; certain standards are applied; knowledge of the law is in place.(3)Post Conventional- Ages: Early 20's; Knowledge of law, but moral standards are applied to justify crime.
Malnutrition during the final months of pregnancy results in impaired cognitive outcomes because:
Brain develops then & malnutrition interferes with the development of new neurons and dendrites which connect them
zone of proximal development
the range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficultury and the level at which a child can solve a probelm with the assistance of adults or more children
How Do Gender Role Stereotypes Change Across Development?
 
nKnowledge of stereotypes (2.5 to 3 years)
nRigidity in thinking (3-7 years)
nDecrease in rigid thinking (8 – 9 years)
nBecomes more rigid again in adolescence (gender intensification)
not all toddlers are perfect speakers
have to match their messages to listener and context - do this by preschool years
to an adult, talk more and use longer sentences
simpler grammar when talking to 2 year old and more attn-getting words
What is the best treatment for ADHD patients?
Medication combined with Behavioral Modification.
What is Phase 1 of Bowlby's attachment theory?
Pre-attachment, 0-8 weeks. No discrimination among people until comfort at sound of female voice.
Describe the 5 aspets of early childhood.
1. 2-6 years2. Hallmark is fantastical thinking and the inability to understand cause and effect. 3. Motor skills, language, and cognition advance through play. 4. Beginnings of moral thought.5. Relational focus extends beyond family to peers.
The Goal of Psychology
To one day have a set of laws that will explain
all behavior in all individuals
all of the time
 
 
(explain, describe, predict)
When is the fetal period, and what happens?
8-40 weeks; organs increase in complexity, senses develop (movement, hearing, seeing light), fetus begins moving, capable of learning
How is the contingency trap used to maintain corporal punishment?
Parents use CP because they are immediately reinforced for doing so (i.e., negative reinforcement). If parents are actually using CP for socialization purposes, those parents will stop using CP when they are presented with data to indicate that CP does NOT result in the long-term best interest of the child. That would leave the use of impulsive aggression, which should never be tolerated as a parenting strategy.
What are the 4 main priorities for new research in cognitive development in the 2nd decade of life?
1. Need to conduct studies in less artificial environments and study adolescent cognition in the contexts that teens devote their time/interests to.

2. Measure adolescent's ability to decontextualize


3. Continued study on disposition, especially in order to determine developmental pathways that may be predicted by specific dispositions.


4. Study the extremes of adolescence so we can understand adults!
/ 275
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online