Developmental Psychology Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fertilized egg
separation anxiety
7-8 year olds
difficult babies
irritable, intense, unpredictable
involves relations between contexts
producing dog
first dod
then gog
then dog
Enduring characteristics that differentiate 1 person from another.
the first menstrual period (167)
Piaget's Stages
1. Sensorimotor Stage2. Pre-Operational Stage3. Concrete Operational Stage4. Formal Operational Stage
Socialization process by which children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles
Many liked and disliked nominations
reading wars
phonics vs. whole language
Nuclear family
Two-generational kinship, economic, and household unit consisting of one or two parents and their biological children, adopted children, or stepchildren.
Infants like attractive facesprefer faces judged by adults as highly attractive
cultural influences of patterns...find values,laws,political system,economic
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
harmful substances during the prental period that cause birth defects
Who criticized Kohlberg's Moral Ladder?
Carol Gilligan
Mary Ainsworth
researcher who described attachment styles in infants as measured by the "strange situation" test
an orderly intergrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior; provide organizing frameworks for our observations
Cognitive Maps
Mental representations of familiar, large-scale spaces
Episodic memory
Long-term memory of specific experiences or events, linked to time and place.
socioemotional processes
Changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions, and personality.
Malnutrition brought out by ingestion of too few calories.
case studies
involve extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals.
intermodal perception
perception that combines information from more than one modality, or sensory system, resulting in an integrated whole.
phonics is easier
Dr. Seuss constant reptition
Bronfenbrenner’s term for effects of time on other developmental systems
The scientific study of prenatal development
Maturationist Perspective
Nature - built in plan
Social Pragmatics
Paying attention to social cues
Peer groups
collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers.
Moral Development
involves changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong
Sickle-cell anemia
Autosomal recessive disorder found primarily in African-Americans (1:500 with disease, 1:12 carrying gene).
Results in deformed, fragile blood cells than can clog vessels, causing anemia, severe pain, stunted growth, and frequent infections.
reasoning seen as completely personal - there are no standards
environmental agents that can threaten normal development- serious abnormalities or death
the early adolescent period, marked by accelerated growth and onset of the ability to reproduce
Harry Harlow
monkeys separated from their mothers sought comfort from a soft cloth covered surrogate instead of the bare wire surrogate with a feeding bottle, showing how the infant's attachment is not based off food
Newborn Preferences
-human voices and faces
-smell and sound of mother
1. Developmental psychology
study of physical, intellectual, social, and moral changes across the lifespan from conception to death.
the inner layer of cells, which develops into digestive and respiratory systems.
a persons genetic heritage the actual genetic material
infants think and learn about the world through their 5 sense and their motor skills
A class of sex hormones--an important one of which is testosterone-- that primarily promotes the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Chemical that carries inherited instructions for the development of all cellular forms of life
Theory that human beings have an inborn capacity for language acquisition
The way an individual's genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics.
Piaget's theory
The theory that children construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
cross-sectional approach
a research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time
Violence in children's programming versus adult's
nViolence on TV
nWorse in youth programming
¨More prevalent
¨Less harm to victim
Reformation (16th century)
-Economic and political change---rise of merchant class (middle)---family as and economic unit---1st time seen as INNOCENT*Family life -place for children---outside world was corrupt and children were innocent
conditioned stimulus
a neutral stimulus that through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus leads to a new, conditioned response.
Naive Psychology
Informal beliefs about other people and their behavior
Infants understand this: understands intentionality towards goal, like finding crackers
Imitate intentions, not the actual actions.
derive meanings by combining words to form ideas and then combine propositions
Tall Boy rode his BIKE
Cognitive perspective
View that thought processes are central to cognitive development
Neural fibers that receive input from other cells and conduct it toward the cell body in the form of electrical impulses
Emotional Self-Regulation:
the process of initiating, inhibiting, or modulating internal feelings states and related physiological processes, cognitions, and behaviors
Newborn Hearing
Best developed sense- problem hearing higher pitches- locating using sound improves (adult acuity by 18 months)
Erikson's psychosocial theory
personality determined by interaction of biology and society. culture and contemporary issues.
During puberty, different parts of the body grow at different rates, sometimes causing awkwardness. This is called:
__________ is one of the earliest ways that infants regulate their emotions
-Used to confirm the presence of certain genetic and chromosomal abnormalities
Using the Adult Attachment Interview, a mother who reports a good childhood without any specific examples is likely to have a child with:
Avoidant attachment
Difficulties in reading or a reading disorder. People have difficulty matching speech sounds with written words.
PREVALENCE:3-20% of school population, with equal commonality between boys and girls. May have a genetic component. More common in children from lower SES and larger families.
constructive play
Plat that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activities with symbolic representation of ideas.
Piaget's 4 stages of development
Sensori-motor, Pre-operational, concrete operations, formal operations
continuity-discontinuity controversy
deals with the issue of whether development is a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages
insecure attachment
infants do not leave caregiver and show distress at any separation
-a sense of one's identity & personal worth
-develops by the end of childhood (age 12)
concrete operational
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from 6/7 to 11/12) during which children gain the mental operations that allow them to think logically about real or "concrete" events
the outer layer of cells that develops in the germinal period. These cells later provide nutrition and support for the embryo.
Period of Embryo
2-8 weeksgroundowrk for all body structures and organs begin
Primary Emotions
Emotions that are present in humans and other animals, emerge early in life, and are culturally universal; examples are joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust
Avoidant Attachment Style
An attachment style that describes adults who are hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships and once in a relationship tend to distance themselves
Two or more alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same position on paired chromosomes and affect the same trait.
Behaviorist approach
Approach to the study of cognitive development that is concerned with basic mechanics of learning
Nonshared environmental experiences
The child's own unique experiences, both within the family and outside the family, that are not shared by another sibling. Thus, experiences occurring within the family can be part of the "nonshared environment."
Two people can start at the same point, but can take many different paths. One college and one in the juvenile system
Every aspect of the individual and his or her surroundings other than genes.
Anxious/ Resistent Attachment
Babies get extremely distressed when the mom leaves, but are highly ambivalent when the mother returns.  Seeks contact, but not soothed.  Mother's are inconsistent. 
Jean Piaget
work in child development and child cognitive development; humans experience an interaction between internal maturation and external experience that creates qualitative change
Simon and Binet's
mental age
psychologists from France
test that would allow to predict school perforamcne
developed tasks for different ages
worked with Piaget
metnal age v. chronologiccal age
do parents correct grammar?
just the 'truth value'
correct false statements
Evolutionary/sociobiological perspective
View of human development that focuses on evolutionary and biological bases of social behavior
Direction-of-causation problem:
the concept that a correlation between two variables does not indicate which, if either, variable is the cause of the other
Dependant Variable:
A behavior that is measured to determine whether it is affected by exposure to the independent variable
Social Learning Perspective
- not everything important is observable- interested in the mind- we are shaped by our experiences but we don't have to directly experience them ourselves- bobo doll experiment
Fast Mapping
mental process whereby a new concept can be learned (or a new hypothesis formed) based only on a single exposure to a given unit of information.
A person’s preferred way of perceiving, remembering, and using information is referred to as:
a cognitive style
Which of the following is the BEST example of babbling?
a section of a chromosome and the basic unit for the transmission of heredity, consisting of a string of chemicals that code for the manufacture of certain proteins
permissive/laissez-faire family (p.79)
children and adolescents have the final say, parents are less controlling and have a non-pushing accepting attitude toward children
Secondary aging
Results of disease, disuse and neglect of the body. may account for most of the deterioration associated with growing old.
Identity diffusion
no commitments and no effort to construct them - lack of identity and no attempt to get one
Microgenetic, advantages and disadvantages
Advantages(1) Only technique for examining cause and effect relationships.(2) Most replicable.(3) Great for understanding what causes a transition. Can really help us understand developmental change.(4) Not as costly as longitudinal designs in money or time; generally last a week or month.
psychological maturation
Rosseau's idea that we naturally grow mentally as wekk as physically
initiative v. guilt
stage 3 of TPD, balance between spontaneity and restraint
Concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
pain cry
a sudden appearance of a long initial loud cry without preliminary moaning followed by breath holding.
Genetic Imprinting
genes have been marked or modified and will behave differently depending on whether they came from mother or father
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
Neurological and behavioral test to measure neonate’s responses to the environment.
Ethnic gloss
Using an ethnic label such as African American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneousthan it really is.
stability-change issue
the debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change
What adjustment problems are associated with physical and relational aggression?
nPhysical aggression is associated with:

Mental health problems, Peer problems, Academic problems, Criminality and later antisocial conduct

nRelational aggression associated with

Mental health problems

¨Peer problems, Peer rejection

¨Gender non-normative aggression worse
            Perceived popularity
A group of subjects who have shared a particular experience during a particular time span.
sternberg's IQs correlate somewhat
not unrelated, but somewhat related, not perfectly
so tests don't measure general intelligence only
(4-6 months)
food or toy is taken away
goal is frustrated
Parietal Lobe:
The lobe in the brain that governs spatial processing as well as integrating sensory input with information stored in memory
Sucking reflex
When an object is placed into the baby's mouth, the infant will suck on it
Hermer & Spelke (1994,1996):
Adults use non-geometric cues to reorient themselves (e.g., the blue wall) At 20 months, kids use only geometric cuesBefore 2 years of age, they are like rats!
Rejected withdrawn children
a smaller subgroup are passive and socially awkward.
the full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species
Emotions infant can express at birth?
Contentment, distress & interest
Transformational grammar theory
Chomsky - when sentence heard, we don't retain surface structure, we transform it to deep structure (underlying meaning)
indulgent parenting
A style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them.
Identity vs. Role Confusion Fidelity
Adolescents are trying to determine who they are. Their beliefs, values, desires, and career plans; Who Am I?
Why are children recruited as soldiers?
-increase # fighters-more easily manipulated/controlled-fit easier in tighter spaces-do not suspect children to be soldiers-carry lighter weapons thanks to tech-frontlines of conflict-slaves/servants
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised (WPPSI-III)
Individual intelligence tests for children ages 2 ½ to 7 that yields verbal and performance scores as well as a combined score.
social-cognitive learning theory (Albert Bandura)
learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model
training in 5 year olds
typical conservation tasks or with training
training produces results from 0% to 90%, and it transfered to other categories, like Mass and liquid, somehwat
Memory Strategies: elaboration
- rare even in adults- find common meanings, e.g. mnemonics, list order acronyms
Individual Education Program
IEP. Kids with disabilities must have access to services.
Research undertaken by Hugh Hartshorne and Mark A. May involving the moral behavior of some 11,000 children revealed that children’s moral behavior was:
linked to group social norms
Parental Comfort of Children
Linked to children's ability to more effectively control their anger.
Higher=order Cognitive Processes
Older adults don't do as well as younger adults with problem-solving, reasoning, conceptualization, and planning in controlled conditions, but outperform young adults in everyday, real-world environment.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with assistance.
Zone of proximal development
range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners
What does increased direct retrieval have effects on?
Direct retrieval frees up resources for other cognitive abilities, including working memory and reading strategies.
intelligence quotient  or IQ
simply the ration of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100
IQ=MA/CA x 100
Bandura's Bobo Doll Expt
Kids imitate adults and do so more when there is an incentive.
The Apgar Scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's
Heart Rate, Color, and Muscle Tone
Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development
Lacks cultural sensitivity, and biased toward Western indvidualistic view (individual conscience over societal demands)
Gilligan criticized Kohlberg for giving higher moral place to traditional Male values than to "traditional" female values.
4. coordination of secondary circular reaction
4. PSMS 8-12 months Actions become more outwardly directed, and infants coordinate schemes and act with intentionality.
What are some early signs of dyslexia?
family history, delay in speech, insensitive to rhyme or “talking around a word”, problems with pronunciation
true attachment 8 mos.-18 mos
singled out the attachment figure as a special individual
seek reassurance
mental representaitno of mother that she will be there when she needs her
According to the concept of genetic-environmental correlation,
our genes influence the environment to which we are exposed.
small for date (small for gestational age) infants
babies whose birth weights are below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered.
Where are the most complex system and least complex system located in the brain?
Most- cortex (on top)Least- brainstem (on bottom)
What are the age and grade range of MID-LATE CHILDHOOD?
*Ages: 6-11*Grades: 1st - 6th
What does the inconsistent parent cause their child to be like?
Child is depressed and will be lower intelligence later on (parents are usually not intelligent but the parenting style is causal).
Child says "bat" instead of "bad"
Phoneme - t & d is a phonemic distinction and the 2 letters are critical to understanding meanings of words
If a mother reads aloud The Cat in the Hat for the last 6 weeks of pregnancy, after birth the infant will most likely
prefer hearing the mother read the familiar poem over other rhyming stories.
/ 142

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online