Nursing Ethics 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Covert Values
Covered up
Beneficence
Balancing benefits and harms.
Consequentialism:
Theory of Ethicsaka Utilitarianism
Relativism
No universal ethical standards. Whatever a person thinks is right, is right.
Cheating
Dishonesty and deception regarding examinations, projects, or papers.
Distributive Justice
Fair, equitable, appropriate treatment in light of what is due or owed to persons, recognizing that giving to some will deny receipt to others who might otherwise have received these things.
Act-utilitarianism:
Basic Type of UtilitarianismSuggests thatPeople will choose actions, in any given circumstance, to increase the overall good.
Nonmaleficence
The principle of doing no harm.
Rationalism
Opposite of Naturalism. Feelings & perceptions may seem similar but aren't
Complementary Therapies:
Therapeutic interventions that derive from TRADITIONS other than Conventional Western medicine which are used by patients with or without the knowledge of conventional medical practitioners.
autonomy
the condition of being autonomous; self-government, or the right of self-government; independence:
Morality
Behavior in accordance with custom or tradition and usually reflects personal or religious beliefs.
Ethics
The branch of philosophy that concerns the distinction of right from wrong on the basis of a body of knowledge, not just on the basis of opinions.
Utilitarian Theories
Favor social programs that protect public health and distribute basic health care equally to all citizens.
Full disclosure
The potential participant be fully informed of the nature of the study, anticipated risks & benefits, time commitment, what is expected of the participant & the researcher, & right to refuse to participate.
Paternalism
A fatherly right & responsibility to use their supposedly superior knowledge & judgment to make decisions on behalf of patients.
Ms. Dock
Radical feminist 1950's. Opposed to men in nursing.
Integrity
Adherence to moral norms that is sustained over time.
Moral Development
A product of the sociocultural environment in which we live and develop.
Overt Values
Values of individual institutions and organized health care systems that are explicity communicated through philosophy and policy statemsnts.
Cultural Awareness:
Knowledge about Values, Beliefs & Behaviors of cultures other than one's own.
Character Ethics:
Theories of ethics, sometimes called "Virtue Ethics" that are r/t the concept of innate moral virtue.
Allocative policies:
Policies designed to provide NET Beneifits to some distinct group or class of individuals or organizations, at the expense of others, in order to ensure that public objectives are met.
Appeals to Conscience:
Personal & Subjective beliefs, founded on a prior judgment of Rightness or wrongness, that are motivated by personal sanction, rather than external authority.
Civil Law:
aka "Private Law".The law that determines a person's legal rights and obligations in many kinds of activities involving other people.
veracity
habitual observance of truth in speech or statement; truthfulness:
Virtue ethics
A person's character must be developed so that by nature and habit, the person will be predisposed to behave virtuously.
Ethical dilemma
Occurs when there is a conflict between two or more ethical principles, there is no "correct" decision.
Informed Consent
Patients are given the opportunity to autonomously choose a course of action in regard to plans for health care.
Genetic Screening
A process which determines if persons are predisposed to certain diseases, & whether couples have the possibility of giving birth to a genetically impaired infant.
Teological Theory
Consequences determine if an act is right or wrong.
Moral Regret
Dissappointment at not being able to do both things.
Assisted Suicide:
A situation in which patients receive the MEANS of death from someone, such as a physician, but ACTIVATE the process THEMSELVES.
Coercion:
Actual or Implied threat of harm or penalty for not participating in a research project, or offering excessive rewards for participation in the project.
What is non-maleficence?
preventing, or avoiding, doing harm. Duty to do no harm.
Good Sam Law
common law which encourages health providers to help stangers without the risk of being held at liabilty.
Code of nursing ethics
An explicit declaration of the primary goals and values of the profession that indicates the profession's acceptance of the responsiblity and trust with which it has been invested by society.
Genetic diagnosis
A process of biopsy of embryos to determine the presence of genetic flaws and gender prior to implantation.
Intuitive Projective Faith
Stage 1. Infancy. Image and fantasy filled.
Nuremberg Code
A set of principles for the ethical conduct of research against which the experiments in the concentration camps could be judged.
Contract Law:
Type of LawDeals with the Rights & Obligations of people who make contracts.
What is distributive justice?
an ethical principle which advocates equal allocation of benefits and burdens to all members of society.
What are 6 main ethical principles which guide nursing practice?
autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, fidelity, justice, veracity
Justice and equity
A "veil of ignorance" regarding who is affected by a decision should be used by decision makers because it allows for unbiased decision making. An action is chosen that is fair to all, including those persons who are most disadvantaged.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Provides comprehensive protection to Americans with disabilities.
Active Voluntary Euthanasia:
An act by a Dr who:1-Provides the MEANS [lethal dose]and 2-Also Administers it.
What is Accuracy and its fallacies?
def: no errors or distortions
fallacies: euphemisms, prejudicial language, appeal to fear, appeal to pitty.
Respect for others
The right of people to make their own decisions.
4 Elements of ethics in nursing
Willingness to work in emotionally painful job. Good knowledge base. Sensitive, patient and insightful. consistent decisions. (be there, knowledge, sensitive, decisions)
What is a fallacy in reasoning?
Faulty reasoning either accidental or intentional and do not allow for a well-reasoned decision
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Unlawful for an employer to hire or fire an individual base of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
What is spirituality and how does it differ from ethics?
spirituality: belief system; internal, personal beliefs about nature and universe where ethics is cognitive systematic approach to judging situations
Why is Ethics Important?
B/c we need to know the laws for professionalism
What is the fallacy euphemism and give an example of it?
def: words which minimize probable negative connotations
eg. anything politically correct (domestic engineer for a house wife)
The nurse notices a coworker has been drinking and is not able to practice safely. The nurse shouldA.inform the manager the manager or shift director imediately.B.warn the coworker that black coffee is in order.C.discuss the situation with the other nurse
A. inform the manager or shift director immediately.
What is the fallacy load question and give and example?
def: a slanted question which implies wrong doing no matter what answer is given
eg. "Are you still beating your wife?"
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