Nutrition 31 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
vitamin d deficiency
corn oil
soft carcass
building block of carbs
b12 sources
only animal products
Over nutrition = ?
disorder caused by iodine deficiency
Recommended Dietary Allowance: The average daily amt of a nutrient adequate to meed to daily needs of almost all people. (RDA's are set in stone based on much research)Move out 2 standard deviations/Does not incl. sick & chronic diseased.
Water-soluble vitamins
B-vitamins, and C:
-minimal storage
-best if consumed daily
-toxicity not a problem
mechanical digestion
chewing, muscular contractions, swallow grinding material (gizzard, gut). basic breakdown into smaller pieces.
Moderation: Be aware of?
Portion sizes
Name 3 classes of pathogens.
-AA are building blocks
-needed for tissue growth & repair
-only nutrient that can make new cells and repair tissue
Approcimately how manay molecule of ATP are generated from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose?
Build-up of fatty materials (plaque) in artery walls.
Fatty acids are incorporated into triglycerides. The synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides is called ______.
Low=less than 5
define DV by % for
The feeling of fullness or satisfaction that people experience after meals
Functions of Vitamin C

•helps produce collagen- which forms the base of connective
tissue in the body, bones, teeth, skin and tendons 


•helps form & repair RBC, bones, tissues


•keeps capillary walls & blood vessels firm so protects
against bruising


•healthy gums 
•heals cuts & wounds

•protect from infections by keeping immune system healthy

Using MyPyramid: Include plant sources of protein several times per?
-difficulty swallowing, gag reflex is absent or there is an obstruction
-caused by CVA, ALS, tremors, myasthenia gravis, oral/throat surgery, cancer treatment, ingestion of caustic substances
In raw eggs, poultry, unprocessed dairy
Causes salmonellosis
Organic nutrients
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and vitamins. Contain carbon.
Glycolysis through krebs cycle - by the end of cellualr respiration has yeilded at total of ______________ ATPs
What are the disaccharides?
sucrose (fructose+glucose, refining juice from sugerbeets or cane), maltose (glucose+glucose, comes from germinating seeds and breakdown of starch in body), lactose (galactose+glucose)
a psychological desire to eat certain foods
ATP-PCr system
Energy system for fast, powerful muscle contractions. Uses ATP and then PCr quickly regenerates ATP.
process of adding nutrients to foods; added nutrients generally not naturally found in that food.......ex. calcium and orange juice
an organ with two main functions. Endocrine function: the making of hormones such as inculin. Exocrine: digestive enzymes.
When people with diabetes are ill, their blood glucose levels rise or fall?
Internal signals that stimulate one to acquire and consume food.
Cortisol and growth hormone
-Increase gluconeogenesis
-Raise blood glucose
a hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips.
Energy release form carbohydrates
Micronutrients have no _____?
metabolism of energy nutrients results in
energy released
elevation of the blood pressure, esp. the diastolic pressure.
Closed system (enteral feeding)
-Prefilled bottle with drip chamber
Low cholesterol contains ___ mg or less of cholesterol per serving.
20 mg

in order to travel in blood large lipids must be associated with what?
energy-yielding nutrients
nutrients that can be used for energy
The process of breaking down food to release its nutrients for absorption and transport to the cells for use in body functions:
Vitamins that act as part of coenzymes include?
B vitamins
staple foods
foods used frequently or daily: ex. rice in east asia.
Metabolic syndrome?
a cluster of symptoms linked to increase cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
1. Phosphatidylserine
2. Vitamin B6
4. Ginkgo biloba
5. Gotokora
vegetarian diet-strengths and weaknesses
pros: health benefits, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, high in fiber
cons: need to remain more aware of diet, careful choices to ensure protein intake
microcytic hypochronic anemia
iron deficiencyred blood cells are small and do not have enough hemoglobin to transport adeguate oxygen of to allow the proper transfer of electron to produce energy
Treatment for Underweight
Intake of energy-dense foods (energy input), Encourage regular meals and snacks, Reduce activity (energy output)
Increase portion size, Strength training
Healthy People 2010
Target for participation in regular moderate to vigorous activity is 30% for adults and 85% for adolescents
AA that allows for the formation of triple helices
___ ____-studies individuals (may lead to additional research. ______ -studies whole population (correlation). _______ studies intervene to alter peoples eating habits. ______ studies (experimental).
Case studies; Epidemiological; Intervention; Lab studies
Very-Low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDL)
Released from the liver to transport lipids to cells in the body. VLDL eventually becomes LDL.
A. is an inactive enzyme
B. is a zymogen
C. is altered  by hydrochloric acid
D. is secreted in the stomach
E. all of the above
E. all of the above
Three factors (other than biological need) that influence what we eat.
-cultural and family background
-social acceptability
-personal preference
-psychological and emotional
Period where BMR slows? significant BMR reduction?
>65 y.o.
MyPyramid Tracker allows users to?
compare daily diet to recommendations
Nutrients can be classified as ______ and _____.
Essential & Nonessential
Calcium needs for atheletes?
Restriction of dairy products by women
Irregular menstruation/Amenorrhea
Why do cats require niacin?
Cats efficiently degrade tryptophan (by the enzyme adaptation of rapid activity of picolinate carboxylase shunting tryptophan precursors away from niacin) so little is available for niacin synthesis. Niacin can be found in plants but the bioavailability tends to be poor comparable to animal tissues
Hunger is best described as what?
Physiological sensation that prompts us to eat.

It is possible to completely eliminate cholesterol from the blood by eating a cholesterol free diet.  T/F
FalseGood cholesterol (HDL High density)Bad cholesterol (LDL low density)
Doses of 5 million IU/d  of vitamin D for 7-10d before harvest can improve what?
meat tenderness
___ diabetes is the less common type of diabetes in which the person produces no insulin at all.
type I diabetes
Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for chronic diseases, accounting for?
2/3 of all deaths
Adequate Intake (AI)
-average nutrient value set as a goal for nutrients that do not have an RDA
Critical periods of development
Times of intense development and rapid cell division
What are rich sources of vitamin C besides citric fruit?
Broccoli and Spinach
Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: (Linolenic)
Oils (flaxseed, canola, walnut, wheat germ, soybean), nuts and seeds, vegatables
BMI = weight (kg) / height (m^2)- Underweight = BMI <18.5- Healthy Weight = 18.5- 24.9- Overweight = 25- 29.9- Obesity = 30-39.9- Extreme obesity = BMI >40
a muslim excludes this from the diet
alcohol and intoxicants, caffeine, birds of prey, bolld gelatin is questionable
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) (numbers)
~5-10% above the total calories consumed
TEF is highest for protein &gt; carbohydrates &gt; fat
• What prenatal supplements provide more of compared to regular supplementso WebMD recommends that your prenatal vitamin has at LEAST:
• 400 mcg of folic acid• 400 IU of vitamin D• 200 to 300 mg of calcium• 70 mg of vitamin C• 3 mg of thiamine• 2 mg of riboflavin• 20 mg of niacine• 6 mcg of vitamin B12• 10 mg of vitamin E• 15 mg of zinc• 17 mg of irono A prenatal vitamin should have more calcium, iron, and folic acid that a regular supplement → most do not have DHA (which is important for a pregnant woman) so you need a separate supplement for that in most cases
two intricate and sensitive systems coordinate all the digestive and absorptive processes:
the hormonal (or endocrine) system and the nervous system.
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA; DEXA)?
its a computreized x-ray that measures bone mineral density osteoperosis, body fat, and fat-free mass
What not to do when feeding infants
Cow's milk
Egg whites
Wheat - above could produce allergic reactions or contain hormones
Avoid honey and corn syrup - may cause botulism
Avoid high risk choking foods
Don't leave baby alone
223. Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to
a. Provide rigidity for the bones and teeth
Proteins - Amino Acids uses &amp; breakdown in the body
*Complete proteins = meet all the body's amino acid requirements, the 8 essential amino acids sources - eggs, milk, milk products, meats &amp; fish

Incomplete proteins = Do not have all 8 amino acid sources - legumes, nuts, seeds, grains &amp; vegatables

Protein supply: Essential a. a the building blocks for all the other a. a. and proteins

Nitrogen for substances containing nitrogen ex: nucleic acids, ATP
signs indicating poor prognosis in patients with PEM
1) age 2) deficit in weight for height > 40% or weight for age > 50% 3) signs of circulatory collapse: cold hands or feet, weak radial pulse, decreased consciousness4) stupor, coma or other alterations in awareness 5) infections, particularly bronchopneumonia or measles 6) petechiae or hemorrhagic tendencies 7) dehydration and electrolyte disturbances, especially hypokalemia and severe acidosis 8)persistent tachycardia, signs of heart failure or respiratory difficulty 9) total serum pt 10) severe anemia w clinical signs of hypoxia 11) clinical jaundice or elevated serum bilirubin 12) extensive exudative or exfoliated skin lesions, or deep decubitus ulcerations 13) hypoglycemia 14) hypothermia
Which of the following is a recent finding of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?
The skin's capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced.
Limit fat intake to ____ will cause us to be deficient in the following:________
<10%; Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, Vitamin A, D, E, K, and other phytochemicals.
/ 80

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