Nutrition 52 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cobalt deficiency
Anemia
food exchange system
Epinephrine/norepinephrine: Raises?
blood glucose
niacin sources:
protein rich foods
purposes of fat
shock absorbersinsulationcellmembranes
transfat
hydrogenated.solid at room temp.
Name some micronutrients?
vitamins and minerals
POLYSACCHARIDE
definition
class of complex carbohydrates containing many glucose units, from 10 to 1000 or more
adequacy  
the dietary characteristic of providing all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health and body weight
B6 (pyridoxine)s/s of deficiency
anemia
CNS problems
confusion
Nitrogen equilibrium
-measures protein requirement
-the amount of nitrogen taken in equals the amount excreted
vitamin d
a fat-soluble, crystalline, unsaturated alcohol, C28H43OH, occurring in milk, fish-liver oils, etc., produced by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, and used as a dietary supplement, as in fortified milk.
Neuropeptides
• Neuropeptide Y – signals hunger• Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) –suppresses hunger (release stimulated by leptin)
184. Which of the following body structures helps to regulate thirst?
a. Hypothalmus
fermentation:
is an anaerobic alternative to cellular respiration.
Hormone produced in the mucous membrane of the duodenum in response to the entrance of acid contents from the stomach into the duodenum:
secretin
cells
the smallest units in which independent life can exist. All living things are single cells or made of cells.
Copper
\n Functions- use iron, nerve covers,\n hemoglobin\n Sources- organ meats, seafood
Magnesium functions:
bone and tooth formation
protein synthesis
metabolism
marasmus
infants and toddlers, look shriveled and lean all over, energy vitamin deficient, hair is thin sparse easily pulled out, skin is dry and thin
less than 60% weight for age
parasitism-
parasite is dependent and benefits, host is harmed
Risks of teen pregnancy
Iron-deficiency anemia
Prolonged labor
Stillbirth
Preterm birth
aromatic converted to tyrosine for norephrine, epinephrine and dopamine
Phenylalanine
Lifestyle choices associated with degenerative diseases include:
a. Poor dietary habitsb. Smokingc. Alcohol used. Physical inactivity e. All of the above(E)
189. What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body’s waster products?
a. 500

Nutrients that cannot be synthesized by the body are called what?

 
Essential Nutrients
Having traveled the length of the small intestine the remaining contents arrive at another sphincter. the _________ valve, at the beginning of the large intestine (colon).
ileocecal
results in the production of smaller stable lipid particles is called _____.
micelles
what is the adult form of rickets?
osetmalacia
What is segmentation?
-rhythmic local constrictions of intestines that mix food with digestive juices and speed absorption by moving food mass over intestinal wall
Potassium (K) food sources?
-found in most foods
-abundant in fruits, vegatables, meat, and milk
Found in citrus broccoli potatoes peppers and strawbwrries
Vit C
which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria
K
Incomplete proteins
-does not contains sufficient amounts of all essential amino acids to maintain life, build tissue, or promote growth
Milk
-Dairy food fortified with vitamins A & D-Many lower fat diary products avail. (fat-free, non-fat)
Why athletes need iron
-oxygen delivery, ATP production
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
Beta-carotene
___________ is a hormone that stimulates hunger, and ____________is a hormone that reduces hunger.
a. insulin, thyroxineb. ghrelin, leptinc. leptin, ghrelind. thyroxine, ghreline. leptin, gestrone(B)
131. The process of bone remodeling is known to be dependent on all of the fat-soluble vitamins except
a. Vitamin E
Which is the "Bad Cholesterol"?
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
PHOSPHOLIPID
definition
 
any of a class of fat related substances that contain phosphorus, fatty acids, and a nitrogen containing component. phospholipids are an essential part of every cell.
In a pig, what nutrient(s) are digested in the stomach?
 
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. All of the above
3. Proteins
epidemiological studies
studies of populations; often used in nutrition to search for correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence; a firststep in seeking nutrition related causes of diseases.
HOW CAN ONE MAKE AND BREAK A DISSACHARIDE?
CONDENSATION-MAKEHYDROLYSIS-BREAK
Epidemiological studies
-Looks at whole large populations or cohorts-Used to find correlations between diet and disease-cannot prove cause and effect
Consequences of Uncontrolled Blood Glucose: Increased risk
risk for wound infections
lactose intolerance
impaired ability to digest lactose due to reduced amounts of the enzyme lactase.
*Fats are vey high in calories:- 1 gram of fat = 9 calories- 1 gram of carbs or protein = 4 calories
Enzymes
in relation to fats, hydrogeneration means
add hydrogen atoms
hypoglycemia
an abnormally low level of glucose in the blood.
Better Indicators of Body Weight
Waist circumference (M Waist circumference to Hip Circumference ratio (M
External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except
outdoor excercises
Case Control (retrospective)
Find people in SAME population with and without the thing being studied.Ask the questions that are being studied.
When eating at a fast food resteraunt, what would be the best food item to order that is rich in beta-carotene?
salad with carrots
Glycemic Index
A ranking of foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose relative to a standard such as a glucose or white bread.
Calcium (at least 800 mg)

functions:
bone and tooth formation
blood clotting
nerve transmission
muscle contraction
which of the following is a general function of vitamin C
antioxiadnt agent
Pear-shaped obesity(gynoid)
lower body ovesity does not seem to signicicantly increase the risk for chronic disease.
What are 3 important categories of preconception nutrition?
Risk assessment
Health promotion
Intervention
symptoms of iron deficiency
anemia-small pale red blood cells- microhypochromic, PICA- consumption of nonfood substances
Describe the chemical digestion process in order
Salivary glands (breaks down starch salivary amylase), protein (begins in stomach, hydrochloric acid) starches stop digesting in stomach, Pancreas releases enzymes that break down starches (breaks down to monosaccharides) Liver produces bile that emulsifies fat. Is absorbed throughout the intestines
the lymphatic system
provides a one way route for fluid from the tissue spaces to enter the blood.
HEALTH RISK OF CANCER
- obese people have elevated levels of hormones that could influence cancer development
How does BMI have limitations?
it doesn't evaluate the bodies composition
what is the primary function of the B vitamins
Coenzyme participation
Five Subgroups of Vegetables
-Dark green, orange, and deep yellow, legumes, starch vegetables and others-practice variety when choosing veggies.--nutirents--kcalories
Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?`
Spina Bifida
B2 vitamin and it's function
B2 also known as Riboflavin - Metabolism, health in hair, skin, nails, cell respiration, formation of antibodies, and red blood cells.
How does the liver support the body during fasting?
 
1. releases fatty acids for energy
2. produces more bile
3. releases stored glucose
4. breaks down body fat
3. releases stored glucose
WHY CAN FIBERS NOT BE DIGESTED?
ENZYMES CANNOT BREAK APART THEIR BONDS BETWEEN THEIR MONOSACCHARIDES
what is the major factor that determines metabolic rate
Amount of lean body tissue
Essential fatty acid needs during pregnancy
Omega 3: oils, nuts, seeds, soybeans
Omega 6: vegetable oils, poultry, meats
Describe the function and location of the organ- Gall bladder
Gallbladder -stores bile from the liver until needed.
what are some measures that can be taken to prevent decay?
sealants, avioding utensil sharing, oral hygiene
What are the three properties of essential nutrients?
1. When not present in a diet, certain body functions decline
2. When restored before permanent damage occurs, function returns.
3. The specific biological functions of the nutrient have been identified.
What are the three properties of essential nutrients?
How do nutrients affect body function?
During the UGA food service lecture, Ms. Katherine Ingerson, RD provided examples how little changes in your food choice could contribute to your weight and health. If a person drinks one 12oz soda everyday and decided to drink water, Crystal light, diet
a. 3 poundsb. 6 ¼ poundsc. 10 poundsd. 15 ½ poundse. 18 pounds(D)
What are some food sources of vitamin A?
liver, fish oil, milk, milk products
What is the order of nutrients that get depleted when one is fasting?
Carbs -> Fats - > Protein
Malow's Hierarchy of Needs on the area of Nutrition
food and nutrition rank on the same level as air in the basic necessities of life
If phenylalanine can be used to meet the tryptophan requirement, is tryptophan really an essential nutrient?
 
1. Yes
2. No
3. Well, sort of, these things are complicated! The body wouldn't be able to make enough unless Phe is fed in excess, and is t
1. Yes
2. No
3. Well, sort of, these things are complicated! The body wouldn't be able to make enough unless Phe is fed in excess, and is that really a normal situation? I mean come on!
in PVT TIM HALL, so yes :)
What are B vitamins required for in cats?
B vitamins are critical to 1 carbon transfers and protein metabolism.
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