Nutrition Mid-term Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Vitamin E

-Protects lung membranes
-May reduce risk of heart disease
-Deficiency Diseases:
-Babies have erythrocyte hemolysis
-Adults have anemia...
-Toxicity: rarely seen
-Sources: widespread in plants; 60% in American diet comes from nut and seed oils

–different configuration from triglycerides

–not digested or absorbed by body

–dramatic caloric reduction in food products when used as fat replacer

–sensory qualities of fat

–heat stable

•Malnutrition caused by insufficient total protein & caloric intakes

•Also called protein-energy malnutrition

•Gives “skin and bones” appearance

•Occurs among people with anorexia nervosa & diseases causing cachexia

Dietary Carbohydrates



–glucose, fructose, galactose


–sucrose, lactose, maltose



–starches, FIBER


Vitamin C

-Collogin synthesis, antioxident, enhances iron absorption, amino acid metabolism
Deficiency Disease: Scurvy (symptoms: anemia, bleeding gums, weakness, muscle pain, slow healing)
Toxicity: headache, GI symptoms, rashes
Sources: citrus fruits, vegetables, fruits

Functions: formation and maintenance of tooth enamel, helps prevent tooth decay (added to public water supply in US)
Excess: discoloration of teeth & bones
Sources: water supply?

•Digestion is accomplished by enzymes manufactured in the digestive system.

•Salivary glands, stomach, and pancreas secrete these enzymes.

•Enzymes are complex protein substances that speed up reactions that break down food.

•Enzymes are not changed by the chemical reactions they affect.

•They are reusable.
Sweet 'N Low (alternative, non-nutrative sweetener)
used for over a century
Functional Fiber

•Functional fibers have beneficial functions in the body

–INSOLUBLE functional fibers:

–decrease food intake by a feeling of fullness

–reduce post-meal rises in blood glucose levels

–prevent constipation

–SOLUBLE functional fibers:

–decrease fat and cholesterol absorption
Types of fiber

–functional fiber

–dietary fiber

–total fiber
rhythmic, wavelike contractions of muscles 
-Essential fatty acid

•Found in walnuts, flaxseed, canola oil, and soybeans

•Best sources are marine oils due to content of DHA and EPA

Functions: component of thyroid hormone that helps regulate energy production and growth
Deficiency: Goiter (swollen thyroid/neck?)
Sources: salt, milk, milk products


Functions: support growth, taste, smell, hearing, immune function, carbohydrate metabolism; >200 enzymes to function
Sources: meats, fish, poultry, whole grains

Saturated Fats

•have maximum hydrogen possible

–Carbon molecules are saturated with hydrogen

–Solid at room temperature

Excess Protein

•Excess protein intake causes nausea, weakness, and diarrhea; diets very high in protein result in death after several weeks

•Disease from excess protein intake termed “rabbit fever”

•High protein diets implicated in weak bones, kidney stones, cancer, heart disease, & obesity
•NAS concluded safe range for protein intake is 10-35% of total calories

develops after a period of insufficient intake of an essential nutrient, because tissue reserves of the nutrient become depleted
Small Intestine Absorption

•Digestion complete when carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are reduced to smaller substances that can be absorbed, and when vitamins and minerals are released.

•Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine.

Water, sodium, and some of the end products of bacterial digestion are absorbed from the large intestine.
Hydrogenated Fats

•makes unsaturated fats more solid and stable

•can improve taste and texture

•chemical bonds are “saturated” w/ hydrogen

•body processes like a saturated fat

•structure of fat changed from a

   naturally occurring “cis” to a
   “trans” configuration

•present in many margarines, shortenings, and processed foods
Niacin (Vitamin B3)

-Functions: energy metabolism, skin health, and nervous system; pharmacologic doses from 3-9 grams may help lower cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, increase HDL cholesterol
-Deficiency Diseases: Pellagra (symptoms: diarrhea, irritability, confusion, psychosis, skin rash, seen with chronic alcohol abuse)
-Toxicity: don't need to know
-Sources: meats, milk, eggs, fish, grains, HIGH PROTEIN FOODS!

•Deficiency of water leads to dehydration

•Can only survive up to six days without water

•Signs & symptoms of dehydration include:

–nausea & dizziness

–fast heart rate

–increased body temperature


•Replenishing fluids produces quick recovery

•Dehydration can cause kidney failure & death
Mineral Charges

•Charges allow minerals to combine with minerals of opposite charge forming stable compounds

•Charged minerals involved in stimulating muscle contraction & nerve impulse propagation

•Mineral charges & other functions:

–help maintain adequate water balance in body

–assist in acid-base balance

–act as cofactors

Minerals may combine with other substances in food & form highly stable compounds that not easily absorbed

•Low blood glucose level (rapid heart rate, sweating, weakness, anxiety, hunger)

•True hypoglycemia is rare

•Often related to erratic eating patterns or inadequate intake
Vitamin K

-Functions: involved in blood clotting
-Deficiency Diseases: possibly uncontrolled bleeding (hemorrhage)
-Toxicity: rarely seen
-Sources: dark green leafy vegetables (spinach) and liver; produced by bacteria in the intestines
Vitamin Facts

-Vitamins are chemical substances that have specific metabolic functions

-Primary functions include activating enzymes (serving as co-enzymes)

-Considered essential nutrients because are vital to health

–cannot be produced by the body in sufficient amounts

-Failure to consume enough vitamins causes specific deficiency diseases
-13 vitamins have been discovered so far

-Are classified as water-soluble or fat-soluble
Insulin Resistance

•Cell membranes ‘resist’ the effects of insulin →

     lowers the glucose transported into cells →
     leads to elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia)
-Common risk factors: 


–Low levels of physical activity

–Genetic predisposition
Normal Blood Pressure
< 120/80 mm Hg
Dietary Protein Quality

•High quality proteins contain all essential amino acids 

•Individual amino acids not stored in body
•If one or more essential amino acids missing in diet, proteins synthesis halted 

Protein Intake Trends

•2/3 of U.S. populations’ protein sources come from animal products

•Wealth leads to ­ meat protein intake along with ­ consumption of fat

•High protein intake usually accompanied by higher-fat & lower-fiber intakes

•Diets adequate in protein without excess fat tend to be rich in beans & grains mixed                     with lean meats & low-fat dairy                 products
Physical Digestion
physically breaks large chunks into small bits
Fiber meals
High-fiber meals pass through the digestive system faster than low-fiber meals.
Vomiting/Reverse Peristalsis
peristalsis muscles move the contents of the stomach back through the esophagus and forcefully out the mouth
Treatment to Hypertension

•Includes diet & lifestyle changes, and medication:

–moderate sodium diet or DASH diet

–weight loss

–regular exercise

–moderate alcohol consumption

–smoking cessation
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Functions: amino acid synthesis and metabolism
Deficiency Disease: nameless, vague symptoms that include anemia, weakness, irritability, skin rash, nervous disorders, confusion, impaired growth; seen with chronic alcohol abuse
Toxicity: nerve damage, depression, fatigue
Sources: meats, milk, green vegetables, beans, grains
-3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol molecule
-Essential fatty acids (linoleic & linolenic), fat soluble vitamins
Dietary Fiber

•Fiber intake in U.S. below the amount recommended

•People get recommended amount from whole-grain breads, high-fiber cereal, and dried beans and five servings of vegetables and fruits daily

•Food sources same cooked, or raw

•Fast foods are poor sources of fiber

-not digested by human digestive enzymes

Denaturation of Proteins

•Change in shape of protein structure due to heat, light, change in pH (too acidic or basic environment), alcohol, or motion
Essential Nutrients
Nutrients the body cannot make, or produce in sufficient quantity
Negatives about sugar

•Foods with simple sugars are generally poor sources of nutrients

•Simple sugars provide only calories

•Many foods high in sugars are also high in fat

•Likelihood that diets will be insufficient in vitamins and minerals increases with sugar intake

•Sweets consumption promotes tooth decay

•exposure time important variable

•“stickier” sweets more apt to promote decay

-infants who fall asleep with baby bottle

Gestational Diabetes

•3 to 6% of women develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy

•GDM usually disappears after delivery
Vitamin A
Needed for:
–Eyesight - A is part of rhodopsin, the visual pigment

–Promotes good night vision.

–Epithelial tissues need A to protect integrity.

–A is needed by immune system to fight infections.

–A is needed for bone growth


–Animal foods are source of preformed vitamin A.

–ß-Carotene is a precursor of vitamin A

-Brightly colored orange, yellow, and green vegetables/fruits, fortified skim milk.
Type I Diabetes
results from a deficiency of insulin
Glycemic Index

a measure of the speed with which the carbohydrates in food are broken down to glucose (sugar) and enter the blood stream, causing a rise in blood sugar 

•Some high glycemic-index foods (enter bloodstream faster):

–Glucose, white bread, baked potatoes, jelly beans

•Some low glycemic-index foods (slower impact on blood glucose):

–Fructose, xylitol, hummus, apples, all-bran cereal
Heartburn/Gastro esophagael reflux
return of gastric contents into the esophagus that results in a severe burning sensation under the sternum
Four major functions of protein

1.Integral structural component of skeletal muscle, bone, connective tissues, organs, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hair, & nails

2.Basic substance that makes up enzymes & hormones in human body

3.Growth, maintenance & repair of protein-containing structures

4.Protein also serves as an energy source
Large Intestine Absorption

•Large intestine is home to many bacteria that use undigested fiber and complex carbohydrates that are not digested by human digestive enzymes.

•These bacteria excrete gas and fatty acids that can be absorbed in large intestine.

•Substances that cannot be absorbed collect in the large intestine and are excreted in the stool.
Organs of the Digestive System
Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Large Intestine, Small Intestine 
Upper Intake Levels
They represent total, daily levels of nutrient intake from food, fortified food products, and supplements that should not be exceeded
Hard Water vs. Soft Water

•Hard water contains high amounts of minerals, carbonates, & sulfates

•Soft water naturally low in minerals, or rendered soft by filtration
Fish Oils (Omega-3 fatty acids)

•Regular consumption of omega-3 fatty acids:

–decreases risk of heart attack

–protects against irregular heart beat and sudden death

–decreases plaque formation in arteries

–lowers high blood pressure

–decreases the risk of stroke
Water in the body
Adults are 60-70% water by weight

•Proportion of water in tissues varies

–blood 83%

–muscle 75%

–bone 22%

–fat cells only 10%

Who should take multi-vitamin-mineral supplements?

-Individuals with limited milk intake and/or sun exposure

–calcium, vitamin D

-Older adults (> 70 years of age)

–calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B6 and B12, zinc

-Individuals with a health condition that affects nutrient utilization or absorption
-Individuals with compromised immune function
-Some infants

–Vitamin D (breastfed infants), fluoride, iron

-Pregnant and lactating women
- increased need for some nutrients, of note iron & folate
-Women with heavy menstrual bleeding

–iron (vitamin C)

-Women of childbearing age/premenopausal women

–folate, iron, calcium


–B vitamins, vitamin C

-Individuals who abuse alcohol

–multivitamin-mineral supplement (Vitamin B1, folate, B6, C)

-Individuals with restricted or limited diets

–multivitamin-mineral supplement


–calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin B2 and B12, vitamin D

Protein as an energy source

•If destined for energy use, first needs nitrogen removed from individual amino acids

•Excess free nitrogen excreted in urine

•Nitrogen excretion increases need for water
Fat and health
-Keep fat intake to 20-35% of total caloric intake
-When > 30% fat sources should emphasize foods rich in unsaturated fats
-Excessive caloric intakes, particularly calories from fat, promote weight gain and obesity
-High fat diets often low in nutrient density
-Total calories and physical activity are the components of weight management
-Healthy diets depend on types of fat consumed and overall quality of diet
Amino Acids in the body

•20 common amino acids needed to form all proteins in human body

•9 of these amino acids considered essential

•Other 11 amino acids nonessential 
Functions of fat in the body
-Storage form of energy (adipose tissue)
-3,500 calories per pound
-Excess calories from fat stored in adipose tissue (97% efficient)
-Excess calories from carbohydrate and protein:
-Limted conversion to glycogen
-Incorporated into triglyceride and stored as fat in adipose tissue
-Fat cushions kidneys and heart
-Fat protects the organs and insulates them
-temperature regulation
-cold-water swimmers build up body fat as extra layer of insulation
Groups at higher risk of being inadequately nourished

•Women who are pregnant or


•Infants, growing children

•The ill, or recovering from illness

•Frail elderly
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