Nutrition Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
b3 sources?
potatoes
aerobic
requiring oxygen
LDLs
bad cholesterol
solaine
potatoes ah gweeeeen
DRV for fiber
20-35g/day
Calcium
Daily Value
1,000 mg
Chloride
Daily Value
3400 mg
Selenium deficiency
None known
vitamin e toxicity?
diabetes, hyperthyroidism
BMI equation
Weight (kg)/height^2 (m)
Vitamin K 
Daily Value
80 micrograms
Hypertension 2 BP
> 159/99
Fe deficiency
Iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin C
ascorbic acid
 
sources: citric fruirts, tomatoes, cabbage, leafys
 
defiencey:  scurvy 
 
fn: general body metabolism, connective tissue, antioxidant 
Trans-unsaturated fat effects
lowers HDL
raises LDL
Types of Monosacchrides
glucose, fructose, galactose
Antioxidant Enzymes
Glutathione peroxidases superoxide dismutases Catalases
What cellular organelles are responsible for producing ATP aerobically?
Mitochondria
protease
protein-digesting enzyme produced by the stomach, small intestine, and pancreas
Vitamin D Toxicity
Occurs with supplementation:
Hypercalcemia
 
DASH guideline for fats/oils
2-3 servings/day
Iodine Deficiency
IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorder)
Endemic goiter
Endemic cretenism
Chyme
semi-solid product of mechanical digestion in the stomach
Cobalamin  (B12)
essential for normal blood formation.  proper nervous system enzyme
 
deficiency: pernicious anemia
 
sources: beef, chicken liver, clams, oysters 
Minerals
chemical elements that organisms need for normal functioning
An ______ life burns more calories
active
Vitamin E deficiency 
can cause hemolytic anemia
What vitamin deficiencies are rare?
BiotinRiboflavinB6Pantothenic acid
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentration?
Carbohydrates
obesity
a condition characterized by excess body fat.  BMI of 30+
plasma
the fluid, extracellular portion of the circulating blood. This includes the blood stream plus all blood-clotting factors. In contrast, serum is the fluid that remains after clotting factors have been removed from plasma
The recommended weight gain during pregnancy for a healthy woman is how many pounds?
25-30 
Most biologically active form of Vitamin K found in green leafy vegetables, broccoli, peas and green beans.
Phylloquinones
Food sources of Magnesium
FOOD SOURCES:
Whole grains
Veggies
Nuts
Seeds
 
Less significant:
Hard tap water
Dark chocolate
meat
laxatives
antacids
Calcium content of cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, kale and cauliflower
60-70%
translation
occurs on ribosomes, conversion of genetic info in RNA to the AA sequence of a protein
Two types of digestion
mechanical (chewing)chemical (salivary amylase- carbs.)
Biotin
synthesis of fatty acids and amino acids, cell metabolism.
 
defiency: unlikely
 
soures:  liver, egg yolk, soy flour, cereals 
Fiber  
DV 38  gm Toxicity N/A
Source
Deficiency
nutrition
the proccess by which organisms obtain food and break it down
What are the determinants of athletic perfrmance
geneticstrainingnutrition
Trace Minerals
Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, I2, Se
Enteral
liquid diet fed directly into the stomach by a tube
What additional symptoms are presented with wernicke and korsakoff syndromes
memory problemsdisorientationcoma
Oxidative Stress
occurs when the preoxidant conditions lead to a production of ROS more rapidly than the antioxidant defenses can consume them
The risks for dying prematurely are doubled when the body mass index first rises above
35
Evidence to date in animals and/or human beings suggests that normal bone metabolism requires all of the fllwing trace minerals except
 
boron, silver, silicon, vanadium
silver
mitochondria
main sites of energy production in cell; also contain pathway for oxidizing fats for fuel
translation
the information contained in RNA is used to determine the amino acids in a protein
In humans, a full-term pregnancy is how many weeks?
40
kwashiorkor
a disease occuring primarily in young children who have an existing disease and consume a marginal amount of valories and insufficient protein in relation to needs the child generally suffers from infections and exhibits edema, poor growth, weakness, and an increased susceptibility to further illness
stimulus control
altering the environment to minimize the stimuli for eating - for example, removing foods from sight and storing them in kitchen cabinets
Storage of Ca
 
In bones mostly.
Blood concentration is tightly regulated
Factors that influence water needs
Body size
physical activity
environment
diet
Sodium Deficiency
RARE:
Can be caused by persistent vomiting, diarrhea or perspiration
Function of fluoride
FUNCTIONS:
promote bone and dental health
Vitamin A
F.S3 active forms: Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acidfunctions: protects LDLs, proper vision, cell differentiationtoo much- highly toxic, birth defects in eyestoo little- night blindness in elderly
b9 deficiency? toxicity?
anemia, apathy, GI disturbances, glossitis, birth defects, graying hair, labored breathing tox: only in hormonal cancers associated with birth defects.
1.Positive Energy Balance2.Negative Energy Balance
1.Storage of Excess energy2.Energy dificit
Water 3
Hydration
• Loss of 1%-2% of body weight in fluid
– Thirst signal
• Loss of 4% of body weight causes muscleweakness
– Lose significant strength and endurance
• Loss of 10%-12%– Heat intolerance • Loss of 20%= Coma and death
Over Dose
• Overburden the kidneys
• Low blood electrolyteconcentrations • Blurred vision
Death>20%
Proteins
should consiste of 25% of the diet
are broken down into amino acid
20 amino acids are needed foe cells to synthesize and repair cody tissues
 
Deficiency of Folic Acid causes
megaloblastic anemia
neural tube defects in babies
Things that lower serum cholestrol
omega 3 fatty acids
pufa
Essential Nutrient
Substance that must be obtained from the diet because the body cannot make it in sufficient quantity to meet its need
Patients needing nutrition but unable to take food by mouth receive it how?
Enteral and Parenteral
A niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems except
 
skin
skeletal
nervous system
gastointestinal tract
skeletal
After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat of slice of chocolate cake is an ex. of behavior known as
appetite
What term describes the increase in energy expenditure that occurs in a person who fractures a leg?
adaptive thermogenesis
All of the fllwing are chief storage sites for surplus iron except the
 
liver
spleen
muscle
bone marrow
muscle
Which of the fllwing trace minerals is known to be involved in bone development?
 
Tin
Cobalt
Silicon
Barium
Silicon
intermediate
a chemical compound formed in one of many steps in a metabolic pathway
organ system
a collection of organs that work together to perform an overall function
basal metabolism
the minimal amount of calories the body uses to support itself in a fasting state when resting (e.g. 12 hours for both) and awake in a warm, quiet environment. it amounts roughly 1 kcal per kilogram per hour for men and .9 kcal per kilogram per hour for women; these values are often referred to as basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Chronic Vitamin A Toxicity
Long term megadose, possibly permanent:
 
Bone/muscle pain
Loss of appetite
Skin disorders
Headache
Hair loss
Increased liver
Vomiting
Complications with excessive Phosphorous intake
May complicate poor kidney function
Phosphate binds Calcium and may compound bone loss if calcium is low.
__________in the chylomicrons must be disassembled by _____ ______ before they can enter the body cells
TRiglycerides, lipoprotein lipase
proteins contain
C, N, O, H(primary source of N)
things about b6?
master vitamin, involved in more body functions than any other nutrient, heart disease prevention, enhances bioavailability of Mg
heart attack
rapid fall in heart function caused by reduced blood flow through the heart's blood process. Technically called a myocardial infarction
Deficiencies of Cobalamin (B12) cause
pernicious anemia (deficiency of intrinsic factor)
dementia
spinal degredation
Niacin can be made from...
Vitamin B6 and dietary tryptophan
A person who weighs 150 lbs. and walks at a pace of 3 miles/hr expends about how many kCal in that hour?
270
All of the fllwing are other names for vitamin D except
 
calciferol
calcitonin
cholecaliferol
dihydroxy vitmamin D
Calcitonin
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
antioxidant
Which of the fllwing is a common side effect from taking iron supplements?
 
Itching
Diarrhea
Constipation
Black Tongue
Constipation
The most common form of cardiovascular disease is
coronary heart disease
carbon skeleton
what remains of an amino acids after the amino group has been removed
cell nucleus
an organelle bound by its own double membrane and containing the chromosomes, the genetic information for cell protein synthesis and cell replication
semiessential amino acids
amino acids that, when consumed spare the need to use an essential amino acid for their synthesis. Tyrosine in the diet for example spares the need to use phenylalanine for tyrosine synthesis. Also called conditionally essential amino acids
chain breaking
breaking the link between two or more behaviors that encourage overeating, such as snacking white watching television
Phosphorous Absorption
70% of intake is absorbed via passive absorption.
Calcitriol enhances absorption as well as concentration of phosphorous in lumen.
Two ionic states of Fe
Ferrous iron (Fe2+)
Ferric Iron (Fe3+)
which vitamins are made in the body?
biotin, D, and K.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
 
energy a resting animal requires each day
Define 1) Drug-nutrient interaction = 2) Food-drug interaction=What are the effects of the above?
1) specific changes to pharmacokinetics of a drug caused by nutrients or changes to the kinetics of nutrients caused by a drug2) broader term that also includes effects of medication of nutritional statusEffects are-alter response to medication-drug toxicity-alter nutritional status
People use echinacea to
treat the common cold, increase immune system, heal skin infections (all of the above)
smokers require an additional ? over that of non smokers?
35mg/d of vitamin C
Resting metabolic rate
more realistic than BMR, so is close enough to use as basal
Which of the fllwing foods is highest in folate?
 
Meats
Starches
Dairy products
Green, leafy veges
Green, leafy vegetables
Which of the fllwing foods are significant sources of oxalates?
 
Seeds and nuts
Processed cheeses
Fermented dairy products
Spinach and sweet potatoes
Spinach and sweet potatoes
essential fatty acids
fatty acids that must be supplied by the diet to maintain health. currently only linoleic acid and alpha-linileic acid are essential fatty acids
satiety
a state in which there is no longer a desire to eat; a feeling of satisfaction
Side effects of hypercalcemia
Calcium deposits in kidney, heart and blood vessels
Narrowing pulmonary arteries and aorta
Facial changes
Mental retardation
Two forms of protein-energy malnutrition
Marasmus- inadeq. protein and energy - severe wastingKwashiorkor-low protein, adeq. calories- adema of the stomach
what are the benefits of vitamin e?
antioxidant, retards aging, improves athletic performance, promotes healthy skin and hair, prevent anemia, aids in vit. a utilization, reduces BP.
Name the energy systems used during exercise in order of use.
ATP stores (3oz)ATP-CP system (8sec)Lactic acid path (60-120 sec)Aerobic path (after 2 min and on)
How is body fat estimated?
Waist to hip ratio used.Today you really only need the waist circumferenceWomen >35 inMen >40 in
Basal energy expenditure
60% of TEE is due to basal metabolism also known as this
The weight of the body less the fat content is known as the
lean body mass
Which of the fllwing may be classified as a risk factor for coronary heart disease?
 
BMI of 26
Low LDL-cholesterol levels
High HDL-cholesterol levels
High C-reactive protein levels
High C-reactive protein levels
Factors that influence the incidence of cancer
Fruits and vegetables (↓)
Vitamin D and Ca intake (↓)
 
Obesity (↑)
Meat intake (↑)
Tobacco use (↑)
Alcohol abuse (↑)
Fried foods (↑)
where are carotenoids stored? where is retinol stored? are either toxic?
no; ccarotenoids stored in fat, retinol in liver
Who is most successful at maintaining lost weight?
-low fat diet (25%)-breakfast almost everyday-weight once weekly-high levels of physical activity (60-90 min daily)
pepperming is used in forms of
capsules, oil, tea, dried leaves, and powder
what can cause a biotin deficiency in a specific subgroup?
Raw egg whites in athletes
Features of the adaptive response to regular physical exercise include all of the following except
 
it curbs appetite
it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period
it increases energy expenditure in the postexercise period
it triggers
it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period
Magnesium is known to be involved in all of the fllwing except
 
blood clotting
msle contraction
prevention of dental caries
production of red blood cells
production of red blood cells
Vitamin supplements must contain 1 or more of the following:
A mineral
A vitamin
An amino acid
A herb, botanical or plant extract
What are the protein requirements for performance?What are the dangers to excess?
10-25% of kcals14g/day over RDA= 2 ounces of meat extra28g/day over RDA for 2lb lean tissue gain per week. More than 2lb per week gain is not feasible.Dangers= renal load, increased urinary calcium loss, risk of dehydration, extra kcal if using supplements.
If absorption is intact, B12 stores can last?
10-12 years since B12 is recaptured for reuse
All of the fllwing are behavior modifications for losing weight except
 
shopping only when not hungry
eating only in one place and in one room
participating in activities such as television viewing only when not eating
taking smaller portions of fo
taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly
Among the fllwing, which should be the first action taken to lower blood cholesterol?
 
begin drug treatment
consume a high-protein diet
consume lg. amount of fish and fish oils
achieve and maintain appropriate body weight
achieve and maintain appropriate body weight
What is the true cost of food?
1) Pay at the supermarket
2) pay taxes for govt farm subsidies
3) Pay taxes for environment clean-up and health care cost associated with industrial food production
How do you get "desirable" weight for adults?
Hamwii formula-female 100lb for 5 feet + 5lb per in >5feet-male 100lb for 5 feet + 6lb per in >5feetMetropolitan life insurance (miller method)-female 119lb for 5ft + 3lb per in >5ft-male 135lb for 5ft + 3lb per in >ftAlways get a range (+or - 10%) on either method based on frame size!)
Which of the following is a property of the tocopherols?
Easily destroyed by the air and oxygen
Which of the fllwing describes the role of protein in the diet of competitive athletes?
the need for protein in weight lifters and marathon runners may be up to 75-100% higher than the RDA
Which Vitamin C play an important role in returning Vitamin E to its reduced state? and why?
Ascorbate, so that it impacts on the oxidation of membrane components indirectly.
Which of the fllwing is not among the recommendations by health professionals to treat hypertension?
 
increase fiber intake
eat foods high in potassium
if overweight, reduce weight
decrease intake of dairy products to avoid sodium
decrease intake of dairy products to avoid sodium
Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition?
 
low doses may lead to kidney stones
high doses may lower LDL raise HDL blood cholesterol
low doses may lead to heartburn and low blood pressure
high doses may elevate red blood cell count in
high doses may lower LDL raise HDL blood cholesterol
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