Oceanography - Test Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ocean bottom
bathyl/.abyssal zones
complete darkness
1st submersible was:
Minerals crystallize from seawater
study of the oceans
Rip Current
ocean current going outwards
World annual growth rate
about 1.2
ocean trench
deepest area of ocean
is non-living particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material),typically includes the bodies or fragments of dead organisms as well as fecal material. ex: zooplankton, fecal pellets, carcasses (rare)
higher solute concentration than another fluid
Fringing Reef
1st step in atoll process
a pair of flattened extensions equipped with stiff or sharp bristles
Plankton (singular plankter) are any drifting organisms (animals, plants, archaea, or bacteria) that inhabit the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water.
the uninterrupted distance over which wind blows without a significant change in direction, a factor in wind wave development
important marine autotrophs that have SIO2 incorporated in the cell walls are
Nitrates and hydrocarbons are examples of persistent organic pollutants in marine ecosystems
Solids remain in solution above saturation
Non-conservative Nutrients
inorganic nutrients- because its concentration can fluctuate
Library of Alexandria
constituted history's greatest accumulation of ancient writings. Considered the first university in the world. When any ship entered the harbor, the books were by law removed and copied.
Name the first university.
Library of Alexandria
made by the churning waves breaking down rocks and minerals
sideways current formed by a sandbar
longshore currents
Tidal Deltas
Low accumulations of sediment formed at one or both ends of a tidal channel
The order of mammals that includes porpoises, whales, and dolphins
study of landforms and the processes that formed them
Ocean basins are made of _________ material.
The Tertiary Period belongs in the what Era?
A tsunami may travel _______, sometimes exceeding _____ mph.
This type of oceanographer studies teh aspects of the ocean such as tides, currents and ocean circulation
undersea labs
allow scientists to live underwater for extened periods of time
The amount of salt in the ocean.
The most destructive of waves. Are caused by underwater disturbances like earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides.
exchange of gases and water and intimately connected with the ocean
Estuarine circulation associated with a shallow, low-volume estuary in which river water mixes evenly at all depths with ocean water would be called a:
vertically mixed estuary
The sloping transition between the granite of the continent and the basalt of the seabed. The true edge of a continent.
continental slope
Abyssal plain
broad, flat portion of the deep-ocean basin
12 hours
the amount of daylight on March 21
What has a forked caudal fin?
yellowtail snapper, herring
Red Clay
Name of brown, deep sea sedimentary deposit that consists mainly of dust
density current
circulation pattern in the ocean that forms when a mass of more dense seawater sinks beneath less dense water
Advantages of Models
Numerical models can help predict conditions and provide data when measurements are not available, and are cheaper.
Tide Wave
Long-period gravity wave that has its origin in the tide-producing force and is observed as the rise and fall of the tide
Most beach sediments eventually end up depositing at the continental (blank), at the foot of the (blank)
Rise, Slope
A way of grouping objects according to some stated criteria.
satellite navigation
what is used today to determine longitude at sea on ships?
tidal bore
a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)
live on the surface of the sea floor
Forchhammer's Principle
The constant proportion of solids or salts in seawater
island arc
curving chain of volcanic islands and seamounts almost always found paralleling the concave edge of a trench
Wave speed is equal to
wavelength divided by period
Water rushing out of an enclosed harbor or bay because of the fall in sea level as a tide trough approaches
ebb current
Bilateral Symmetry
having right and left halves that are approximate mirror images of eachother
Occurs in September when the 90° sun angle is on the Equator
Fall Equinox
What do we call the relatively narrow features on the sea floor that are the deepest portions of the ocean?
Ocean Trench
a fish caught for its meat and oil, high in vitamins A & D
high tides
_________ tide is the best tie to fish
Continents are made of the (blank) (blank) material that rose to the surface during (blank)
Less Dense, Differentiation
the area of the barrier island complex that contains thickets and woodlands is the
barrier flat
Continental Slope
the steep gradient that leads to the deep ocean floor
What is Fascism?
system of government that stressed the glory of the state nothing in the state nothing out of the state nothing against the state (no individual rights on concerns)
part of the deep central layer of earth, composed primarily of iron and nickel. Its outer liquid portion is 2270 kilometers thick.
outer core
thermohaline causes of motion
evap, cooling, freezing-- all increase density
--> initial- vertical sinking motion

--> then horizontal motion
What material makes up the earth's core?
primarily iron and nickel
Tidal Currents
water rushing into or out of bays and harbors with tidal change in sea level, tidal bore
surface current
currents at the top layer of the ocean caused by winds
What two factors are most important in influencing the density of seawater?
Temperature and salinity
2 examples of divergent boundaries

East African Rift Zone

Mid ocean ridge
What is Trophic Level?
The trophic level is the position an organism occupies in the food chain.
hot mantle rising under mid ocean ridges
plate tectonics: what pushes continents apart?
Angle of Earth to Sun
23.5 degrees north or south of equator
Higher Temperature creates Higher Velocity which creates what density
decrease in density so it would float
Knudsen Relationships (2)
Based of the 2-layer fow in and out of an estuary, relating conservation of Salinity and Volume
Species Distribution on Earth
􀂄 Only 17 % of species
live in the ocean
􀂄 Most species live in the
􀂄 Uniform conditions of
the open ocean do not
force organisms to
adapt, change
􀂄 Although fewer
species, ocean is more
Give an example of a fast-moving spreading ridge and a slow-moving ridge.
Which one tends to be more gently sloped than the other?
Fast moving spreading ridges tend to be more gently sloped than slow moving ridges
Which of the following is a tidal current?
both ebb tides and flood tides.
**ask professor))> it would break at the point at which the wave length is less than 1/7...0.14
**if our wave height was 7meters high, what wave length or lower would cause the wave to break (H/L<1/7).
Storm surges cannot be called a wave, because...
They consist of only a crest, and cannot be assigned a period of wavelength
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