Oceanography 10 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
blue whale
Continental Crust
Primarily granite
biologically produced light
measures ocean floor thickness
sound navigation and ranging
bottom-dwellers. ex. clams, crabs, scallops, lobsters, coral
Structure has a frustule—a two-part,
box-shaped organic cell wall impregnated with silica
Valve—one half of a frustule; 1 valve is larger and fits
over the other like a box lid. There are 2 basic diatom shapes:
• radially symmetrical valves
(generally planktonic)
• bilaterally symmetrical
valves (generally benthic)
molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle.
lack a jaw, snake like.
Seamounts form from ancient tablemounts.
Submarine Canyons
narrow, steep-sided valleys that originate on the continental shelf and cut into continental slopes and continental rises of the ocean
Major Constituents
also called conservative constituents because their amounts don't change; Chloride, Sodium, Sulfate, Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium,
in crustaceans, segment that comprises head and chest regions
Gulf Stream
current that carries warm water
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and another is unaffected
boundary current
northward or southward directed surface currents that flow parallel to continental margins caused by deflection of the prevailing eastward and westward flowing currents by continents.
"rock oil"; used as machinery lubricant or refined for fuel; almost always associated with marine sediments
Hydroxyl Ion
Name for the OH- ion
introduction of wastes to an environment such as sewage and chemicals that can damage organisms
What did partial melting result in?
Permanently frozen layer of soil under the surface.
momst marine species found in a
benethnic environment
The Earths crust solidified around 4.5 billion years ago
Langmuir Circulation
Vertical cellular pattern in which water moves in opposing helical motion with the long axis of the helix parallel to the direction of the wind, produces sea stripes
disturbance caused by the movement of energy through a medium
organisms that make their own food through primary productivity
the innermost portion of the Earth, which is composed primarily of iron and nickel.
water that moves in a certain direction; the river like flow of water in the oceans
undersea volcanic peaks that are not part of an undersea mountaon range
the percent of the Earth's surface that is covered by land
The seasonal temperature range in the deep ocean is usually:
The outermost solid layer of Earth, composed mostly of granite and basalt; the top of the lithosphere. The crust has a density of 2.7-2.9 g/cm3 and accounts for 0.4% of Earth's mass.
the revatively shallow water areas that adjoin continents or islands.
coastal waters
equations of continuity
conservation equations are commonly written out to conserve

1. mass and volume
("the equation of continuity")

2. momentum
with F = ma then a = F/m

3. energy
The difference in height between consecutive high and low tides
Tidal Range
tidal surges
the rush of ocean water on shore.
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts and other solids in a given amount of liquid
all of the feeding relationships that exist in a habitat
food web
deposits of soft mud on the ocean floor
What is the distribution of benthic biomass related?
surface productivity
What does NOAA represent?
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
depth less than 1/20 the wavelength so tsunamis are _________ water waves?
Divergent Edges
new ocean basin, growth to ocean basins
(blank) is the coastal are that never gets exposed to air
Catadromous Fish
(sea born); migrate from the fresh water to salt water to spawn
standing wave
a wave in which water oscillates without causing progressive wave forward movement. There is no transmission of energy in a standing wave.
Found on sandy beaches, can be found buried in the sediment
Tidal Day
twenty four hours and fifty minutes long
continental margin
the submerged outer edge of a continent, made of granitic crust; includes the continental shelf and continental slope
arctic ocean's gyre
w/ cross basin flow thru bering strait and fram strait

.... its circulation is interfered w/ by surface, low salinity events
A hill and/or ridge of sediment left from the ice ages when the glaciers retreated. Some examples include: New York, and Cape Cod, Massachusetts
Food chain
It is a linear path of feeding relationships among organisms (e.g., producers, consumers) along which energy and materials move within an ecosystem
low pressure system
density of air is below average, therefore atmospheric is below average and air rises
Abyssal plain
The deepest, flatest part of the ocean floor
Ria Coast
A primary coast formed when rising sea level, caused by the melting of glaciers and ice sheets following the last ice age, flooded coastal river valleys.
If channels of return flow are narrow and far apart, what occurs?
rip currents
Sand Bar
Long, underwater pile of sand built up by longshore currents.
Matthew Maury
Studied Ships logs with wind and temp data. assembled it into wind and current charts and issued them to sailors fr giving him their logs when they returned. KNOWN AS THE FATHER OF OCEANOGRAPHY.
ocean basin floor
area of the deep-ocean floor between the continental margin and the mid-ocean ridge
a series of growths that grow on Right whales- which are baleen whales
the San Andreas fault is this type of plate boundary
What is ozone?
-a form of oxygen that absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current, driven by powerful westerly winds north of Antarctica. The largest of all ocean currents, it continues permanently eastward without changing direction
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (West Wind Drift)
Solar Day
passage of time as based on the suns position in the sky
Uses of Potential Temperature
Used to compare water samples at significantly different depths, or calculating vertical motion over large depths
Weather is defined as the state of the atmosphere in terms of (blank), (blank), and pressure.
Temperature, Moisture
The strength of a hurricane is ranked from 1 to 5 on the
Saffir Simpson Scale
How do plates move?
Thermal Convection move molten rock in the asthenosphere, moving the lithosphere along aswell.
Japan in minimata bay
methyl mercury dumped into the bay many health problems
Who was Carolus Linnaeus?
he developed a book in 1758 developed the classification of scientific nomenclature, taxonomic classification(kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species)
The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific Plate is
moving over a hot spot
What are the reef builder types?
stony corals, seawhips and fans, echinoderms, molluscs and brightly colored fish
What is the relationship between salinity and density?
The higher the salinity, the greater the density.
what are characteristic of the sea floor that supports the idea that subduction must occur
symmetric pattern of ocean floor ages
what is the relationship between deep ocean trenches and subduction zones?
Deep ocean trenches are caused by lithospheric plates sloping in subduction zones causing the plates to slope downward causing deep ocean trenches.
Wich of the following statements does not correctly describe subduction zones?
They are sites where crustal plates are diverging or pulling apart.
sink in the ocean or travel longer distances
because smaller grain sizes can only be deposited in low-energy environments, it takes longer for them to what?
extra energy is released by white caps
for a given wind speed, the size of ocean wind has to blow over and duration before waves become fully developed and cannot grow anymore because why??
Sea Pig
larvae of crabs
found on continents
ocean currents and rainfall
Beach has :
wave-worked sediments
someone who studies the oceans
tiny beach dwelling shrimplike crustaceans with flattened sides
s. california- no rain
saltiest water?
sea wasp
poisonous jellyfish is Australia
Continental Drift theorist (date)
Wagner 1916
an irregular current caused by breaking waves being pulled into deeper water by gravity.
Finger-like ridge of sand projecting part way across a bay or into a body of water
group of marine annimals thath includes seals sealions and walrusses
wave diffraction
movement of waves around obstacles
Nutrient concentrations low, solar input high, oxygen solubility decreases
summer months
Free-swimming animals that can move throughout the water column.
drift nets
"walls of death"; plastic, nonbiodegradable
Underwater vehicle used in ocean exploration
a massive sphere of incandescent gases powered by the conversion of hydrogen to helium and other heavier elements
Uninterrupted distance over which the wind blows without significant change in direction -- a strong wind must blow continuously in one direction for the largest waves to develop fully.
Varied, colorful patterns to help camouflage against varied, colorful background
adaptive coloration
what is an example of fungi kingdom?
Tidal Range
Difference in elevation of water surface between consecutive high and low tides
Squid have a tounge like structure called
Gravity Waves
gravity acts as the restoring force
associated iwth pycnoclone is a possible hazard for submarines
internal waves
the branch of science dealing with physical and biological aspects of the oceans
utilization of food by living things for growth and energy
Mostly from tectonic events. connected to ocean. shallower than ocean
marginal seas
Marine birds
Ture seabirds, avoid land unless breading. (Pelicans, gulls, penguins)
What is the average salinity of seawater?
The "intermediate disturbance hypthesis" explains:
Controls on marine diversity
property of being dissolved or going into solution
principle means of heat - h2o exchange


3-Evaporation / Precipitation
Reversals of airflow between normally low atmospheric pressure over the western Pacific and normally high pressure over the eastern Pacific. The cause of El Niqo. See El Niqo
Southern Oscillation
nutrients and sunlight
What factors influence a region's photosynthetic productivity?
The endosymbiosis theory explains the origin of:
The first eukaryotes
Was Pitman's estimated flow velocity through the Bosphorus during the flood reater than or less than Niagara Falls?
1000 times greater
Hydrogenic Sediment
General term for sediments such as evaporites, phosphate nodules and manganese nodules
A wave that forms beneath the ocean floor caused by an earthquake.
what are some pollutant impacts?
1 assimilation capacity
2 monitoring
3 standards
the part that is depressed the lowest below the surface
The (blank) of the earth's axis is (blank) indicates that the earth was hit by a large planet.
high energy coast
a coast exposed to large waves
15 degrees
earth rotates ____ degrees every 60 minutes?
tidal datum
the reference level (0,0) from which tidal height ismeasuered.
Bony Fishes
Skeleton of hard bone, scales and gills, swim bladder- allows fish to change depths by changing their buoyancy, represent 95% of all fishes, fresh and salt water environments
Life on Earth most probably evolved
In the ocean
a device that measures the amount and direction of residual magnetism in a rock sample
The center of mass of the Earth-Moon system is called the
A breaking wave whose crest slides down the face of the wave
spilling wave
great white shark
man eater, fiercest & most dangerous to man
This occurs during the 1/4 and 3/4 moon, the smallest difference between high and low tides
Neap Tide
swim bladder
in bony fish, an internal gas filled organ that lets fish adjust its level in water
Continental Slope
begins at shelf end, where water depth begins to increase rapidly
TF and organisms that is at top of food chain more vulnerable than one at top of food web
MORs can be identified by the presence of the (blank) (blank) at the top.
Rift Valley
Neretic marine environments would be found
Associated with continental shelves
hard beak
the octopus has a _____ ________ that it uses to cut up its prey
Causes of Whale Strandings
Scientists don't know why whales strand
Intentionally to rest or seek safety of land or to rub their skin
Disorientation, confusion of sonar signals in shallow water, or effects of parasite infestation of the inner ear may cause strandings
most stranded cetateans are already dead or very ill, however some are alive and seemingly healthy
most compelling argument has to do with whales using the earth's magnetic field to navigate their environment
the zone between the core and crust of Earth; rich in ferromagnesian minerals
Main constituents of sea h2o

(>1 ppm)
*Sodium (Na +

*Magnesium (Mg 2+)



What kind of shells are not dissolved at great depths?
-siliceous shells
What ion in seawater serves as a pH buffer?
Bicarbonate Ion
5 large Gyres
- N. Pacific Gyre
- S. Pacific Gyre
- N. Atlantic Gyre
- S. Atlantic Gyre
- Indian Ocean Gyre
What two compositional layers make up the lithosphere?
-crust and uppermost mantle
Describe normal circulation along the equatorial pacific.
Warm water is pushed westward
What percent of the sun's engery is absorbed within how many inches?
66%, 2 inches
name and describe shoreline depositional features
Spits- elongated ridges of sand that project from the land into the mouth of an adjacent bay. Baymouth Bar- a sand bar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean. Tombolo- ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island
silts, clays, and sands
what three things move down river in streams and things?
What is the average pH of seawater?
7.8 which is slightly basic
whats the law of the sea
it gives states exclusive economic ownership to ocean that is 200 miles off of the land (oil $)
what are the levels of waste water treatment/
1 primary sewage treatment-dischrage or sludge digestor
2 secondary treatment-bio-oxidation
3 tertiary treatment- provides drinking water
Why does ice float?
d. Ice floats because it is less dense than the water.
Bay Mouth Bar (Barrier Bay)
Spit built across the opening of a bay and isolating it from the sea
What occurs in upwelling? Why does this process occur?
Deeper waters are brought to the surface Winds cause surface currents to move away from the shore
swell, or free waves not driven by wind.
as waves continue beyond area of generation- what happens? sustained by energy obtained in sea
in the form of heat to the atmosphere
as water moving toward the poles in ocean currents cools, releases energy in the form of what? to where?
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