Oceanography 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
luteinizing hormone
Oceanic Crust
Primarily basalt
farming marine organisms
to produce fresh water
front of the boat
they are drifters, typically single-celled photosynthetic organisms (plants) at the bottom of the food chain. zooplankoton feed on the phytoplankton
no/little sediment, freshwater mixes with salt water (making them important biological nurseries)
which grouping is most inclusive
two door-twin shells (clams, oysters)
Another name for Oceanic Crust
rhythmic movement of energy through water
Warm, Nutrient-poor water sinks to depths
in barnacles, pairs of feathery appendages that catch food particles
Sediment particle between .oo4 and .062 mm in diameter
the percentage of euphotic zone biomass that reaches the deep ocean floor is approximately
substance used to trace water movements usually one that does not occur naturally.
methane hydrate
methane-laced ice crystals; largest hydrocarbon reserve on earth; powerful greenhouse gas
Ice Floes
Shifting masses of pack ice
food-making process using light energy from the sun, carbon dioxide, and water
where was earliest fossilized life discovered?
These birds have dense bones to counteract the buoyancy problem
Organisms that tolerate a wide range of salanties are
Earth developed the first ocean by about 4 million years ago
Convection Cells
Cells form bands around the Earth
water returning to the ocean from waves washing up a beach
Water that moves in a certain direction; the river like flow of water in the oceans.
the process by which plants produce carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll, using light energy and relasing oxygen
The term for falling, condensed water molecules, which come down as rain, snow, sleet or hail, depending on the condition of Earth's atmosphere
microscopic plants that depend on the oceans upwelling currents to bring them nutrients from the ocean floor
manganese nodule
rounded lump of hydrogenous sediment scattered on the ocean floor
the hadal zone is associated with deep-ocean trenches
The innermost layer of Earth, composed primarily of iron, with nickel and heavy elements. The inner core is thought to be a solid 6,000°C (11,000°F) sphere, the outer core a 5,000°C (9,000°F) liquid mass. The average density of the outer core is about 11.8 g/cm3, and that of the inner core is about 16 g/cm3.
having two poles. The water molecule possesses a polarity of electrical change with one pole being more positive and the other more negative in electric charge
A sub z
eddy viscocity for vertical mixing
A "no-tide" point in an ocean caused by basin resonance, friction, and other factors around which tide crests rotate. About a dozen amphidromic points exist in the world ocean. Sometimes called a node.
amphidromic point
a large wave caused by something under the ocean
Barrier Island
Low, narrow, sand islands that form offshore from a coastline
gently sloping shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
continental shelf
M.F. Maury
published the first book written in England about oceanography. known as FATHER OF OCEANOGRAPHY
What abnormally large organisms are usually found in hydrothermal vent communities?
tubeworms and clams
Which term is used for the process that occurs when one tectonic plate slides beneath another and descends into Earth's mantle?
ocean depth
speed of tsunamis is determined by what? move across ocean at around 200m/s
gulf stream
-100 km wide
-warm current that goes quickly from North America to England
(blank) is the coastal area that never goes under water
a stone or concrete wall built out from a beach to reduce erosion
Pendulum like rocking of water in an enclosed area; a form of standing wave that can be caused by meteorological or seismic forces or may result from the normal resonance excited by tides
• 80% of available fish stock fully exploited overexploited, or depleted/recovering
• Large predatory fish reduced
• Increased fish pressure, decreased stocks
Centrifugal Force
an apparent force present when one judges motion against a rotating frame of reference
active margin
the continental margin near and area of lithospheric plate convergence
seah2o ions -- RESIDENCE TIME
Chloride Cl (100,000,000 100mill)

Sodium Na (70mill)

Magnesium Mg

Potassium K

Sulfate SO4 2

Calcium Ca (1 mill)

Carbonate CO3

Silicon Si

Water H2o

Manganese Mn

Aluminum Al (600)

Iron Fe (200)
The reflection of progressive waves by a vertical barrier. Reflection occurs with little loss of energy
wave reflection
How does elevation affect temperature?
Higher elevations have colder climates.
Minor Constituents
ions that make up ions in the seawater, such as bicarbonate, bromide, strontium, boron, fluoride, these are also called the nonconservative constituents because their amounts can be affected by biological or chemical processes.
Continental Shelf
The area of ocean floor that contains the most marine life.
Berm Crest
Ridge marking the seaward limit of a berm.
the highest part of the wave that is elevated above the undistrubed sea level
Long Shore Currents
Current moves parallel to shorline as a result of waves breaking at an angle.
Sand is picked up w/ current and deposited near shorline.
Cause of sand bars.(see sand bar definition)
After time, long shore currrents can get trapped on the shorline side of the sand bar resulting in rip currents.
Continental Slope
A steep incline of the ocean floor leading down from the edge of the continental shelf.
To take a breath whales must swim to the surface and exhale through their blowhole. This action has been dubbed spouting but can also be called blowing. Different species have characteristic blowholes
a material found in kelp which is used in dental impressions and to smooth out paint
Define tombolo.
-a spit that extends offshore to an island
The wedge of sediment is forming the gentle transition from the outer (lower) edge of the continental slope to the abyssal plain. Usually associated with passive margins.
continental rise:
Lunar day
period of time it takes for the moon to complete one full rotation on its axis around the sun
Coriolis effect on amplitude of ocean basin Kelvin Wave
Kelvin wave amplitude increases
Some of the sunlight that falls on to the ocean surface is (blank), and the rest is (blank).
Reflected, Absorbed
A maritime tropical air mass is likely to be
warm and wet
If Antartica were to melt, how much would the sea level rise to?
about 60 meters.
What is Oceanography?
It is the scientific study of the ocean. It draws from other sciences including geology, meterology, biology, physics, chemistry and engineering.
How does available light change with depth?
coastal- high nutrients, low light
open ocean- high light, low nutrients
productivity is higher in coastal zones
With respect to mid ocean ridges, transform faults are
perpendicular to the ridge axis
What is a limiting nutrient?
growth is slowed or prevented because the concentration of a particular element is too low.
What is the relationship between temperature and density?
The lower the temperature, the greater the density.
explain the differences in height between continental and ocean crust?
oceanic- mass of rock w/ basaltic composition (5km thick) continental- composed of igneous and granite, (35-60km thick)
max density of water
occurs in liquid state. At 4 deg C for pure water, for ocean water it is not reached before freezing. increases with decrease in temp and increase in salt.
If two oceanic plates collide at a relatively fast speed, and one is much older and cooler (and therefore denser) than the other, what will probably happen
A trench will form; colcanoes generated will form an "island arc"
1. degree of sorting increases 2. clay content decreases 3. rounding of sand particles increases
As maturity of sediment increases what happens ( 3 things)
c. the wind blows in one direction
The fetch refers to the distance. a. a dog will fetch a stick b. a wave will travel c. the wind blows in one direction d. surface tension e. dissolution?
eat phytoplankton
below tide level
group of whales
The class of mammals
Composition of Earth
heterogenous, stratifyed
deep bays carved by glaciers
herbivorous, aquatic mammal found mainly in warm pacific coastal water
electron sharing is called what?
early 1800's-william forbes; late 1800's-challenger expedition-charles thompson (disrpoved)
equal solute concentration with another fluid
Barrier reef
2nd step in atoll process.
hydrostatic skeleton
structure that makes annelids efficient crawlers and burrowers
allowing (especially liquids) to pass or diffuse through
a zone of unconsolidated sediment extending from below water lebel to the edge of the coastal zone.
Marine Mammals Act of 92
Dolphin Protection
Organisms with small, expandable bodies, extremely large mouths, and efficient teeth are likely to be found in the
Bathypelagic zone
A type of phytoplanton- one-celled marine plants. Live in large numbers through out upper layers of the ocean. surrounded by a plate made of limestone. are shaped like hubcaps and are only 3/1000 mm in diameter
the relatively heavy vrustal rock that forms the seabeds, composed mostly of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, and iron.
This person invented the chronometer.
John Harrison
Changes in the shape of Earth's Orbit
current flowing through a break in sandbars
The ability to see objects beyond obstructions or the curvature of earth because of the refraction of light
A whip-like structure used by some small organisms and gametes to move through the environment
deposit of river borne sediment left at a river mount, creates fertile coastal area
continents are are made of ________ material.
T/F: The middle latitudes in the northern hemisphere have about equal areas devoted to both land and water
the study of changes in Earth's magnetic field, as shown by patterns of magnetism in rocks that have formed over time
The Milky Way is a specific ________________
a tooth whale with a pointed snout
Variations in water depth along the coast cause waves to bend or what around the coastline?
A surface current flowing in the opposite direction from an adjacent surface current.
four forces used to be created, surface winds, suns heat, Coriolis effect, gravity
Which marine environment exhibits the greatest species diversity?
neritic province
A deep, V-shaped valley running roughly perpendicular to the shoreline and cutting across the edge of the continental shelf and slope.
submarine canyon
el nino
a short term climate change that occurs every two to ten years
barrier islands
long, narrow sand islands parallel to the shoreline
What have the highest rate of productivity in worlds oceans?
Polar Water
Name for the entire rock portion of the planet Earth
rip current
longshore currents can get trapped on the shoreline causing narrow streams of water to break through sandbars and drain rapidly back to sea
General Circulation Model
Typical spatial resolution of a climate model grid. Many climate processes however cannot be resolved
sea surface water wave that has become too steep to be stable and collapses
The most-dense region of the earth is called the (blank)
Transform plate boundary
Places where crustal plates shear laterally past one another. Crust is neither produced nor destroyed at this type of junction.
earths surface
what cools allowing water vapor to condense?
a less than average tide occurring at the first and third quarters of the moon
o Part of lives as plankton
o Juvenile or larval stages
Covalent bond
connects atoms by sharing the energy of paired electrons
time required for one-half of all the unstable radioactive nuclei in a sample to decay.
In terms of erosion protection from wave action, seawalls
are ineffective
Water rushing into an enclosed harbor or bay because of the rise in sea level as a tide crest approaches
Flood Current
Crude Oil
slowly broken down oil that moves into sediments
These are 24 hours and 50 minutes long.
Lunar Day
what could decrease sea water salinity?
precipitation, runoff, melting icebergs and sea ice
North Atlantic Deep Water
Flows southward below the Gulf Stream
go as far inland as possible
If a tsunami comes....
What is the name of the least dense layer of the earth?
An example of an organism that might be part of the epifauna is
Sea Star
layer of ocean water where there is a rapid change of temperature and depth
Limiting Factors of Productivity
Four components are needed for photosynthesis: water, carbon dioxide, inorganic nutrients, and sunlight. Water and CO2 are not limiting factors in the surface of oceans, but inorganic nutrients and sunlight are two potential limiting factors. abundance of light depends on depth, latitude, and water clarity. Inorganic nutrient concentrations fluctuate
a form of ice originating from the freezing of ocean water
sea ice
conservation equations used for:
continuity of flow
tracking mass (salinity, density)


What are some economic offshore mineral deposits that are being mined?
-Gold/Platinum: Alaska, southwest African coasts
-Diamonds: Southwest Africa Coast
-Titanium: Australia
Is the pH of the ocean slightly acidic or alkaline?
slightly alkaline
mid-ocean ridge
the highest part of a long chain of mountains found in some parts of the ocean basin
Tropical cyclones form between which latitudes?
5 degrees and 20 degrees
What is the result of a convergent boundary in each of the following:


Island arcs

volcanic mountains.
Divergent Plate Boundaries
plates pull away from each other and a new crust is formed.
abyssal hills and sea mounts
what two things are scattered across the ocean floor?
How many times a month do the highest high tides occur?
twice a month
Is oceanic lithosphere or continental lithosphere younger and why?
Oceanic because it is continually being created and destroyed.
La Nina impact on Jetstream
Jetstream is pushed far to the North of California
Need to sample the bottom
􀂄 Try towing a net on the bottom
􀂉 “otter trawl”
􀂄 Just grab some mud and sieve out the
What is the ocean's "biological pump" and how does it help reduce global
The Ocean is the biological pump because it pumps the carbondioxide nutrients from the upper ocean and concentrates them to deep sea waters
The maximum tidal currents are reported:
about half way between high and low tides.
wave slows down forcing wave height to increase as ocean depth decreases
Tsunamis behave like any other shallow water wave as they approach the shore...what happens?
size of wave depends on 3 things
1. Speed of the wind
2. How long the wind blows
3. Size of the area the wind is blowing over
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