oceanography 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Underwater volcanoes
Eat animals
wave speed
c=l/t wavelenght/time
oceanic trench
convergent plate boundary
variety of waves
Mixed interference
What is chemical weathering?
depression along ridge axis
rift valley
bacteria plankton, small yet abundant
worse way for beach erosion
What is erosion?
Transportation of sediment
balance out the earths tempurature just like the wind
the lowest part of the wave
Deep Sea Trench
A deep sea valley
Suspension Feeders
filter particles (mostly plankton) suspended in the water for food.
an organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. sugars and starches are examples
(blank) (blank) are large notches
Sea Caves
echo sounding
What is sonar also called?
--small plankton genus discovered only within last 2 decades
genus thought to constitute half of the total chlorophyll based biomass in the sea
Epifauna live deep within benthic sediments.
Is the Lithospheric Oceanic Plate fluid or sticky?
Abyssal Zone
no ligjht extreme pressure. tube worms. sponges. coral.
sand spit
finger-like ridge of sand projecting part way across a bay or into a body of water
property of a substance defined as mass per unit volume and usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter or kilograms per cubic meter
it is when dissolved minerals form into solids
Offshore ridge or mound of sand, grave, or other loose material that is submerged at least at high tide; located especially at the mouth of a river or estuary or lying a short distance from and parallel to the beach.
Thermal Expansion
biggest contributor to seal level rise
zone of depth where temperature drops drastically
the term for the falling, condensed water molecules, which come down as rain, snow, sleet or hail, depending on conditions in the Earth's atomosphere
Stenothermal orgs are likely to be found in deep ocean water
an island consisting of a circular coral reef surrounding a lagoon
Low pressure systems in the northern hemisphere rotate
Deep ocean currents provide _____ to the deep sea
what type od plate boundary are volcanic arcs associated with?
the discovery and study of submerged contours
wave steepness
Height-to-wavelength ratio of a wave. The theoretical maximum steepness of deep-water waves is 1:7.
Sea Wall
built ashore parallel to the beach shores for protection, energy reflected back towards the ocean undercuts the front of the wall
Type of crust that is thin, composed of basalt, rich in Iron and Magnesium, and is very dense
High Tide
maximum height reached by a rising tide
behavior in which whales leap out of water and crash back down
The total amount of dissolved salts in a water sample.
abyssal plain
deepest and flattest regions on earth ex. ocean floor basin
increase. increase.
when ions added to water they ___________ mass within same unity of space and therefore _______________ density.
the current at the eastern boundary of the sargasso sea is the what current
Littoral Zone
The benthic zone between the highest and lowest spring tide shorelines; also known as the intertidal zone
submarine canyons
deep, steep-sided valleys cut into the continental slope. Prone to turbidity currents.
a prefix meaning "wide," it can be used to describe organisms that have wide tolerances for specific factors
When the loose sediments on the sea floor are transformed into sedimentary rock
major process that adds new usable nitrogen to the sea
nitrogen fixation
High heat capacity
temperature changes very slowly when energy is added
1 degree of latitude equals how many nautical miles?
La Nina
An event during which normal tropical Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation strengthens, and the surface temperature of the eastern South Pacific drops below average values. Usually occurs at the end of an ENSO event. See ENSO.
a seriesof waves when a body of water particularly oceans are rapidly displaced.
Coriolis Current
The affect of Earth's rotation on the rotation of winds and currents
Tidal Surge
The onshore rushof sea water caused by the high winds that are associated with a hurricane and the low pressure of the storm
how is the caudal fin of fast cruising fish as tuna
Stern Trawler Netting
lots of bycatch (not what was sought)
At the 10 m level in seawater, how much light is available for seeing?
a hill and or ridge of sediment left by retreating glaciers. examples include new york and cape cod, MA.
tsunami warning system
a network of sensors to detect tsunamis and a communications infrastructure to issue timely alarms to permit evacuation of coastal areas
the total mass of living matter in a given unit area
The seaward flow of water due to tidal forces through an inlet is called an ebb current.
P wave (primary wave)
a compressional wave that is associated with an earthquake and that can move through both liquid and rock
An estuary in which slow river flow and tidal turbulence mix fresh and salt water in a regular pattern through most of its length.
Well-mixed Estuary
hierarchial ordering of taxonomic levels are
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genius, species
what causes the earth's seasons?
the tilt of the earth's axis
If air is heated its volume (blank) causing the density to (blank) and air to (blank)
Increase, Decrease, Rise
meteorites & comets
where water on the earth could have originated from
S wave (secondary wave)
a transverse wave that is associated with an earthquake and that cannot move through liquid
The top of the berm; the highest point on most beaches. Corresponds to the shoreward limit of wave action during most high tides.
Berm Crest
what factors effect thermohaline circulation?
the vertical movement of ocean water driven by density differences resulting from the combined effects of variations in temperature and salinity. produces deep currents.
Deep Ocean Vents
hot water vents on the sea floor that form when cold seawater seeps into the crust, is heated by the mantle, and gushes back into the ocean, carrying dissolved minerals
What determines surface salinities in the ocean?
-result from the complex interactions between evaporation, precipitation, and mixing due to currents, wave action, and temperature...
proxies used in Cariaco basin climate reconstruction
marine sediments and geochemistry of foraminifera shells
What are the characteristics of these dissolved gases?
N- conservative, O- non conservative, CO2 is nonconservative
What conditions are necessary for coral to live? (temperature, clarity, depth)
they like water at 73-77 degree F, small changes in surface temp threaten coral reefs, require clear water, the sea level can't rise too quickly cause they can't keep up with it, and then die
ocean basin (abyssal plain)
is the floor at the deep part of the ocean.It is covered with sediments of clay , silt, sand and rock carriedes into the ocean from the continents
Why is CCD shallower at the poles and deeper at the equator?
Carbonate compensation depth (CCD) is deeper at the equator because carbonate formation at sea surface is greater in warmer waters.
What two climates would you expect to find a higher salinity in the ocean water and why
Very hot and dry climates, and very cold climates near the poles
tidal current
marpol 1987
Waves spread energy..
Ebb Tide
Seaward flow bringing
microorgainisms that create orgainic molecules using chemical energy
dinoflagellate algae that live symbiotically within coral polyps
characterized by curling crest
plunging breaker
moving energy
What is a Wave?
waves breaking on the shore
Tidal range
difference between consecutive high and low tide
The circular path that individual water particles follow in a wave; get progressively more elliptical as depth decreases
Two types of coast:
1.) erosional/rocky
2.) Depositional/sandy
cone-shaped mountain peaks that rise high above deep ocean floors
circulation is very apparent when looking at what?
an established piece of information. scientific facts must be empirically verifiable and potentially falsifiable
Turbidity currents caused by
earthquakes and landslides
uninterrupted distance the wind blows without significant change in direction
a smaller, usually nonluminous body orbiting a star
What do herbivores eat?
chief consumers of phytoplankton
23.5 degrees S.
latitude for tropic of capricorn
Surging wave break
ocean bottom has abrupt slope
Medium Waves
includes most sea waves, mainly dampened by gravity, opposing winds and weakened by expanding wave front
in ocean waves, the circular pattern of water molecule movement at the air-sea interface. orbital motion contrasts with the side-to-side or back-and-forth motion of pure transverse or longitudinal waves
red algae, smaller, absorb weak light better, tougher in harsher environments
process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Describe the three difference topographic zones of the continental margin. The most frequent technique for measuring ocean depth employs what method?
-continental margin
-continental slope
-continental rise
-eco sound
Temperature profile
plots changing water temperatures with depth
terrigenous sediment
seafloor sediment made from eroded rocks on land
Rapid change in salinity with slight change in depth
Height of wave increases ______ than the length
: the large atmospheric circulation cell that occurs between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in each direction
ferrell cell
What are the major salts in seawater?
Slowing and bending of progressive waves in shallow water
wave refraction
Epipelagic Zone
tuna, swordfish, lots of sunlight, low pressure. warmest zone.
The shallow zone of the ocean where land meets water, which is alternately covered or exposed by the tied
Reef Terrace
located landward of the algal ridge and lies at mean water level
daily change in the elevation of the ocean surface
Pectoral Fin
for locomotion and side to side movement, lateral surface, paired fin
Which ocean feature is a long, steep-sided depression in the abyssal plain ?
ocean trench
wind speed
There is a strong correlation between wave height and what?
Short Distance Surface Currents
Found near shorline.
Types: longshore rip current and rip current.
Extremely large waves that form due to (blank) of different wave sets are called rogue waves.
What factors increase salinity of sea water
Freezing, evaporation
Transform Boundaries
the offset area at a lithospheric fault when the two plates slide past each other in opposite directions
the usage of sound to determine size, distance, and location of objects
High Water
greatest hight to which the tide reaches
At the present time sea level is:
Raising 5mm/yr
most dominant control of ocean motion
p (pressure)
with location
internal wave
A progressive wave occurring at the boundary between liquids of different densities.
What is Spring Bloom?
Abundant nutrients, more sunlight and stable water column are favorable conditions for phytoplankton populations
ecological roles of dinoflagellates
major component of phytoplankton
• some are parasites of copepods (crustaceans)
• zooxanthellae—species lacking flagella which are
symbionts of jellyfish, corals and molluscs
-photosynthetic zooxanthellae provide food for hosts
-hosts provide carbon dioxide, other nutrients, and shelter
coriolis effect
the curving of moving objects from a straight path due to the Earth's rotation
large waves can through stones in the air up to how high?
130 feet
tides occuring every two weeks at the one-quarter or last quarter moon are called what tides
neap tides
global conveyor (belt)
integrated system of surface and deep ocean currents that move water from the polar regions throughout the ocean and return them to polar regions where the deep ocean water masses form.
mid-ocean ridge
Where in the ocean would you find hydrothermal vents?
What is the average salinity of the ocean?
35 ppt
How old is our Solar System?
4.567 billion years old
The height of the ocean surface averaged over a few years time.
mean sea level
shore zone
the place where the land and the ocean meet
what is wave size determined by?
*wind velocity
*duration of wind blowing
*fetch (distance over which wind blows)
The phase in which water exists is determined by
Temperature and pressure
What solutes exist in abundance in the oceans?
Cations and Anions!
What causes seasons?
The tilt of the earth

The sunlight is either more direct or less direct
Gas temp and pressure
air cools when it expands, warms when it is compressed
The Principle of Constant Proportions states that
the relative concentration of seawater ions does not change
What are deep water deposits?
formed through the holes and cracks along mid-ocean ridges, plumes of hot water billow out into surrounding seawater. as the water cools, mineral deposits form. (sulfur, iron, copper, zinc, silver) Can also precipitate from seawater.
what is an eddie?
a current of any fluid forming on the side of a main current. it usually moves in a circular path and develops where currents encounter obstacles or flow past one another
Why is salinity of water so important?
It changes the density of water.
seasonal temp range in the deep ocean is usually what?
negligible -1.8 to 3 degrees celsius
Why is the ocean considered a buffering system?
H20 and CO2 combine to form bicarbonate ions; minimizes changes in the pH of the ocean
Description of El Nino travel and its impacts
Travels as a Kelvin Wave eastward along the equator until it hits the coast of South America and travels north and south, affecting climate in many parts of world
waves can no what with other waves when traveling?
they can interset when traveling in a different direction or the can travel through each other
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