Oceanography : Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
gulf
diurnal
seamounts
underwater mountains
Meroplankton
larval stages
southern cross
southern hemisphere
zone near surface
bentic zone
Copepods
Majority of ocean's zooplankton
List the five oceans
pacific
Alantic
Indian
Arctic
Antartic
Vikings
established temporary settlements in North America
Groins
smaller projecting walls perpendicular to beaches that block longshore drift and build up sand on one side of the wall
challenger expedition
first marine science trips
Archaebacteria live in _____ conditions
extreme
trenches
found at converging plate boundaries where one plate is forced under another
Oceanography
The study of physical characteristics, chemical composition, and life forms of the oceans.
buoyancy
upward force that keeps things afloat
false
mangrove swamps are protective buffer areas in temperate latitude coastal ecosystems
wave train
group of waves is called?
Due to refraction, waves (blank) around islands
Wrap
Carnivora
Seals, sea lions, walruses. Eat flesh/meat.
Visible Light
• Blue wavelengths penetrate deepest
• Longer wavelengths (red, organge) absorbed first
Marine effect
locations that experience the moderating influences of the ocean, usually along the coastlines. - Los Angeles
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Location
Under continents
Neritic Zone
near the coast. found along continental shelf. lots of light. lots of life.
salt marsh
composed of salt-tolerant plants that colonize shores that are protected from wave action
radiation
direct transmission of heat from its energy source
trace metals
substitution in crystal structures of one ion for another
Salinity
measure of the dissolved salts in water
Temperature Regulation
most marine organisms are ectothermic or cold blooded; few are endothermic, or warm blooded
Island
A feature that is surrounded by water.
The polarization of the water molecule makes it a good (blank).
Solvent
The majority of marine species are pelagic
False
Sand spit
forms where the longshore current slows as it clears a headland and approaches a quiet bay.
The unit of measurement used to describe the rate at which a volume of ocean water moves in a current is a
sverdrup
greenhouse gases act on ___
reradiated longwave radiation
deepest spot in the world's ocean
Mariana Trench
continental slope
the sloping transition between the granit of the continent and the basalt of the seabed; the true edge of a continent.
The smooth, level terrace sometimes found on erosional coasts that marks the submerged limit of rapid marine erosion
Wave-cut Platform
Breakwater
built in the water parallel to the shore to slow the longshore current
Deep Current
a streamlike movement of ocean water far below the surface
Supralittoral
Bethnic zone above the high tide level that is moistened by waves, spray
continental margins, Mid-ocean ridge, deep ocean margins
3 major marine provinces
lateral line
series of pore like openings along side of fish
breaker
foamy mass of water that washes onto the shore
bloom
a sudden increase in the population of an animal or plant plankton
in the southern hemipshere the speed of the wind-driven water increases or decreases with the depth and moves the water to the right or left of the wind
decreases, left
What is the total amount of dissolved salts in ocean water called?
G.O.W.
sidereal day
time period determined by one rotation of Earth relative to a far-distant star, about four minutes shorter than the mean solar day
marine snow
a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column
Pycnocline
The area between 100m and 1000m where density changes rapidly with depth.
_____ name is capitalized, ____ name is not
genus; species
Easterlies
winds that circulate from the east to west
Which European in the 1700s took oceanography samples while exploring the oceans?
Captain Cook
slack water
A time of no tide-induced currents that occurs when the current changes direction.
algae
Which of the following is a type of plankton?
Abyssal Plains
The broad flat areas of the seafloor are called ________.
# of waves passing a fixed point per unit of time (1/period)
frequency
sand bar
a long underwater pile of sand built up by longshore currents that are parallel to the beach
Eustatic Sea Level
global scale sea level and its changes
if a seawater sample has a density of 1.02925 g/cm^3, it has a sigma-t value of what
29.25
barrier island
a long, narrow wave built island lying parallel to the mainland and separated from it by a lagoon or bay. also see sea island
Ocean productivity
gC/ m2 (squared) / year is associated with what term
Mid ocean ridges
most promident feature on ocean floor, and youngest
photic zone
the upper 200 meters of the ocean; receives the most light and has the greatest amount of ocean life
transform fault
a plane along which rock masses slide horizontally past one another
A worldwide change in sea level, as distinct from local changes
eustatic change
Heavy rainfall, glaciers melting, mouths of large rivers
________, ________, and ________, are three natural conditions which cause salinity to be BELOW AVERAGE.
what effect does centrifugal force have on tides?
tethers earth and moon together
The two type of oozes are (blank) and (blank).
Calcareous, Siliceous
semidirunal tide
a tidal cycle of two high tides and two low tides each lunar day with the high tides of nearly equal height
Fate of production
• 90 % of production generated in the euphotic zone is
decomposed within this zone.
• 10 % sinks to deeper water.
• 1 % of this accumulates on the ocean floor and may be
buried.
• Biological carbon pump – removal of carbon from the
surface to deep waters.
Calculation for the speed of shallow water waves. C represents speed (celerity), g is acceleration due to gravity, and d is the depth of water in meters.
C=(squareroot (g * d)):
what are the 4 principle oceans?
indian, atlantic, pacific, arctic + southern
Diffusion, osmosis and active transport
Substances ( ex. salts )move through cells by
pressure at any depth "z"
the weight of the overlying water acting on unit area
36. What statement is true of biogenous and terrigenous sediments?
a. Biogenous sediments comprise a larger area than terrigenous sediments.
b. Biogenous sediments cover more volume than terrigenous sediments.
c. Terrigenous sediments make up a larger ar
a. Biogenous sediments comprise a larger area than terrigenous sediments.
______ is the 2nd most specific taxon. _____ grouped _____ are considered to be _____
Genus; genus; species; closely related
How many grams of primary producers are needed to support 1000 grams of herbivores?
10,000 (apply the 10% rule of ecological efficiency)
In general, polar neritic sediment has more
rock and gravel than in tropical waters
why are abyssal hills more common in the pacific ocean?
b/c sediment deposition is lower and there is a lot of volcanic activity
why is the ocean blue and Huron River brown?
in clear water, scattering is limited so red and yellow light absorbed, reflected light is blue-green
in river, most visible wavelengths are backscattered
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