Oceanography Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Kelp
producer
nekton
Drifting organisms
RIFT
AN UNDERWATER CANYON
Submersibles
underwater research vehicles
Ammonoidea, Paleozoic (to Mesozoic)
invertebrate
animal lacking a backbone
Trough
lowest part of a wave
isopods
tiny shallow water crustaceans, flattened bodies, seven pairs of legs
gas
fills closed container uniformly, molecules in high speed motion, collisions and rebounds occur, density= very low
Arctic Circle
66.5 degrees north latitude
Salt Marsh
Calm area in a spit.
magma
hot liquid inside of a volcano
Continental shelf
• Shelf break
• Continental slope
• Continental rise
Continental Margin Features
CDip program
Coastal Data Information Program monitored by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California and consisting of a wave buoy array located on the West coast of the United States that records wave height and direction.
Euryhaline organisms
can survive wide salinity fluctuations
wavelength
The horizontal distance between the crests of the wave.
wave
a rhythmic movement that carries energy through water
Exoskeleton
protective covering made of the material chitin (similar to fingernails)- flexible and hinged at various body joints, provides protection and support while also allowing movement and flexibility
abyssal hill
small sediment covered inactive volcano or intrusion of molten rock less than 200 meters high thought to be associated with seafloor spreading
The flat, deep ocean floor
Abyssal plain
Brown algae containing gas floats that allow it to reach heights of 30 to 40 m
kelp
Precipitation
The term for falling, condensed water molecules, which come down as rain, snow, sleet or hail, depending on the condition of Earth's atmosphere
Tidal Bore
Steep, collapsing wall of water flowing into estuaries or a river mouth with flood tide
drag
The resistance to movement of an organism induced by the fluid through which it swims
Sorting
when faster longer waves move ahead shorter slower waves
second most abundant gas in the atmosphere
oxygen
During the Northern Hemisphere's summer solstice, then stands above where?
23.5 degrees North
earthquakes
violent shaking or shifting motion of the ground caused by the sudden movement of rock far beneath Earth's surface
Exclusive Economic Zone
200 nautical miles from land
Meroplankton
(shrimp, crabs) part of their life they are plankton, will eventually be able to swim.
Speed of shallow water waves is proportional to?
Depth
Which of the following technologies is a "low tech" method for mapping ocean currents?
Drifters
Strong dependable winds
Horizontal movement across surface from high to low pressure
"insolation"
amt solar rad reaching given area

--greatest @ low lat
Describing a gyre or current in balance between the Coriolis effect and gravity; literally, "turned by the Earth
geostrophic
aphotic
Which of the following is NOT a category of marine organisms?
diurnal
one high tide and one low tide daily
Turbidity current
are movements of dense, sediment rich water down the continental slope, eroding the continental margin to enlarge submarine canyons
Competency
Term to denote the largest particle a flowing fluid can transport
salinity
a measure of the amount of salts dissolved in seawater
Disadvantages of Models
Don't entirely reflect real ocean conditions, but is based off assumptions and approximations of which measurements are needed to improve.
Amplitude
for a wave, the vertical distance from sea level to crest or from undisturbed sea level to trough, or one-half the wave height
Statements made by scientists can be checked by anyone for their (blank)
Validity (Accuracy)
sand spit
an accumulation of sand and grave deposited down current from a hedland. sand spits often have a curl at the tip.
inner planets
mercury, venus, earth and mars are what?
Internal Wave
Underwater waves that occur along the boundary of water of very different densities.
Nematocyst
In cnidarians, a stinging cell that is used to inject a toxin into prey
Colligative properties
properties of solutions ( water plus salts)
mantle
the layer of Earth between the crust and the core, composed of silicates of iron and magnesium.
Minamata disease is associated with
ingestion of methyl mercury-contaminated fish and shellfish
Breaking wave in which the upper section topples forward and away from the bottom, forming an air-filled tube
plunging wave
contintential shelf
made mostly of mud and sand deposited by rivers shallow water
Occurs during the full and new moon, the greatest difference between high and low tides
Spring Tide
Flat zone from shore to shelf break
- Shelf break is where marked increase in slope
angle occurs......Average width
is 70 km
Continental Shelf
deep currents
a streamlike movement of water in the deep ocean
furling line:
a rope togather a sail not in use
Most of the material in the solar nebula went into forming the (blank), only a small amount went into forming the (blank)
Sun, Planets
which of the following will decrease the velocity of longshore current
increased wave period
freezing point
the ______ _________ of salt water is lower than that of fresh water
Shark Jaws
they are loosely connected to the rest of the skull at two points: upper jaw extends forward from the mouth, teeth of the lower jaw puncture and hold prey. The upper jaw teeth slice
a large mass that forms by contraction out of the gas of a giant molecular cloud in the interstellar medium. The protostellar phase is an early stage in the process of star formation.
proto star
Advection-Diffusion EQN
for NON-CONSERVATIVE PROPERTIES
ie non conservative property = suspended sediment
IF
in steady state condition
in vertically integrated form (ie z disappears)

EQN:
duI/dx + dvI/dy + "v"I = d/dx (K * dI/dx) + d/dy (K * dI/dy)

where K = Ah
"v" = greek upside down v
Describe continental shelf.
-self is narrow along the mountainous coasts of active continental margins and wide along low-lying land at passive continental margins
-they have been covered and uncovered by fluctuations in sea level
Many of the unique properties of water are attributed to the fact that water is what type of molecule?
a covalent bond
Sea and Land Breezes
Afternoon: cool air descends over sea, onshore flow, warmer land and ascends over land
Nighttime: cool air descends over land, offshore flow, warmer sea and ascends over ocean
maximun sustainable yield
largest amount of fish that can be taken from a population without threatening its future size
Thermohaline circulation refers to what kind of water movement and what is it driven by?
vertical water movement which is driven by density
How much do Gammas change in North-South travel?
-8 Gammas per Degree
What runs down the west coast of North America
The California current
to accommodate for the growing Atlantic
why did Panthalassa have to shrink?
What is the effect of surface circulation on climate?
transports heat away from equator
Where does most of the heating up come from?
absorbed from earth
A short time-scale factor of ocean and climate
Increased SST = Increased hurricane
The original water supplied to the oceans came from
Vaporization and condensation of earth rocks from asteroid impacts AND Icy comets striking earth
what is the principal of constant proportions?
it is a way to measure salinity
What is the difference between a surface and deep currents?
Surface currents are caused by winds, Deep currents are caused by density differences
speed= length of wave/wave period or C=L/T
what is the formula to calculate wave speed?
In the NH and SH: Explain how surface currents move and which coasts recieve the warm vs the cold temps.
NH: move clockwise, east: warm, west: cold
SH: move counterclockwise east: warm west: cold
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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