oceanography midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
universal force
a disturbance
Exclusive Economic Zone
island arc
convergent plate boundary
Erosional coasts
Removing coastal material
c-c convergent landforms
mountain ranges
(plate tectonics) a hypothetical continent including all the landmass of the earth prior to the Triassic period when it split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland
change with depth:
biomass- decreases
sediment in gulf of mexico
The eye wall is?
The Strongest
continental shelf
gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline to the deep ocean basin
current caused by underwater landslide
turbidity currents
Symmetrical waves with longer wavelengths
gravity waves
marine organisms; organisms that swim, from small invertebrates to large whales. Most of the seas predators are nekton. The majority of vertebrates are nekton.
an atom that becomes electrically charged by gaining or losing one or more electrons. the lose produces a positively charged cation and the gain produces a negatively charged anion
(1) any loose material produced directly from rock disintegration.
(2) Material resulting from the disintegration of dead organic remains.
Thick mud
the consistency of calcareous ooze
Cold seeps
(Chemosynthetic Ecosystem)
• No temperature anomaly
• H2S and methane
1. Hypersaline Seeps
2. Hydrocarbon Seeps
3. Subduction Zone Seeps
Stenothermal organisms are likely to be found in deep open ocean water
o-o convergent landforms
trenches and some crests
Deep Sea Trenches
Mariana's trench. lots of pressure.
well mixed
type of salinity pattern where salinity is constant with depth but increases from head to mouth
Leif Eriksson-(Son of Erik the Red) sailed to North America in 1002, more than 500 years before Columbus; highly accomplished seamen who practiced exploration, trade, and colonization
ocean basin
vast depression filled with a continuous body of salt water and boarded by continental land masses
Reef Coast
A secondary coast formed by reef-building corals in tropical waters.
type of margin where continental shelf is narrower, continental slope goes deep into trenches
organisms that obtain food by eating other organisms
A deep canyon in the ocean floor.
Zonation of benthic organisms includes all of the following except the
neretic zone
turbidity current
a downslope movement of dense, sediment-laden water created when sand and mud on the continental shelf and slope are dislodged and thrown into suspension
surface waters are pushed away from land and replaced by nutrient rich bottom water through
warm ocean currents warm air at ___
The deep scattering layer is produced by masses of migrating small animals.
the innermost layer of Earth, composed primarily of iron, with nickel and heavy elements. The inner core is thought to be a solid sphere, the outer core a liquid mass.
tidal range
The difference in height between consecutive high and low tides.
Longshore Current
waves hitting the beach and are deflected parallel to the shore
Type of satellite that orbits over the poles
strip of ground bordering any body of water and alternately exposed and covered by tides and waves
type of carbohydrate that makes up the exoskeleton of arthropods
Neap Tide
A tide with the least difference between low and high tide that occurs when the sun and moon pull at right angles to each other at the first and third quarters of the moon.
Submarine Canyons
steep sided valleys into side of continental slope
to the poles
Heat (540degreesC/g) is removed from tropical oceans and carried where?
when geostropic flow is achieved, the what force is balanced by the what force
coriolis, gravitational
Pelagic environment
The open ocean environment, which is divided in to the neritic province (water depth 0 to 200 meters) and the oceanic province (water depth greater than 200 meters).
continental margins
shallower portions of the ocean floor made up of continental crust and a thick wedge of sediment.
Continental Margin
the zone of transition between a continent and the adjacent ocean basin floor
the dispersion or bounce of sound or light waves when they strike particles suspended in water or air. The amount of scatter depends on the number, size, and composition of the particles
_________: system of naming that uses 2 words, the genus and species
binomial nomenclature
Characteristics of waves
depend on the relationship between wavelength and water depth
why does the small size of phytoplankton help them maintain their position in the upper water collumn?
they float
coriolis effect
The apparent deflection of a moving object from its initial course when its speed and direction are measured in reference to the surface of the rotating Earth. The object is deflected to the right of its anticipated course in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The deflection occurs for any horizontal movement of objects with mass and has no effect at the equator.
High tide
highest point on the shore reached by waves.
water cycle
the way the Earth uses and recycles water. It is controlled by the sun, which produces energy in the form of heat
a series of waves created when a body of water, ocean is rapidly displaced.
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
Photic Zone
uppermost layer of the water lit by sun
If a sample of seawater has 1.5 grams of Mg in it, what is the total mass of salt in this ocean water sample? (mg=3.68, na=30.62)
coastal cell
the natural sector of a coastline in which sand input and sand outflow are balanced.
rogue wave
A single wave crest much higher than usual, caused by constructive interference
Temperature of atmosphere
gets colder as you increase in height/altitude/elevation.
The maximum tidal range in the Bay of Fundy is about 17 meters.
echo sounder
A device that reflects sound off the ocean bottom to sense water depth. Its accuracy is affected by the variability of the speed of sound through water.
wave frequency
The number of waves passing a fixed point per second.
what is an example of monera kingdom?
bacteria in hydrothermal vents
continental slope
is that area in which the ocean floor plunges from the continental shelf to the deep sea abyss
The equation for photosynthesis is (blank) + (blank) + (blank) -> (blank) + (blank)
Co2, H20, Sunlight, food, Oxygen
wave period
the time it takes one full wave to pass a fixed position
Ocean water to the atmosphere from the atmosphere to land and from land to the sea is called the _____ cycle
The hydrologic cycle
An estuary in which rapid river flow and small tidal range cause an inclined wedge of seawater to form at the mouth.
Salt Wedge Estuary
what causes convergence and divergence?
convergence is caused when waters move towards each other; downwelling because the surface water is carried down.... divergence is caused when waters move away from each other; upwelling because it pulls water away.
volcanic ocean chain
can form when a plate passes over a hot spot
How was Hawaii formed?
by the movement of the Pacific plate over a hotspot
What are the characteristics of an active continental margins?
A continental margin that is characterized by earthquakes, volcanic activity, and orogeny resulting from movement of tectonic plates.`
What is the impact of the CCD
modern carbonate oozes are rarely below 5000meters
What is the angle of Earth's tilt today?
varies from 22.1 to 24.5 degrees.
What was Earth formed from
and time period
gases and dust
4.6 billion years ago
Is there any change in the thicness of the lithosphere as one moves from oceanic ridge towards an oceanic trench?
Yes, because the lithospheric plates bend and sometimes slope downward under other plates
near the equator and only in the Southern hemisphere
In what parts of the world can penguins be found?
cord grass
Chemical reaction
Mediterranean traders
First cartographers
rift valley
divergent plate boundary
Tides are ___ waves.
Who invented scuba?
William James
supercontinent 200 million years ago
_____continents float on heavier continents
Ocean water is?
Basic NOT asidic
vertical water movement induced by wind
Underwater vehicle used in ocean exploration
Uniform, symmetrical waves that travel outward from the storm area. Travel faster than the wind outside the storm, so wave heights decrease. Long crests, transport energy long distances
Sublittoral Zone
ocean bottom close to shore.
the central, positively charged part of an atom, containing protons and neutrons
Planktonic larval forms of organisms that are members of the benthos or nekton as adults
study of oceans and oceanic phenomena
o Withstand small variation in temperature
o Open ocean
Organisms that cannot withstand large changes in temperature are referred to as:
what type of rocks are volcanoes
Oceanic Zone
open ocean. continental slope over abyssal plains.
an instense cyclone with maximum wind sustained wind speeds of at least 119 km per hr
polar wandering
Plate movement causes the apparent position of the magnetic poles to have shifted; all plates do not move along the same path, create their own wandering curve
part of the mantle, between the asthenosphere and the outer core, rocks are in solid state
Alluvial Plain
Flat deposit of terrestrial sediment eroded by water from higher elevations.
what is one way of categorizing sediment?
the removal of salt (especially from sea water)
water that moves in a certain directtion, the river like flow of water in the oceans
The hadal zone is associated with deep-ocean trenches
rip current
a strong surface current flowing outwards from a shore
tropic of cancer
located at 23.5 degrees N
deep ocean currents are what percent of all ocean water?
The color pattern in which marine organisms are light on the bottom and dark on the top of their bodies camouflaging them against the water-air interface is:
radioactive decay
the disintegration of unstable forms of elements, which releases subatomic particles and heat.
lunar tide
Tide caused by gravitational and inertial interaction of moon and Earth.
Baymouth Bar
a spit that seals off the bay
Solid form of methane found in sediment on continental shelf and slope
gas hydrates
strip of land of indefinite width that extends from the shore inland to the first major change in terrain that is unaffected by marine processes
spy hopping
behavior in which whales raise head above water to look around
Intertidal Zone
An area that stretches from the highest high-tide line on land to the point on the continental shelf exposed by the lowest low-tide.
more evaporation than precipitation
what does higher salinity mean?
the sargasso sea is part of what ocean
Animals that live buried in the soft substrate
Antarctic Bottom Water
The densest ocean water, formed primarily in Antarctica's Weddell Sea.
a large storm whose winds rotate the northeast
zone of the ocean in which temperature decreases rapidly with depth. (see pycnocline)
Binomial system of naming: introduced by Swedish botanist ________
Karl von Linne
Sea Surface Salinity
high in tropical and subtropical oceans and low in high latitudes
what forms the continental rise?
sediment from turbidity flows
trade winds
Surface winds within the Hadley cells, centered at about 15° latitude, which approach from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.
Tidal Surges
The onshore rush of sea water caused by the high winds that are associated with a hurricane and the low presure of the storm
Coral reef contains more [ ] biomass than []biomass.
algal, animal
Factors that affect primary productivity
energy, nutrients, salinity, dissolved gases, pH, pressure, osmosis and diffusion
If this water sample had a total mass of 2.0 kg, calculate the total salinity of the ocean in ppt
reverse estuary
an estuary along a coast in which salinity increases from the ocean to the estuary's upper reaches, due to evaporation of sea water and a lack of freshwater input.
biogenous sediment
Sediment that is made up of the skeletons and shells of marine organisms
any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms
In the United States one can find semidiurnal tides along the:
Atlantic coast.
density stratification
the formation of layers in a material, with each deeper layer being denser than the layer above
wave train
A group of waves of similar wavelength and period moving in the same direction across the ocean surface. The group velocity of a wave train is half the velocity of the individual waves.
Polar climates support high biomass bc cold water can what?
hold more dissolved oxygen
If a sound pulse took 6 seconds to return from the seafloor, and if the speed of sound is 1500 m/sec, the depth is (blank)
4500 M
maximum sustainable yield
the maximum amount of a species that can be caught without depleting future populations
The present day mars differ from earth in that mars is
Dustier and Windier
An estuary in which an influx of seawater occurs beneath a surface layer of fresh water flowing seaward. Mixing occurs along the junction
Partially mixed estuary
what are features of erosional coast? how are sea stacks formed?
well developed cliffs, tectonic activity, headlands.
high resolution profiler
a free fall profiler that is used to measure deep ocean mixing, it is equipped with weights that it releases when it reaches a pre programmed depth and creates a density profile from the surface to the bottom
What are spring tides?
-moon is either new or full and gravitational forces reinforce one another so the tides have the greatest tidal range
Three factors driving air density:
• Temperature - warm air is less dense - it will rise (convect)
• Moisture content - moist air is less dense - it will rise
• Elevation - air at higher altitude is less dense (less
compressed by the weight of air above)
How does temperature change with depth at different latitudes?
Variation of temperatures at surface, but past about 1000m the temperature is the same because the water comes from the poles
How do the ocean currents affect temperatures?
Cities by cold ocean currents have colder, drier climates • Cities by warm ocean currents have warmer, wetter climates
rock and gravel than in tropical waters.
In general, polar neritic sediment has more:
In comparison to most other liquids, how is the heat capacity of water unusual?
Its capacity is longer than most other liquids, because all the hydrogen bonds must be broken
Give 3 examples of low productivity in Marine life:
Open ocean gyres, deep sea, Tropics in general
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