Oceanography Midterm 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
belly
ventral
longshore drift
backwash
Fishing restrictions
...
Nekton
Free swimming animals
tide wavelength
1/2 earth's circumference
Tidal Bores
True tidal waves
force per unit area
pressure
complicating tide factors
elliptical orbits, declination,
basalt
what mineral makes ocean crust
salinity
The concentration of dissolved inorganic solids in a sample of water
Stipe
stemlike portion above the holdfast
decreases
high rainfall _______ salinity by diluting the water
Wind
Surface currents are caused by ________.
Guyot
a seamount of volcanic origin (especially in the Pacific Ocean)
true
the greatest sources of hydrocarbons in the marine environment are urban run-off and shipping
C=L/T
how do you calculate wave speed?
The coastal erosional feature that forms before the retreat of a coastal cliff is (blank)
Notch
biogenous sediment
produced mostly by microscopic organisms living in surface waters
Class Mammalia
Warm-blooded; hair; mammary glands; bear live young; marine representatives found in the orders Sireniai (sea cows, dugong), Cetacea (whales), and Carnivora (sea otter, pinnipeds) (4100 species)
Planktonic organisms that spend part of their lives in planktonic form and the rest of their lives as either benthos or nekton are called:
meroplankton.
Rivers or Oceans cause round rocks
oceans
Benthos
Means "depths of the sea". organisms which live on or near the sea floor. Ex: sea grass, sea urchin, tube grass.
jetties
these are built perpendicular to shore to protect harbor or stream from closing off due to littoral drift
Magnetic Reversals
different times in Earth's history, the present North and South poles have changed places causing Earth's magnetic field to slowly decrease
types of physical weathering
Hot-cold, freeze-thaw, glacial erosion, particle impact (sandstorms)
Oceanography
the scientific study of the ocean using chemistry
Sediment Transport
longshore drift and storms produce distinctive features
BUOY
anchored machine to collect info about the ocean
osmotic pressure
increased water pressure in aquatic organism, due to inability to osmoregulate
the velocity of a longshore current will be higher when the wave heights are higher
true
Meroplankton
Juvenile + larval stages of necktonic and benthic organisms are considered _____ because of its duration of life as a plankton.
Burning of fossil fuels is chemicals similar to
respiration
what are two chemical tracers?
tritium and chlorofluorocarbons
does the magnetic field reverse itself each time magma erupts ar a mid-ocean ridge?
no
uniformitarianism
the theory that all of Earth's geological features and history can be explained by processes occurring today and that these processes must have been at work for a very long time.
wave refraction
Slowing and bending of progressive waves in shallow water.
Continental Rise
gentle slope merging with the ocean floor and sediments from the slope; lacking at trenches
The type of bond holding one water molecule to another water molecule
hydrogen
Dune coast
a primary coast formed by the deposition of sand in dunes by the wind
diving response
in marine mammals, a group of structural and behavioral responses that enables deep diving
HSM Resolution
Cook, 1st royal navy resolution class ballistic missile submarine
atmosphere
layer of gases that surround a mass and is held in place by gravity.
the fastest the current in the atlantic ocean is
florida current
Nektobenthos
Those members of the benthos that can actively swim and spend much time off the bottom.
Lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the earth. 14 rigid plates, ~100 km thick. 2-15 cm/year
intertidal zone
the band between the highest-high and the lowest-low tide marks on a rocky shore, is one of the earth's most densely populated areas
Current meters
Sensors used to measure current speed and direction at fixed locations.
Phylum (or division) is a group of _____
classes
Heat
a measure of the amount of energy contained in a volume of water
What are "Continental Arcs"?
where oceanic lithosphere subducts beneath a continent (andes, mexican volanoes, cascade volcanoes, indonesia)
convection current
A single closed-flow circuit of rising warm material and falling cool material.
silver
Which of the following is NOT an ocean resource?
Surface currents
Water moment on the surface caused by the force and direction of winds and movement on the ocean
Tidal Surges
the onshore rush of seawater caused by the high winds that are associated with a hurricane and the low pressure of the storm
Sandbar
A ridge of sand deposited by waves as they slow down near shore.
El Nino periods have
become more frequent, storms are becoming more severe
A secchi dish is used to measure the attenuation of what?
light
foreshore
sand on the seaward side of a berm sloping toward the ocean to low tide mark
submergent coast
a coast whose form is largely the result of the partial drowning of a former land surface due to a rise of sea level, subsidence of the crust, or both
Standing Stock
The mass present in the ecosystem at any given time
rouge wave
a very infrequent wave; a tall wave that combines with other waves
oh and deja is a homosexual
seafloor spreading
the theory that new ocean crust forms at spreading centers, most of which are on the ocean floor, and pushes the continents aside. Power is thought to be provided by convection currents in Earth's upper mantle
The natural sector of a coastline in which sand input and sand outflow are balanced.
Coastal Cell
mid-ocean ridge
the highest part of a long chain of mountains found in some parts of the ocean basin
what is the coldest, deepest, and most dense water?
antarctic bottom water
Water on Earth
97% in the ocean
3% in land, ice, groundwater, and all freshwater lakes and rivers
Node
the line or point of no wave action in a standing pattern.
A transverse wave associated with an earthquake and which cannot move through liquid.
S wave (secondary wave)
A wave of moving energy in which the wave form moves in one direction along the surface (or junction) of the transmission medium (or media).
progressive wave
eye / eye wall -
eye- center, light winds, usually rain free, low pressure area..... eye wall- area of greatest wind speed and heaviest rain fall.
Spring Tides
occur when moon is in its New or Full phase because the sun and the moon are working together
Why is upwelling considered good?
-nutrient rich water are brought to the surface creating a very rich food chain= fisheries
Horse Latitudes (Subtropical high pressure)
30 degrees N/S, where air is subsiding and not moving parallel along Earth's surface, high pressure
How does salinity vary with depth?
salinity varies very little in the deep ocean
Define intertidal in terms of depths and tides
the area along the shore between high-and low-tide lines (rocky shores and sandy beaches)
The seafloor magnetic pattern is best described as
parallel to and symmetric about ocean ridges
All the following are TRUE concerning the deepest part of the ocean except:
The depth of the trench is estimated at 12,500 m
Why are there active volcanoes in the Pacific NW but none in SCA?
Southern CA is on a transform fault, Pacific NW is on a subduction zone
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