Oceanography Midterm Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
oceanic plateau
deep water waves
isolated volcanic island
what does latent mean?
electrically asymmetrical molecule like water with positive and negative ends, nature of water due to angular shape of molecule
water flowing back from surf
jelly-filled pits with sensory hairs
current surface are created by
Example of Semidiurnal tidal pattern
Biologically modified coasts
coral reefs
salt marsh
first described the gulf stream
Benjamin Franklin
Indian Ocean
primarily Southern Hemisphere ocean; third largest but quite deep
gas exchange
Simultaneous passage, through a semipermeable membrane, of oxygen into an animal and carbon dioxide out of it
well sorted, rounded grains, changes from diverse minerals to weathering resistant minerals means the sediment is what?
Submarine Canyons form primarily due to mass movement along the continental (blank)
dry zone
explosion from fusion-solar ignition creates what?
led voyage that first circumnavigated the globe
Plate tectonics
movement of plates throughout time
an isolated segment of seafloor, island arc, plateau, continental crust, or sediment transported by seafloor spreading to a poisition adjacent to a larger continental mass; usually different in composition from the larger mass
a collective term for breakers; also the wave activity in the area between the shoreline and the outher limit of breakers
diffusion where water moves from areas of low salinity to areas of high salinity
the science, which deals with the study ans exploration of the ocean
Steeply sloping surface seawater of the
• Where deep ocean basins begin
• Topography similar to land mountain ranges
• Greater slope than continental shelf
- Averages 4° but varies 1-25° gradient
- U.S. average slope is 2° but the Pac
Continental Slope
Pelagic Zone
open water above the ocean floor
Ability for a given substance to dissolve in a solvent.
T or time
what increases as wavelength increases? therefore as wind intensifies, capillary waves grow into gravity waves (white caps and swell)
Living things are (blank) chemical structures that are capable of (blank)
Complex, Reproduction
Movement within a fluid resulting from differential heating and cooling of the fluid. Convection produces mass. Convection produces mass transport or mixing of the fluid.
divergent boundaries
spreading centers- creation of new ocean crust called?
Large storm whose winds rotate from North east. it is a low pressure area whose center of rotation is just off the coast.
(Also known as Alcyonaria) is a subclass of Anthozoa
Minoan civilization
first to use boats, ~3000 BC
A ring-shaped island of coral reefs and coral debris enclosing, or almost enclosing shallow lagoon from which no land protrudes. Atolls often form over sinking, inactive volcanoes
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Whats it made of
Granite Igneous Rocks
the grinding and scraping of a rock surface by the friction and impact of rock particles carried by water, wind, or ice
Turbidity Current
a down slope movement of dense, sediment laden watercreated when sand and mud on the continental shelf and slope are dislodge and thrown into suspension
the rasing of water plants and animals for human use of consumption
frontal storm
precipitation and wind caused by the meeting of 2 air masses, associated with an extratropical cyclone. generally, one air mass will slide over or under the other, and the resulting expansion of air will cause cooling and consequently, rain or snow.
Bony fish
The class Osteichthyes are which type of fish
Mariana Trench
deepest known spot located in the Pacific Ocean
specific role an organism plays in the community
submarine canyon
deep, steep-sided valleys that cut in the continental slope
Excess salts that are brought to the oceans are (blank) to the bottom of the ocean.
When an organism has the same internal salt concentration as it's environment
transitional wave
waves that travel through water deeper than 1/20 their original wavelength but shallower than one-half their original wavelength
The correct arrangement of astronomical bodies from oldest to youngest
Galaxy, Solar System, Planet
Deep currents are driven by differences in _______ caused by differences in _______ and ______
desnity, temperature, salinity
The barycenter follows:
a smooth orbit around the Sun.
Where does the greatest seasonal sea surface temperature change occur?
Mid Latitudes
What is the challenger?
first devoted scientific ocean expedition
Mixed Layer
The upper layer of ocean in which temperature and salinity are relatively constant with depth.
Abyssal Plain
a large, flat, almost level area of the deep-ocean basin
White smokers
have water temperatures from 30 to 350 degrees C and emit water that is white becuse of the presence of various light-colored compounds, including barium sulfide
ocean trench
is a deep,narrow valley in the ocean floor
whatr area some thermo effects?
1 death
2 entertainment
3 oxugen dipletion
4 metabolism
a layer of water in which the salinity changes rapidly with changes in depth
Photosynthesis uses (blank), (blank) and (blank) to make (blank), and (blank).
Co2, H2O, Energy, Food, O2
GMT- greenwhich mean time
prime meridian also known as ?
water cycle
the way the earth uses and recycles water.It's controlled by the sun,which produces energy in the form of heat.
Rotary Tide
the node becomes reduced to a central point while the tide crest progresses around the edges of the basin
What is the shape of a trench usually?
Arc shaped
What are River Deltas?
1.) sediment deposited on the continental shelf by river
2.) they need broad continental shelf, low tidal range and mild waves and currents
How producers obtain energy
They harvest light or chemical energy from the abiotic environment
key limiting nutrient in ocean
nitrogen, its part of chlorophyll a
backwash and berm-- backwash
plunging waves are characterized by a very strong ______________ that effectively erodes the __________ and transports sand offshore to the point at which __(same as first)__________ energy is reduced.
3 examples of nekton
whales, seals, sea turtles, squids - they are consumers
What are the three kingdoms in Eukarya?
Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
Coastal Issues - essay question
Two main problems
Coastal Erosion - produced by coastal development, increase in storms by global warming & the interruption of coastal cells
Oil Spills: damage to fisheries, widllife and recreation,

Three solutions
1) Retreat:
-no effort for protection of land from the sea
-coastalzone abandoned and ecosystems shift landward
-utilized if protection requires excessive environmental or economic impact.
-implications: communities suffer from loss of property, resettlement costs & costs of rebuilding infrastructure; could create major problems... environmental refugees might not be received, problems with adaptation, disruption of families, loss of traditions
-people continue to use the land at risk but do not prevent the land from being flooded
-emergency flood shelters, elevating buildings on piles, converting agriculture to fish farming, beach renourishment
-implications: change in property values, increasing damage from storms and costs for modifying structures; loss of traditional environments which sustain economies and cultures and provide for recreational needs
-hard structures, sea walls and dikes, or soft solutions, as dunes and vegetation
-implications: costs for the necessary structures, which protect economic development, but could adversely affect economic interests that depend on recreation and fisheries

-appropriate mechanism depends on the particular response
evidence of constant ocean salinity.
All the following provide evidence for continental drift except:
The earth began to cool due to the end of (blank) and it is still cooling by a process called (blank).
Condensation, Convection
Carbonate Compensation Depth (CCD)
Tends to lie between 4 and 5 kilometers below sea surface.
carbonate oozes tend to lie above CCD while silica oozes are most abundant below CCD.
Describe pinnipeds: what animals are in this group?
these animals are named for their distinctive swimming flippers: includes, seals, sea lions, and walruses, they inhabit coastal waters (pinnipeds have fur)
because ice can carry sediments ranging from clay to boulders
why do glacial deposits contain poorly sorted deposits?
One major problem associated with Chesapeake Bay and increased human pressure is
an increase in nutrients resulting in more frequent kills of bottom-dwelling animals
means salinity doesn't change much but temperatures do significantly
warm salty water moving northward from direction of gulf stream...not getting a lot of rain...so means?
minor changes in salinity

major changes in salinity
minor changes in salinity
--- due to biological processes

major changes in salinity
--- only occur LOCALLY
(anoxic conditions /
hydrothermal vents)
What about when it's colder than four-degrees?
THe water molecules tend to push each other apart. This leaves air between molecules, making ice less dense in solid state than in liquid state, lots of H-bonds.
deeper than 1/2 the waves length soo....100m
a wave with a 200m wave length is a deep water wave in waters deeper than ___________.
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