oceanography terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hydrogenous sediment
subdivision larger than kingdom
forms land
importance of kilauea
5 Components of Oceanography
marine sediments
sediments in the water
Newton's Gravitation Equation
F=G(m1 x m2)/r(squared)
till layers
sediments deposited by glaciers
The Urey-Miller experiment produced:
Amino acids
the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water.
What floats for their entire life?
Large Portions are Mapped using?
side scan-sonar
structures within cells that process oxygen as they use energy.
they eat decayed animals and plants
Light organically produced by a chemical reaction. Found in bacteria, phytoplankton, and various fishes (especially deep-sea fish).
Reffering to osmosis, water diffuses outward, cellls shrivel
Assemblage of organisms in definable area plus their environment
organisms that make their own food
Journeyed inland on rivers through Europe and western Asia, very good at travelling the northern Atlantic and discovered Iceland and Greenland
A deep crack in the ocean floor
salt wedge
type of salinity pattern where salinity increases with depth and is constant from head to mouth
How is productivity in tropical oceans?
nutrient limited
primary male sex organ(s) in which immature sperm are produced. The testes are composed of many tubules called the seminiferous tubules
continental deflection
currents change directions when the meet a continent
what is produced by weathering of rocks into particles carried by air, water and ice?
a measuring instrument that sends out an acoustic pulse in water and measures distances in terms of the time for the echo of the pulse to return
water that moves in a certain direction; the river like flow of water in the oceans
the greates human caused sources of hydrocarbons in the marine environment are urban run off and shipping
continental margin
boundary between continental crust and oceanic crust
include the sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers. All body that is radially symmetric and based on 5 sections. have a set of water-filled tubes, valves and projections used in feeding and movement- called the Water Vascular System
A euryhaline organism would be poorly adapted to living in coastal environments.
a very consistent clock. It doesn't need to tell accurate time, but its rate of gain or loss must be constant and known exactly so that accurate time may be calcuated.
a deposit formed of small spheres usually composed of concentric layers of calcite
section of a river meeting the sea: the wide lower course of a river where the tide flows in, causing fresh and salt water to mix
Nearly flat area of seafloor adjacent to beach
continental shelf
Because warm water is ____ dense than cold water, this warm water stays as a layer on the surface
lots of sediment, and must have a broad continental shelf. the heavy sediment within the water presses down on the broken continental margin--causing it to sink into the asthenosphere
coral reefs
rock-like structure that forms in warm shallow water from colonies of tiny sea animals
which hemisphere has the most land?
northern, southern
how many electrons are needed to fill the 1st shell?
roughly 90% of the mass of the atmosphere is found in the first how many km of the surface
A process by which fluids move through other fluids by random molecular movement from areas of high concentration to areas in which they are in lower concentrations
tidal bores
wave front (wall of turbulent water) caused when forced tied wave breaks.
rise of cold water to replace warm water
passive sonar
a device that detects the direction and intensity of underwater sounds
patterns form as the algae and animals sort themselves out over the intertidal zone
: the process by which a substance minimizes a change in the acidity of a solution when an acid or base is added to the solution.
Name by Alfred Wegener to the original "protocontinent"; the breakup of Pangea gave rise to the Atlantic ocean and the continents we see today.
Not Pangea!
Intertropical Convergence Zone
Where Northeast trade winds converge with southeast trade winds.
Continental Shelf
the zone of shallow water where water covers the edge of the continent. gentle slope.
ocean trench
a deep, narrow valley in the ocean floor
polar front
a boundary between the polar cell and the ferrel cell in each hemisphere
Storm Surge
a "dome" of water that sweeps across the coast where a hurricane lands
fracture zones
similar to cliffs on land but extend for 1,000's of km across sea floor?
The sun stands directly above the equator how many times?
twice a year
Waves break in the (blank) water, due to the condition: H > (blank)
Shallow L/7
the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon
neap tide
moon is in 1st or 3rd quarter phase
Continental Slope
The edge of a continent that drops steeply down to the deep-ocean floor.
Eratosthenes of Cyrene
A librarian at the Library of Alexandria and the first to calculate the circumference of Earth
mean sea level
The height of the ocean surface averaged over a few years time.
winter solstice
occurs when the 90 degree sun angle is on the tropic of capricorn. Dec 21
partially mixed estuary
an estuary in which an influx of seawater occurs beneath a surface layer of fresh water flowing seaward. mixing occurs along the junction
density current/deep ocean currents
-currents that form when density of water changes
-circulate water vertically in the ocean
-powered by density differences (NOT WIND)
-movement occurs when seawater becomes more dense than surrounding water
-Changes in temp and salinity of water together cause these differences in density
-high salinity=high density
-low temperature=high water density
hydrothermal vents, seafloor spreading
What two features are found in mid-ocean ridges?
earths atmospheres 4 major gases
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia
net water transport
Net water transport, the sum of layer movement due to the Ekman spiral. Theoretical Ekman transport in the Northern Hemisphere is 90° to the right of the wind direction.
berm crest
the top of a berm, the higest point on most beaches. corresponds to the shoreward limit of wave action during most high tides
oceanic crust. continental crust. continental crust.
_______ crust is always denser than _________ crust and will always sink under _______ crust.
What are the 7 uses of the ocean?
Food, Transport, Atmospheric Replenishment, Recreation, Dump, Petroleum (sea-floor-near shore), Defense Barrier
What characteristic of the seafloor supports the idea that subduction must
take place
The relatively young age of the seafloor supports the idea that subduction must take place.
What three things are most important to tide formation?
gravity and motion between EARTH, MOON, AND SUN
To which class do sea turtles belong?
they are in the reptile class (reptilia)
Less than L/20, Greater than L/20, Greater than half the wave length L/2
Depth in (L/#) for the following shallow-transitional-deep
Which of the following is true about the Burgess Shale?
It does NOT contain the first eukaryotes
If the tilt is higher, what happens to the winter temperatures?
High tilt: colder winters and warmer summers, Low tilt: more mild climate
constant temperature
Marine Reserves
Flood tide
rising tide
a stomach with tentacles
Selective erosion ____ shorelines
List the five oceans
amoebas with a tiny shell
what mineral makes continental crust?
strips of alternating magnetic polarity at spreading regions
intermediate classification levels: ______ to create new higher divisions
within a classification, ______ to create new lower divisions within a classification
superlevels; sublevels
forms when the island is submerged
thermocline & low latitude
rapidly changing temperature
vertically-mixed estuary
estuarine circulation associated with a shallow, low-volume estuary in which river water mixes evenly at all depths with ocean water would be called a:
1/T (period)--number of waves passing a fixed location
Refraction is when waves (blank) towards an Obstacle
biogenous sediment
seafloor sediment of biological origin
o Live entire lives as plankton
is population growth linear or exponential?
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: Density
High Density
Small animals, includes larva and eggs of larger animals.
equatorial currents
located over the tropical ocean (tradewinds). in the n hemisphere they blow warm water from the northeast and in the s hemisphere they blow warm water from the southeast
Project FAMOUS
French- American Mid Ocean Undersea Study; searched/studied rift valley of mid-ocean ridge
rocky shores
common along active margins of continents
Density Current
heavier and denser than surrounding water
Barrier Islands
narrow, exposed sandbars that run parallel to land
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
Salts that form from continental (blank) are brought to the oceans by (blank).
Rock, Streams
Which US coastline has the greatest average loss due to erosion
Back wash
Water running down from a beach.
replacement water coming from the top to the bottom
Coriolis effect causes _____ in moving body
organisms that can break down organic molecules produced by other organisms
the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
A long, narrow, wave-built island lying parallel to the mainland and separated from it by a lagoon or bay. Compare sea island.
Barrier island
a process of removing salt from ocean water
Ebb tide
Seaward flow in estuaries or tidal rivers during a tidal phase of lowering water level (opposite of flood tide)
in cetaceans a natural form of sonar used in communication and hunting
Main source of energy in the ocean
the sun
continental rise
accumulation of sediments at the base of a continental slope
residence time= number entering/total number
formula for residence time?
the north atlantic current is produced by what?
the westerlies
Is the energy stored in tides a potential energy?
Pacific style
Narrow shelf, basically no margin at all
live on the surface attached to rocks or roving over the bottom
Covalent Bonds
When molecules have shared pairs of electrons
prokaryotes contains domains ____ and _____
Bacteria and Archaea
Low heat capacity
temperature changes much faster with same amount of energy added
What are "Island Arcs"?
when oceanic lithosphere subducts beneath oceanic lithosphere (tonga, marianas, western aleutians)
tidal bore
A high, often breaking wave generated by a tide crest that advances rapidly up an estuary or river.
deep zone
Most ocean water is located in which zone?
a wave that forms far below the ocean surface formed by earthquakes
tidal surges
the onshore rush of sea water caused by the high winds that are as sociated with a hurricane and the low pressure of the storm
Ice Cores
present over 600,000 years of data on temperature, CO2 content, methane contents -- trapped bubbles of ancient air
if 65% of the incident solar energy is not reflected back to space and 17.5% of the solar energy is absorbed in the atmosphere, how much of the solar energy is absorbed by the solid earth?
emerging coast
qa coastline that is slowly rising in relation to sea level. often the rebounding of a coastline as it loses the weight of glacial ice.
one of a series of ridges that moves across the surface of a liquid (especially across a large body of water)
Four Features of deep ocean basin
Broad/flat planes, Submerged volcanoes, Gigantic mountain ranges, Deep trenches
a fracture in a rock mass along which movement has occurred.
Sand on the shoreward side of the berm crest, sloping away from the ocean
Sodium Chloride, Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Sulfate
The 3 most prevalent minerals dissolved in sea water are ________, ________, and ________.
what measurement is ppt?
the unit of measurement for finding the salinity of water in 1,000 grams of water.
Out of the two seismic body wave types the (blank) are faster than (blank) waves.
P, S
dynamic theory of tides
model of tides that takes into accoundt the effects of finite ocean depth basi resonance, and the interference of continents on tide waves.
An increase in the mass of a body by accumulation or clumping of smaller particles.
A tiny wave with a wavelength of less than 1.73 centimeters (0.68 inch), whose restoring force is surface tension; the first type of wave to form when the wind blows
capillary wave
what are the components of a hurricane?
spiral counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere. eye wall, eye center, tropical depression, tropical storm. hurricane- 74 and above mph winds
Lined up with the sun
Spring tides occur when the moon is..
East Pacific Ridge
Mid-atlantic ridge
E Pacific Ridge:
smaller rise in ocean floor at ridge
fast spreading

Mid-Atlantic Ridge:
high rise in ocean floor
rift valley
slow spreading
Why is there no really old oceanic crust?
All oceanic crust gets subducted
How does density change with depth? What is most important factor impacting density in the oceans? Does this vary with latitude?
Lower depth, higher density; pressure, temperature and salinity affect density; salinity and temperature vary at latitudes
Why is there low primary production in the tropical subtropical oceans?
Because of the desert-like condition is lack of nutrients (in tropics-intense solar radiation)
The worldwide effect of the El Nino include
-Coral reef deaths in the Pacific
-Crop failure in the Philippines
-Increased Pacific cyclone activity
-Water shortages in Sri Lanka
what is the indication that certain seamounts, were once islands?
because they have flat tops and were volcanoes at the mid-ocean ridge and moved away from the ridge becoming an island
trophic levels
Autotrophic: C O 2 + H 2 O -> C H 2 O + O 2
Heterotrophic: C H 2 O + O 2 -> C O 2 + H 2 O
Decomposers: Break down dead tissues
female deer
Red sea/Persian gulf
top of wave
an underwater volcanic mountain
Sediments of the coast
any loose material, especially decomposed, broken, and dead organic materials
From shells or marine organisms
Blue whale
Order cetacea, suborder mysticeti
Beach face is
wet more sloping
A flat-topped, submerged inactive volcano.
process of sediment disruption by feeding or burrowing organisms
Mixotrophic plankton
phytoplankton that can photosynthesize and consume organic matter
Fine grain, deep-sea, organic deposit on the ocean floor
T/F: Isostatic columns of crustal material produce equal pressures deep within the mantle
Primary Producers
Organisms reponsible for primary productions
bathyl zone
benthic environment from continental shelf break (~200 m) to 2000 m depth; below the photic zone, most organisms rely on detritus
thermohaline circulation
Water circulation produced by differences in temperature and/or salinity (and therefore density).
An arc-shaped depression in the deep-ocean floor with very steep sides and a flat sediment-filled bottom coinciding with a subduction zone. Most trenches occur in the Pacific.
shrimp like creatures which are basic food for many baleen whales
right above and below polar easterlies flow west to east
The largest and longest waves will arrive _____
14. What photosynthetic organism is found in the tissues of coral?
a. Dinoflagellates
b. Diatoms
c. Coccolithophores
d. Cyanobacteria
a. Dinoflagellates
waters that are highly excessive with saline and very salty.
earthquakes, landslides, nuclear explosions, big meteorites
what causes a tsunami?
what resevoir stores the largest amount of CO2
the oceans
The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships.
Abyssal clays
wind blown dust that accumulates slowly far from continental margins. composed of at least 70% fine clay sized particles from the continents.
Convergent Boundaries
Plate boundaried that move towards each other, OCEAN-OCEAN IS deep trenches, Continents are mountain ranges
a tiny negatively charged particle in an atom responsible for chemical bonding
Oceans cover what percent of the globe
Name by Alfred Wegener to the original "protocontinent"; the breakup of Pangea gave rise to the Atlantic ocean and the continents we see today.
shallow body of seawater between the barrier island and the shore
The collection of small or microscopic organisms, including algae and protozoans, that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water, especially at or near the surface, and serve as food for fish and other larger organisms
enables fish to get oxygen from the water
Sediment in the deep ocean, can be dominated by
lithogenic or biogenic material depending on ocean chemistry, biological productivity, and transport processes
sea otters
which of the following organisms are expected to show the highest concentrations of DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in its tissues?
Convection Circulation
ascent of hot, tropical air and descent of cold, polar air
the center of mass of the earth-moon system
Along what features would you expect to find deepest earthquakes?
Subduction Zones
internal heat
Heat from within Earth keeps the asthenosphere flowing. This allows the lithosphere to keep moving.
trophic level
with primary producers as the first level, the number of steps in a food chain to a particular organism; ex. organisms that eat primary producers are the second level, organisms that eat second-level organisms are the third level, etc
Shadow Zone
Another name for the sound maximum zone
Latitude-Polaris relation
Polaris is due north, angle between horizon and light from Polaris is latitude.
Production in temperate oceans
• Winter – nutrients concentrations highest, water column well mixed
and isothermal, light relatively low. Light limited.
• Spring – Compensation depth for photosynthesis increases as sun is
higher in the sky, spring bloom occurs. Spring bloom becomes nutrient
limited as a thermocline develops.
• Summer– more solar radiation, but phytoplankton nutrient limited as
a strong thermocline forms at a depth of about 15 m.
• Fall – solar radiation reduced as sun gets lower in the sky, thermocline
becomes unstable and breaks up. Nutrients return to surface water
resulting in a fall bloom. Fall bloom becomes light limited.
Alfred Wegner
first person to talk about continental drift
-german meteorologist
-said that 200 mill years ago there was a super continent called pangea and the continents eventually moved away
-based his hypothesis on meteorologic, geological & biological records
-was discarded because he couldn’t explain how the continents split, said it was due to rotation but that is impossible so his hypothesis was discarded
Turbidity Currents
very dense currents that carry large amounts of sediments down the slope
Pillow Basalts
On the Sea floor, the outer surfaces of lava flows exhibit tube-like and "pillow shaped" structures.
Salinity is...
The total amount of dissolved salts in water
The form of CaCO3 that is less stable than calcite
lines that go up and down the earth separating the east and west hemispheres
wave height
vertical distance from top of crest to bottom of trough
water cycle
the way the earth uses and recycles water.it's controlled by the sun, witch produces energy in the from of heat.
a large, hot ball of gases, which is held together by gravity and gives off its own light
Gulf Stream
a warm ocean current that flows from the Gulf of Mexico northward through the Atlantic Ocean
T or F Warm water can hold more dissolved gasses than cold water
subduction zone
an area at which a lithospheric plate is descending into the astenosphere. The zone is characterized by linear folds (trenches) in the ocean floor and strong deep foucus earthquakes
1st and 3rd quarter are spring or neap
neap destructive
Continent - Ocean Convergent Boundary
Dense oceanic lithosphere plunges beneath less dense continental. Earthquakes trace path of down-moving plate as it descends into asthenosphere. A trench forms. Subducted plate partially melts. magma rises to form continental volcanos.
200 nautical miles form the coast
The Exclusive Economic Zone extends
In the open-ocean, waves do not represent a flow of water, but what?
a motion of energy
Scattering (Random Reflection)
Disruption of wave front by objects in path such as organisms, gas bubbles or bottom
What 2 types of aurotrophic organisms are possible?
photosynthetic and chemosynthetic autotrophs
well mixed estuary
slow net seaward flow of water at all depths; uniform salinity over depth
flatter and more elliptical
as a deep water wave approaches land, orbits are forced to become what?
Why does light not reach ocean bottom?
Absorption, reflection, refraction and scattering
What are the characteristics of Ocean Crust?
-underlies ocean basin
-igneous rock basalt
-thickness 8 km (5 miles)
-relatively high density
best thing to do if caught in rip current
swim sideways to current
Silica will dissolve slowly unless...
it is covered by more sediment and isolated from water
what is the purpose of taking bathymetric measurements?
to know the ocean depths and topography of the ocean floor
Life is based on organics and up until now there were no organics. How was this mystery solved?
Miller-Urey experiment: Proved that organic products can be made from inorganic reagents. MADE ORGANIC AMINO ACIDS AND SUGARS from ammonia, methane, water and hydrogen.
What does the salinity of ocean water do?
It lowers its temperature roughly 27 degrees Fahrenheit.
How is the wind patterns in the ITCZ and horse winds?
In the northern hemisphere, they move from east to west.
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