oceanography test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Milky Way
chart makers
chemical change
release elements
Coral Atoll
ring-shaped coral island
Keeps attached to seafloor.
Minute, free-floating aquatic plants
Small terraces with low ridges
animals, primary consumers, eat phytoplankton and each other, holoplankton and meroplankton
animal without backbones (squid, nautiluses, shrimplike arthropods)
Scientists think that phylum ______
bacteria are crucial to life
Primarily oxygen, iron, magnesium, and silicon
Joides Resolution
The first Oceanographic research vessel was called ________ ________
process of bacterial conversion of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate ions. bacterial nitrification converts ammonium into a form of nitrogen usable by other primary producers.
animals get pollution from their surroundings and prey
distance between two successive crests or troughs (L)
The downward movement into the asthenosphere of a lithospheric plate.
can bend limbs at specific points
Form of predator avoidance
Fish form in large groups
"Safety in numbers"
the spontaneous breakdown of the nucleus of an atom resulting in the emission of radiant energy in the form of particles or waves.
a sensitive device that measures variations in the pull of gravity at different polaces on Earth's surface
continental shelf
The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is called the _____.
ebb tides
tidal currents flowing seaward with falling sea levels
Satellite Monitoring Programs
enables marine process observation. First was placed into orbit in 1978 and was called SEASAT, unfortunately it only had a few month lifespan and was replaced by a military satellite called GEOSAT.
Biological pump
decaying material sinking to deep water
blue whale
largest animal that has ever lived
this group includes relatives of the penguins that have webbed feet and throat pouches
spring tides
have the greatest tidal range (earth-moon-sun are aligned)
The earth is a wonderful planet: (blank) exists in all three physical states at the surface.
Continental Slope
Sloping transition between the granite of the continent and the basal of the seabed (true edge of continent)
Bottom dwellers
The term benthic organisms reffers to.
Some insects can glide across the surface of water due to
Wave where particles move in orbital path. These waves transmit energy along interface between two fluids of different density
Mass per unit volume of a substance
ocean basin
deep-ocean floor made of basaltic crust.
Coasts dominated by marine processes. See also primary coast
Secondary Coast
What contributes most to the cold temperatures on the oceans bed?
Polar water
form of cam. an animals pigment is darker dorsally and can cast conspicuous shadows on the ventral region. Unequal distribution of light and reduces the ease of detection of prey by predators
sediment laden current that flows off of the continental shelf is called...
turbidity current
Spring tide
the tide with the greatest difference between consecutive low and high tides
Full moon and New moon
black hard fuel that results from the burial and partial decomposition of organic matter in the absense of oxygen and under elevated temperature
the restoring force of a large wind wave is
Water particles in a deep-water wave in a (blank) orbit, and in a shallow water wave, in an (blank)
Circular, Ellipse
A huge wave usually caused by an underwater earthquake or volcano.
the growing or farming of plants and animals in a water environment under controlled conditions
portion of the ocean where waves are generated by wind
synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)
Describe ultraviolet radiation.
-has shorter wavelengths than visible light and is more energetic
-only small portion reaches earth's surface
neap tide
The time of smallest variation between high and low tides occurring when Earth, moon, and sun align at right angles. Neap tides alternate with spring tides, occurring at two-week intervals.
Five considerations of Sunlight, Nutrients and Primary Production?
Sunlight Intensity, Duration of Sunlight, Animal Grazing, multiple algal blooms, nutrient levels.
Polar Creep
The movement of any cold dense current from poles that carries oxygen for animals.
waves approach shore (8)
*Deep water swell waves shoal *Transitional waves *Shallow-water waves *wave speed decreases *wavelength decreases *Wave height increases *Wave steepness increases *wave break
condensation theory
the theory explaining that the life of a star begins when a diffuse area of a spinning nebula begins to shrink and heat up under the influence of its own weak gravity
the equatorial counter current flows where
from east to west
Seafloor spreading
The theory that new ocean crust forms at spreading centers, most of which are on the floor, and pushes the continents aside. Power is thought to be provided by convection currents in Earth's upper mantle.
Animals on the surface of the floor in benthic envirnoments
Sound Strength (Volume)
Property of sound that decreases with distance
All the following are adaptive solutions employed by marine organisms to prevent sinking except:
decreasing cellular fat content.
what is biomass?
the amount of organic carbon (i.e. plant and animal material) in an ecosystem
A wave with wavelength greater than 1. 73 centimeters (0.68 inch), whose restoring forces are gravity and momentum
gravity wave
Intermediate Waves
Occur when the depth of the water is less than ½ of the wavelength and greater than 1/20th of the wavelength; Orbits start to flatten as the wave starts feeling the ocean bottom
deep ocean basin
part of the ocean floor made of oceanic crust and a thin sediment layer
shore zone
the place where the land and the ocean meet
Characteristics of earth's mantle.
70% Earth's volume. less dense than core.
what do we find in the deep sea?
-Abyssal plains-Abyssal hills-Seamounts-Guyots-trenches
What are abyssal hills?
-volcanic features less than 1000 m high on the sea floor
-earth's most common topographic feature
what transformations do waves undergo when they enter shallow waters?
*velocity and length decreases
*wave height increases
*period remains unchanged
Sound Navigation and Ranging
What do the letters in the word "sonar" mean?
w/ increasing distance from Mid Ocean Ridge
- Volcanic activity decreases
(concentrated only along crest)

-age of ocean floor increases
(new floor created at MOR)

-thickness of seafloor deposits increases
(older ocean floor has more time to accumulate thicker deposits of dibris due to settling)

-thickness of lithospheric plates increases
(plates move away from spreading center, become cooler and gain thickness as material from lithosphere attaches to bottom)

-heat flow decreases
(as thickness increases less heat can escape)

-water depth increases
(the MOR is high, so as plate moves away they move into deeper h2o
Formation And Dangers of Rip Currents
After time longshore currents can get trapped on the shoreline side of the sand bar. The waters cut an opening through the sand bar and returns to the ocean in a narrow powerful flow away from the shore. Strong swimmers who get pulled out by rip currents should remain calm and afloat and then swim parallel to shore to get away. Then swim diagonally into the shore. Non-swimmers or swimmers who are not as strong should stay afloat but signal for help.
A "mystery" in our understanding of plate tectonics has been, until recently, the nature of the power source capable of moving the plates and the continents embedded within them. Recent evidence indicates the power source to be:
Convection currents within the Earth's mantle is moving the plates, powered by the heat from natural radioactive decay within Earth's core
What happens to sea levels during glacial climate and interglacial climate?
During a glacial climate sea levels drop and during an interglacial climate sea levels rise.
All of the above statements are advantageous to marine organisms
A small size is advantageous for marine organisms because it:
38. What is the Ekman spiral?
a. The movement of water in the same direction as the wind above
b. The decreasingly slower movement of water as it gets further away from the wind source
c. The sum of all water directions in wind affected layers
d. The f
b. The decreasingly slower movement of water as it gets further away from the wind source
what are some examples of hyper-saline areas of the ocean?
the great salt lake in utah- 280 ppt.
the dead sea on the border of israel and jordan- 330 ppt
Indian ocean
Colder equals
Cocos plate
fastest plate
two taxa
genus and species
Single-celled, Bioluminescent, harmful in algal blooms when in high concentrations.
Hellenistic mathematician, astronomer, and geographer in Alexandria. Wrote geographia, a compilation of what was known about the world's geography in the roman empire during his time. Made detailed map of the earth. set new standards.
any energetic extratraopical cyclone that weeps the easter seaboard of n. america in winter
Benthic Zone
associated with bottom, seabed
nectonic animal with backbones (fishes, reptiles, marina birds and marine mammals)
Matthew Maury
cut down travel time
Earth's cool, rigid outer layer; 100-200km thick; comprises continental and oceanic crusts and uppermost layer of mantle
Any loose material produced directly from rock disintegration.Material resulting from the disintegration of dead organic remains
dinoflagellate nutrition
photosynthetic ones have chlorophylls aand c, beta-
carotene and peridinin (a xanthophyll which imparts a
golden-brown color)
• mixotrophic photosynthetic ones supplement
photosynthesis by osmotrophy (absorbing nutrients) or
phagotrophy (engulfing nutrients)
broad expanses exposed during low tide
highest elevated section of a wave
An assemblage of subducting oceanic lithosphere scraped off (obducted) onto the edge of a continent.
Can't swim against currents, "wanders" or "drifts"
A free-swimming class of cnidarian with a reduced polyp stage.
An atom that becomes electrically charged by gaining or losing one or more electrons. The loss of electrons produces a positively charged cation and the gain of electrons produces a negatively charged anion.
simultaneous sampling at many locations
synoptic sampling
Which part of the ocean is deepest?
coriolis effect
because the earth rotates, anything moving freely over the planet's surface, including air and water, is deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere
The magnetic field of the Earth reverses itself each time magma erupts at a mid-ocean ridge.
Origin of life
Diversification related to extinction events
made by the churning waves breaking down rock & minerals
Primary Productivity
synthesis of organic materials from inorganic substances by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
abyssal plain
flat, largely featureless region of the ocean, covered with a thick layer of sediment
By using the Principle of Constant Proportions we can derive the following equation used for determination of Salinity. (blank) = 1.80655* Chlorinity.
Residence Time
Average time a dissolved substance spends in the ocean
The dominant and most productive of the photosynthetic plankton
The element found in some sediments which suggest that a meteorite or asteroid impact occurred nearby is
Waves where particles move back and forth at right angles to direction of energy transmission. These waves transmit energy only through solids
Freezing point of sea water
-1.9 celsius
28.6 Fahr
molten rock capable of fluid flow; called lava above ground
A body of water partially surrounded by land where fresh water from a river mixes with ocean water, creating an area of remarkable biological productivity
When water gets pushed aside and cold, nutrient rich water takes its place
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
layer of body of water that receives ample sunlight for photosynth
a rapid change in ocean density with water depth
a violent tropical storm that forms in the Pacific Ocean, usually in late summer
carbon dioxide
a gas that is photosynthesized by planets to produce oxygen
t/f: spring tides occur during only a full moon
You are driving along a very winding coastal highway. What type of coast is it?
The upward movement of cold water from the ocean depths.
flood tide
flow of water toward sea during decrease in tide height
area where a river meets the ocean that contains a mixture of freshwater and ocean water and provides an important habitat to many marine organisms
what are jetties?
-very large groins constructed in pairs
-they protect bays and river mouths from "silting in"
mixed tide
A complex tidal cycle, usually with two high tides and two low tides of unequal height per day.
Subsurface currents
________ is a current which flows near and in the opposite direction from the main surface current.
Neritic Zone
water area between the low tide mark to the edge of the continetal shelf.
properties that can be altered anywhere in the water column
nonconservative properties of seawater
the what edge of the gulf stream forms eddies with cold water cores
Hot Spot
A surface expression of a plume of magma rising from a stationary source of heat in the mantle.
Animals that burrow into top 1-5 cm of the ocean floor in benthic environments.
Saturation Value
Maximum amount of dissolved gas that a volume of water can retain at equilibrium
Which of the following word pairs correctly links a descriptor with the way in which the organism lives in the ocean?
nekton - swim
what is a fetch?
the uninterrupted distance over which the wind blows without a change in direction
The energy that causes a wave to form
disturbing force
Warm Core Rings
breaks off from gulf stream and eddy of warm water
In general what applies to currents on the west coasts of continents?
They are cold.
intermediate to shallow depth water.
In contrast to manganese nodules, which form on the abyssal plain, phosphate-rich nodules form in:

Energy, not water, is transported
Water particles move in orbits

When is a wave shallow? Deep?

What is neritic sediments?
-sediments on the outer shelf, slop, and rise of continental shelfs
Process of detecting Internal Waves
Using a CTD, the displacement of isopycnals can be measured, often associated with high acoustic backscatter intensity due to biological material
diurnal tide
a tidal cycle of one high tide and one low tide per day
Coastal wetlands are characterized by
low levels of inorganic nutrients in the tidal zone and anoxic sediments
a well-developed pycnocline should isolate the sewage
the deep water dumping site for sewage sludge off the US east coast initially seemed to be a good choice because:
explain the 3 types of wave breaks
beach break, point break, reef breakl
Mantle - composed of what type of rock
Layer beneath the crust; contains mainly silicon and oxygen with iron and magnesium; composed of lithosphere and asthenosphere; oceanic crust is basalt, continental crust is granite
What is a tsunami wave characterized by?
long wavelength, deep wave base, and fast speed
What Causes & Affects Deep Ocean Currents?
A mass of seawater becomes denser than the surrounding water. Gravity causes this water to sink beneath the less dense water. Then it spreads to the rest of the ocean.
what conditions are necessary for creating hurricanes?
the ocean temp has to be < 77 degrees, and water depth has to be < 200 feet. surface winds must converge, and unstable air rising. light upper winds, clockwise winds of the upper atmosphere move rising air away so that more warm air rises.
magnetic field
porpouse, dolphin, whale
Transverse Currents
are intermediate
glacially-cut valleys, glacial rebound
Define Zero Kevin
Absolute Zero
A large, flat-topped seamount resulting from erosion of an island volcano when it was above sea level.
massive spheres of incandescent gasses
most abudant salt in ocean
isopycnic surfaces
surfaces of constant density
Stinging cells found on anemones, jellyfish, and coral
Growth Forms of Coral
-encrusting coral
-branching coral
-brain coral
-digitate coral
-table coral
-foliase coral
from 30 to 60 degrees N/S
Density varies
-pressure decreases when increasing altitude
-warm air is less dense than cold air
-humid air is less dense than dry air
-warm air can hold more water vapor
t/f: the short distance between florida and cuba tends to slow down the ocean current traveling between them
Sound waves that measure ocean depth
Accounts for most of earth's greenhouse effect
_____ plants live entirely underwater
- seagrasses for example.
- _____ plants live with their roots
underwater, but with a significant portion of the plant growing above the surface -
mangroves for example
submergent; emergent
most abundant fossilized orgnaism on Earth.
marine organisms that crawl along the ocean floor
Polar Exploration
Fridtjof Nansen's vessel was frozen into the arctic and drifted fro 4 yrs. proved arctic was not a continent.
lack incisor teeth, have long hair, and a rounded tail
placoid scales
in cartilaginous fishes, scales are tiny teeth embedded deep in skin
create their own food using an external energy source through primary production
molecule of a compound that is naturally produced by organisms
above water bridge of sand connecting an offshore feature of the mainland.
solar wind
intense stream of electrically charged particles from the sun called?
Oceanic crust Composition
high fe content = basaltic
Electromagnetic spectrum
The entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
The Moon
Created by impact of large (Mars-sized) object early in Earth's history
The explosive collapse of a massive star.
volcanoes on a divergent plate?
yes, non explosive
sodium chloride
the most abundant salt in the ocean
eastern boundary current
found on eastern side of oceans
tiny animals that eat plants and algae
zoo plankton
Wave Front
Any distance along the wave measured parallel to the wave crest or trgouh
Eustatic Change
Global change in sea level that affects all of the world's coastlines
cosmogenic sediments
very tiny grains that originate from outer space, very rare
the act of measuring depth of water (usually with a sounding line)
in lower latitudes
where is terrigenous sediment mostly concentrated?
The euphotic zone is confined to the
epipelagic zone
Parts Per Thousand
how salinity is measured, is abbriviated PPT
How much of earth is covered by ocean
Marine Ecology
the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments, and the effects of these interactions with respect to their abundance and distributions
convection cell
composed of rising and sinking air movement in a circular fashion
Warm surface waters make up how much of the ocean volume?
Mesozoic Era
245 Million Years- 65 Million Years ago. Meso (middle). Age of the dinosaurs.
suspension feeders
feeders that eat organisms that float at a certain level, like plankton
partially mixed estuary
strong net seaward flow of surface freshwater and strong inflow of sea water at depth
sonar, scuba, submersibles, satellites, remote underwater manipulator and deep flight aviator
name the inventions that helped scientists study the oceans
Seismic Sea Waves
Type of tsunami, waves caused by sudden vibration and/or displacement of ocean floor related to an earthquake, largest waves in the ocean
Short Wavelengths
Reach further down in the ocean, past 10 m, as blue and green color.
conveyor circulation -- conveyor belt
Simplified model of thermohaline circulation through the oceans is referred to as? depicts water as a waht?
Is what the water vapor given off by plants is called
What zone of the ocean has the most fishing
atmosphere (pressure)
one atmosphere of pressure is equal to the air pressure at sea level. this is equal to 14.7 pounds per square inch and is caused b the wight of all the thousands of feet of air above sea level. water is much denser than air and hydrostatic (water) pressure increases by one atmosphere with only 33 feet of depth. pressure exceeds 1000 atmospheres in the deepest trenches of the oceans
The ___-kingdom system divides kingdom ____ into two new kingdoms: kingdom _____ and kingdom ______
six; Monera; Eubacteria; Archaebacteria
heat capacity
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree
refract, 54
change in direction, or bending, of a wave
The large current off of the southeast of the United States
The Gulf Stream
Subducted Plate
Name for the plate that does not bare the island arc and is consumed in the trench
uniformly in all directions
how do waves spread from a storm?
eposodic waves (rogue waves)
comes out of no where, intersecting waves trains, changes in depths, and/or currents.
Origin of Lithogenous sediments
began as rocks on continents and islands; weathering (water, temperature, chemical) broke down rocks; they were eroded and transported; carried by streams, wind, glaciers, gravity
Conductivity (C of CTD)
seah2o flows in thru current channel between 2 electrodes
&amp; back out

Accuracy: 0.75 psu
(psu = practical salinity unit)

Ocean h2o = 35 psu
Intertropical Convergence Zone
the formal name for the zone of low pressure near the equator and rising
distinct layers in the oceans occur because what
surface processes change ocean salinities and temperatures
Life in the ocean
light does not travel far in the ocean, but sound does
difference between a submergent and emergent coast features and examples associated with each
Emergent coast= caused by) uplift of an area and drop in sealevel. features) Wave cut cliffs, wave cut platforms Submergent Coast= caused by) land adjacent to sea subsides, sea level rises. features) highly irregular shoreline, estuaries
What is affected by density of the surface water
the pycnocline, density layering, unstable convective overturn, and stable water column
What gives water its distinctive color?
-blue and green wavelengths of light that are more effectively transmitted and are reflected
-causes water to look blue-green
-red wavelengths are the longest so they are preferentially absorbed
during periods of very heavy wave activity
the berm shrinks and longshore bar grows
What other 4 factors influence the tide?
1. declination of moon's orbit (18 degrees to 28 degrees in an 18.6 year cycle)
2. earth-moon distance
3. earth-sun distance
4. weather (low pressure = water rises / wind blowing towards shore = higher tides)
What are some of the effects of upwelling?
Nutrients are brought to the surface and support a variety of sealife.
What two oceans are close in size for second biggest?
Alantic and indian Ocean (Alantic is bigger)
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