Oceanography Test 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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Centripetal
tidal force
CTD
conductivity
temp
depth
physical change
make sediment
Dinoflagellates
globular, unicellular. simple flagellum encircles the cell in the
cingulum (a horizontal groove) and produces a
spinning
motion
Nematoday
round worms- digestive tract
4
the number of ocean basins
Crest
Highest point of a wave
Nekton
pelagic animals that effectively swim
zooplankton
microscopic animals that eat photoplankton
what causes ocean waves
moon's gravity
Guyot
a flat top over a seamount
Cold Core Rings
eddy of cold water
Algae
defined by taxonomists as those organisms
that belong in one of seven specific phyla or
divisionsin kingdom Protista.
- 1. Bacillariophyta-diatoms
- 2. Dinophyta-dinoflagellates
- 3. Chlorophyta-green algae
- 4. Rhodophyta-red algae
- 5. Phaeophyta-brown algae
- 6. Euglenophyta
- 7. Chrysophyta
Drowned River Valley
same as Ria Coast
Tidal Current
Alternating horizontal movement of water associated with the rise and fall of the tide.
Paleomagnetism
The "fossil" or remanent, magnetic field that encircles the Pacific Ocean.
jellyfish
invertebrate whose bodies are shaped like bells or bowls
Zooxanthellae
Forms a symbiotic relationship with corals and performs photosynthesis.
describes locations that experience the moderating influences of the ocean usually along coastlines or islands
Marine effect
an isolated segment of seafloor, island arc, plateau, continental crust, or sediment transported by seafloor spreading to a position adjacent to a larger continenal mass; usually different in compoition from the larger mass
terrane
Pacific
Which ocean has the greatest average depth?
wave-base
depth at which orbital motion dies out
andesitic volcanoes
Which of the following is characteristic of oceanic-continental convergent plate boundaries?
4 Ingredients for Photosynthesis
water, CO2, nutrients, energy
Evaporite
Deposit formed by evaporation of ocean water
Key Characteristics of Pollution
quantity, toxicity, and persistence
conveyor belt
model of ocean circulation, warmer water in the oceans upper layers flows toward the poles
Hydrogen (blank) makes water exist as a liquid at the surface temperatures of the earth.
Bonds
Cohesion
Attachment of water molecules to each other by hydrogen bonds
guyots
once active volcanic islands, but are now submerged on the ocean basin floor because of erosion
Deep ocean trenches are associated with
subduction zones
Breakers on shore. steepest seafloor. energy spread over shortest distance. best for body surfing
Surging breaker
An apparent force resulting from Earth's rotation causes particles in motion to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
 Hadley Cell: the large atmospheric circulation cell that occurs between th
coriolis effect
upwelling is inhibited in the centers of ____ current gyres
subpolar
Movement of sediments parallel to shore, driven by wave energy
Longshore Drift
Continental Margin
shallow parts of the ocean located between the shore and the deep ocean bottom. made of continental crust and thick sediment.
Continental Rise
the gently sloping section of the continental margin located between the continental slope and the abyssal plain
Salt budget
balance between the rates of salt addition to and removal f a body of water
What is the "asthenosphere?"
Composed of outermantle material
Below lithosphere
Kept plastic
Global Warming
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Accessory pigments
collect light energy and transfer it to chlorophyll a.
valence
number of hydrogen atoms with which an atom of a given element can combine with either ionic or covalent bonds
What is a divergence?
occurs where?
What are permanent zones of divergence?
Upwellings have what and rich food chains at such, rise in what?
where ocean currents separate
upwellings; where winds diverge or where currents separate when meeting a landmass (surface wind or physical barrier)
tropical divergence (close to each side of the equator) and Antarctic divergence
Most Secondary coasts form by (blank) of Primary Coasts, and their coastline relatively (blank)
Changing, Smooth
Upwelling
The movement of cold water upward from the deep ocean that is caused by wind
thermocline
a rapid decrease in temperature in the ocean
surging breakers
build up over short distances and surge forward, happens on abrupt beach slopes
river delta
landform where mouth of river flows into ocean
benthos
marine plants and animals that live on or in the ocean floor
forces (2types)
1. primal or causal

2. secondary or modifier
standing wave
A wave in which water oscillates without causing progressive wave forward movement. There is no net transmission of energy in a standing wave.
how do zooplankton move?
they drift passively with ocean currents or are weak swimmers
Kuroshio Current
south to north along east coast of Japan
graduated cylinder
a glass or plastic tube used for measuring
chlorination of the liquid effluent
secondary sewage treatment is distinguished from primary sewage treatment by the:
molecule that has a weak positive and negative electric charge
polar molecule
if a surface water wave has a wavelength of 200 m and a 5 second period, its speed is what
40 m/sec
deep scattering layer
a relatively dense collection of small fish, squids, and other animals that aggregate below the photic zone in open water. as sonar sound waves from depth finders hit them, it scatters. they rise each night to feed in the photic zone and return to the vocer of darkness in the day.
Meroplankton
spend only a part of life as plankton (zoo plankton)
Principle of Constant Proportions
This guideline states that total salinity can be determined from measuring one salt
what is the lithosphere?
outer layer of earths structure includes the crust and and upper mantle, major component in plate tectonic movement
coastal waters are limited by ____
limited by light (murky)
The point in the orbit of a satellite where it is closest to the main body; opposite of apogee.
perigee
what do the currents north of the equator do?
move clockwise (right/east)
Surface curents
curents at the top layer of the ocean caused by winds.
surface currents
currents at the top layer of the ocean caused by winds


Increases with latitude and speed

Which direction does the Coriolis Force go?
How are atolls formed?
-first a fringing reef is formed around an island mass
-then sinking sea mount causes water to rise and reef to grow upwards at the same rate to create a barrier reef (lagoon between reef and the island is formed)
-process continues until the seamount eventually is completely below the surface and the atoll forms a ring around the seamount
The Impacts of Island Chain Wakes
Winds cause upwelling and downwelling that can extend for thousands of kilometers
how much seafood is taken from the sea each year?
84 million tons
Which of the following statements shows the correct hierarchical ordering of taxonomic levels in terms of increasing specificity?
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
an increase in nutrients resulting in more frequent kills of bottom-dwelling animals
one major problem associated with Chesapeake Bay and increased human pressure is:
Explain how the Coriolis effect influences winds in the northern and southern hemisphere
northern hemisphere winds go west to east southern hemisphere east to west clockwise left counter clockwise right warm air moves north to west
they are important primary and secondary consumers that link plankton to large animals high on the food web
Krill are important to the food web because
preserved plant and animal hard parts
what lived in the column above core location
why do organisms such as the hermit crab die when they are in fresh water?
they freshwater would flow into the animal through its skin, because of osmosis
What are all teh things humans can do to effect shoreline?
1 tectonic history
2 recent sea level changes
3 wave energy
4 sedement supply-beach?
5 climate and weathering
6 resistance and materials
7 organic activity
8 human activity
convection
...
PHYTOPLANKTON
plant plankton
invertebrates
Animal lacking backbone
turnicate feeding
mucous filter
human taxa
kingdom: animalia
phylum: chordata
class: mammalia
order: primates
family: hominidae
genus: homo
species: sapiens
Sea Cucumbers
Type of Echinoderm
foodchain
the relationship between feeding organisms
Hierarchial ordering of taxonomic levels
...
Manned deep sea submersibles (example)
Arvin
ice rafting
associated with glacial deposits
barotrophic conditions
isobaric surfaces
PARALLEL to
isopycnic surfaces
SEAMOUNT
an underwater mountain rising above the ocean floor
Isotonic
cellular environment happens when an equal concentration exists inside and outside a cell
external force
acts on the earth system
Ship surveys
Poor temporal resolution, reasonable spatial resolution
Abyssal Hills
small seamounts (~250m or less)`
False
A glacial deposit is well sorted.
chemosynthesis is ____ efficient than
photosynthesis, so rates of cell growth and division are _____
less; slower
Volcanogenic Sediment
sediment from volcanic ejections (ash)
Arthur Holmes
championed theory of continental drift. Priciples of Physical Geology, last chap. on continental drift. Part of the model was the origin of the sea floor spearding concept.
Calcareous Ooze
Ooze thick, common biogenous sediment produced by dissolving calcium carbonate shells
The wind belt boundary characterized by lots of storms and located at 60° N and S
Polar Front
Trench
A deep canyon in the ocean floor
source of energy
oil and natural gas
-tidal energy
current
steady movement in one direction, such as that of water in the ocean
abyssal plain
starts where continental slope ends and at least 2 miles deep
conduction
how heat moves through a soild atom-atom transfer of energy
A beach made of boulders indicates that the waves that come to this beach are relatively (blank)
Large
more
Venus- more or less dense atmosphere than earth?
chemosynthesis
uses chemicals for energy instead of sun; is a process that uses sulfate as a chemical
Density Currents
Deep water currents caused by differences in water density
PH scale
measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
The theory that the Earth's lithosphere is fractured into plates, which move relative to each other and are driven by convection currents in the mantle. Most volcanic and seismic activity occurs at plate margins.
plate tectonics
asthenosphere, 56
upper, deformable portion of earths mantle, the layer below the lithosphere; probalby partially moltenl may be site of convection cells
Transform Boundary
Places where crustal plates shear laterally past one another. crust is neither produced, nor destroyed.
Diurnal
The tidal pattern with one high tide and one low tide daily
Trough
the part that is depressed the lowest below the surface
convergent boundaries
plates move toward each other and collide
Geomorphology
Study of Earth's land forms and the processes that have formed them.
Transpiration
the process by which plants give off water vapor through their leaves
PHOENICIANS EXPLORATION
Built really fast boats, first trade routes throughout Mediterranean to Great Britain
Waves
the up and down movement of ocean water caused by the wind
The Challenger Expedition
Basically began the study of Oceanography
Largest Sea Turtle
Leatherback Turtle- can reach about 1.2-1.9 meters and 200-500 kg. Also have the longest migration of any turtle- only warm blooded turtle
Deepest part of the ocean
Marianas Trench 36,000 ft
What type of water floats?


Warm water floats
Fresh water floats


Meteor
First to use echo sounder to find depths of the ocean (German vessal)
atoll
a ringlike coral island and reef that nearly or entirely encloses a lagoon
neap tides
at the quarter moon, moon tide crest coincides with sun tide's trough and the two cancel out
Corange Line
in a rotary tide, lines equal tidal range about the amphidromic point
Salinity
The measure of the amount of salt in water.
continental slope
steep incline at the edge of a continental shelf
Neap Tide
Tides occurring near the times of the first and last quarters of the Moon, when the range of the tide is least.
Continental shelf
is the part of a continent that extends under the ocean from the shoreline.
Wave
A wave is a body of water that transfer energy from one body to another.
what are S-waves?
body wave moves through interior of the earth. moves only through solids. slower than P-waves
Describe processes that will increase ocean salinity
sea ice forming, evaporation
A device that reflects sound off the ocean bottom to sense water depth. Its accuracy is affected by the variability of the speed of sound through water.
echo sounder
From North Pole to South Pole what are the pressures?
H,L,H,L,H,L,H
Wave Cut platform
flat area created by the erosion of headlands
shorter residence time
what do principal ions have as they are more reactive...?
First Library of Alexandria
contained written info on items of interest to seafarers. All ships that entered the harbor were recorded and a copy of records was kept there.
What are Methane Hydrates?
the most common hydrates in nature; gas hydrates made of ethane and propane
wind driven causes of motion
1. wind currents (major ocean circ.)

2. surface waves

3. longshore currents, rips

4. upwelling
the majority of marine invertebrates are
istonic with respect to their environment
A Mercrator map shows greatest distortion where?
at high latitudes and the poles
What Two Factors Affect Density?
Salinity - dissolved solids make ocean water more dense than fresh water Temperature - cold water is more dense than warm water
The area north of 66.5 degees North is in darkness when the sun is directly where?
over 23.5 degrees South
What is the Plate Tectonic Theory?
there are rigid lithospheric plates at the earth's surface that move over a solid but plastic asthenosphere.
What is the difference between living and non-living things
life is capable of organizing energy and putting it to use, capable of reproduction
what is the difference between infauna benthic creatures and epifauna benthic creatures?
infauna = live buried in mud
epifauna = at the seafloor surface
Wind moving from the north to the south along the California coast causes water along the coast to:
Move away from shore (west), causing upwelling
In the winter does the wind go from ocean to land or land to ocean?
land (cold) to ocean (hot) because lands High atmosphere and high density goes to oceans low atmosphere and low density.
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