Oceanography test review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sessile
attached
Pacific ocean
25%
viscosity
internal friction
5cm/year
rate of spreading
Symbiodinium
particularly important
autotrophic dinoflagellates.
• They live within the zooxanthellate
coral polyps.
• They provide their host with food via
photosynthesis.
-In return Symbiodiniumget nitrogenous
wastes from the coral.
• These are the only coral that build massive coral reefs.
• Without Symbiodinium, coral could not exist as we know it.
Ctenopores
"Comb jellies", feeding appendages.
IDOE
International decades of oceanograpohic exploration 1970's
oceanic ridges
an underwater mountain range.
Pelagic Zone
in the water volume
cetacea
marine mammals like porpoises, dolphins and whales
Plungers
form on narrow steep slopes
Asthenosphere
Hot, partially melted, slowly flowing layer of upper mantle; 350-650km
Seamounts
Underwater volcanic cones are called ________.
Dinoflagellate structure
longer flagellum with hair-like filaments trails down the
sulcus (a longitudinal groove) and imparts most of the
forward motion to the cell
• number, size and shapes of plates are used to identify
different species
deltas
broad, poorly defined fan-shaped river mouths; mississippi river
trough
most depressed section of a wave
Terrane
An isolated segment of seafloor, island arc, plateau, continental crust, or sediment transported by seafloor spreading to a position adjacent to a larger continental mass; usually different in composition from the larger mass.
Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osterichthyes
The classes of fish.
Countershading
dark on top, light on bottom
(alkaline) a substance that releases hydroxide ions in solution
base
the relatively light crustal rock-- composed mainly of oxygen, silicion, and aluminum-- that forms the continents. its density is about 2.7 g/cm^3
granite
30 percent
Approximately how much of Earth's surface is covered by land?
what causes tides
gravitaitonal attraction between the rotating earth and the moon and sun
True
The relatively young age of the seafloor supports the idea that subduction must take place.
faunal assemblages
which species lived together at different times
ocean floor
bottom of ocean, contains unwater volcanoes
Albedo
fraction of solar energy that is reflected by a surface
swell
a wave at sea before it breaks
A (blank) thermocline means that there is an influx of cold water.
Shallower
Submarine Canyon
Deep, V-shaped valley running roughly perpendicular to shoreline and cutting across the edge of the cont shelf and slope
Coarse
High wave action contributes to what kind of sediments?
Manganese nodules are an example of
Hydrogenous sediments
Wave will break when wave steepness exceeds ____
1/7
SONAR
an acronym for sounding and ranging. locates objects in the ocean.
Water returning to the ocean from waves washing onto a beach.
Backwash
Why planes cannot fly longitudinally in a straight line
The Coriolis Effect
Continental Slope
the steeply inclined section of the continental margin located between the continental rise and the continental shelf
Anadromous
fish live in the ocean mostly and breed in the fresh water
what is the average salinity in sea water?
3.5%
Neap Tide
a tide with the least difference between high and low tide that occurs when the sun and moon pull at right angles to each other
First and third quarter of the moon
refraction
bending of a wave as it reaches shallow water
protoearth
earth early in its development. Had a diameter 1000x greater and a mass 500x greater than at present. there were no oceans or life
t/f: large waves can be produced when the fetch is long, wind speed is great, and the duration lasts for 15 seconds
false
Two equal high waters per day is called (blank) tidal pattern.
Semidiurnal
Salinity
The total amount of dissolved salts in water.
breakers
when waves lose energy and reach the shore and collapse forward
fetch
area of ocean where wind has constant direction and speed
Pelagic
relating to or occurring or living in or frequenting the open ocean
abyssal plains
flat seafloor area from 4,000 meters to 6,000 meters below the ocean surface, formed by the deposition of sediments
Define spit.
-a beach area that extends outward from the main beach and then turns and parallels the shore
tidal tatum
The reference level (0.0) from which tidal height is measured.
la nina
a climate event in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which surface waters are colder than normal
Sargassosea
________ is an area of calm water in the center of the N. Atlantic.
density stratification
the formation of layers in a material, with each deeper layer being denser (weighing more per unit of volume) than the layer above
how much enery from the sun that actually reaches the surface of the earth
solar input
in most cases, a zone of surface covergence is an area of upwelling or downwelling and high or low levels of CO2
downwelling, low
Convergent plate boundary
A region where plates are pushing together and where a mountain range, island arc, and/or trench will eventually form; often a site of much seismic and volcanic activity.
Wave dominated delta
Which type of delta: Smooth shoreline, usually one exit channel.
Density Stratified System
Arrangement of fluids such that the lighter fluids are at the top and heavier at the bottom
An example of an organism that might be part of the epifauna is a(n):
sea star.
this force is the same for all particles in the earth
centripetal force
A wave in water shallower than 1/20 its wavelength
shallow-water wave
nitrogen, nitrate
part of the ions required for plant or phytoplankton growth, 106:16:1 the 16 accounts for this
whitecap
crest of a wave that is blown off by high winds
ocean trench
is a deep, narrow valley in the ocean floor
calcareous, oolites, diatoms,
tektites, coarse lithogenous sediment
Word Analysis. Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the one option that does not fit the pattern.
sir james ross
made an attempt to chart the ocean floor, reaching depths of 16,054 feet.
What is intraplate volcanism?
-the volcanoes that are above hot spots
what are the efects of pollution in the marine environment?
*biochemical or cellular level
*organisms level-can take hrs., days, months
*population dynamics-can take months to yrs.
*community dynamics- can take yrs to decades
Depth and measurement
What do the two words that make up bathymetry mean?
transition from laminar to turbulent flow
occurs @ interface of two "miscible" fluids
moving in OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS

("miscible" = can be mixed to form homogenous mixture)
opposite of the typical estuarine circulation pattern
the type of circulation pattern found in Laguna Madre is:
list the major gyres in the world
Indian Ocean, North Atlantic, North Pacific, South Atlantic, and South Pacific Gyre
What is the photic zone? How deep is it?
enough sunlight exists for photosynthesis to occur ... only about 100m deep.
below the intertidal zone on the continental shelf
The sublittoral (subtidal) zone is the area:
What are the ways to stay afloat in pelagic environments?
gas bladder, decrease body fat, decrease density
how do the moon and the sun affect spring tides and neap tides?
spring: full or new moon.... neap: quarter moon
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