Oceanography Unit Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
continental drift
convergent plate boundary
Mars has
Water Ice
manatees, herbivorous marine mammals
Ocean water near surface
deepest areas if the icean
discipline of oceanography dealing with the geology of the ocean, including rocks, sediments, fossils
what temperature is east coast
lives on the sea floor
per unit area -- variable
phylum for jellyfish, anemones, and coral
one partner benefits from the relationship and the other partner is unaffected
Lines across the surface that experience maximum vertical displacement
uninterrupted distance over which wind blows without significant change in direction
This individual first calculated the circumference of
the earth about 3,000yrs ago
An underwater vehicle that can withstand pressure
both convergent and divergent plate boundaries
stromatolites—a coral-like mound of microbes that trap _____ and precipitate _____ in shallow tropical seas
sediment; minerals
ideally, there are ___ convection cells per hemisphere
amount the Earth is covered by water
approximate age of the ocean
4.0 billion years
represent the only living members of the subclass nautiloidea, are often considered to be "living fossils"
term for animal in which body tempature is determined by tempature of external enviroment
tidal range
difference in height between mean lowtide and high tide
Bacterial respiration
is primarily responsible for nutrient cycling.
negatively charged ion produced by the gain of electrons in the outer shell of an atom
-a charged atom or group of atoms
-ions in ocean come from rocks and volcanoes
-ions make up salts in seawater
water returning to the ocean from waves washing up a beach
density stratification
like oil and vinegar-- heaviest elements go to core, in between go to the mantle, and the lightest go to the crust and atmosphere-- what is this term called?
Crust Composition
O, Si, Al (oxygen, Silicon, aluminum)
(open sea)
o Neritic (<200 meters) and oceanic
A systematic way of asking questions about the natural world and testing the answers to those questions.
Carl Sagen
Cosmos, &quot;cosmos is, was, and always will be&quot;
Boiling Point
temperature where liquids turn to gas. water: 100C, 212F
The US coastline with a mixed tidal pattern
Heat Budget
Accounting for total amount of sun's heat received on Earth during one year as being exactly equal to total amount lost because of radiation and reflection
Carbon dating is used to determine the absolute age of a rock or fossil.
Boundary Currents
from where landmass blocks wind driven current and deflects current N/S along a landmass
Inverse Estuary
An embayment, often located in arid climates, with high evaporation and little freshwater input. Circulation is seaward at depth and inward at the surface, opposite that of a typical estuary. Salinity is generally higher than average seawater salinities.
terrigeneous sediments
fine and coarse grains produced by weathering and erosion of rocks on land; typically sands and mud
meridian at zero degree longitude from which east and west are reckoned (usually the Greenwich longitude in England)
A system that uses sound waves to calculate the distance to an object which gets its name from Sounds Navigation and Ranging.
Prevailing dry offshore winds produce coastal waters that
have higher salinities
water particles go in a circle and bump into eachother to transfer energy
4 main disciplines of oceanography
geological, Chemical, Physcical, Biological
a key feature of invertebrates in the phylum cnidaria- numerous stinging cells located on tentacles around the mouth used to poison small floating animals which are then dragged into the mouth for food
Polar climate
high precipitation, sea ice covered in winter but melts in summer, ice bergs common, surface temp seldom exceeds 5C, no sunlight in winter
Sources of salt?
chemical weathering of rocks, volcanic emissions, hydrothermal activity on the seafloor.
Characteristics of Continental Crust: Iron and Silicon make up
Low Iron, High Silicon
opportunistic reproduction
an organism which mates when a situation allows for offspring, abondance of food or nutrients in the ecosystem.
amphiodromic point
point within a tidal system where the tide range is approximately zero
depressions among the rocks that remain filled with wather after the tide goes out
what is tide pool?
Giant Wave (Rogue Wave)
Large sea surface distortions created by momentary constructive interference
Nutrient limited
an ecosystem constrained by lack of a key nutrient
Atlantic bottom water
The coldest, deepest, densest water in the oceans is the?
Surface currents
currrents at the top layher of the ocean caused by winds
What zone of the ocean is mosy affected be evaporation, precipitaion, and melting ice
Neritic zone
one of the major groups of the animal kingdom whose members hare a similar body plan, level of complexity and evolutionary history
cyanobacteria: ______ bacteria which are found in environments high in _____ _____, and
produce _____ _____
photosynthetic; dissolved oxygen; free oxygen
Horse latitudes
the latitudes belts between 30 and 35 degrees North and South latitude where winds are light and variable . The climate is hot and dry resulting in the creation of the major continental and maritime desert of the world.
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: What color are the rocks?
Dark Colors (Shallow=cold=fast crystalization) Fine Grained
Gulf of Mexico
1 high and 1 low tide a day.
Pericontinental Sea
Body of water that floods the edge of a continent
very steep bottom
what kind of bottom does a surging breaker have?
deep water waves
occurs when depth is greater than 1/2 the wavelength, particle motion= go in circular orbits, deep water wave does not feel the bottom.
Why are sediments important?
1) clue to past climates
2) indicate ocean floor movements
3) indicate ocean circulation patters
4) nutrient supply for marine sediments
The tide-generating force varies
directly with the product of the object masses
passive suspension feeding
no active pumping of water, but use of cilia to move particles to mouth
resources that make and control exploration of ocean floors profitable and important providing incentive for Exclusive economic zones:
Table salt, mineral deposits, and fossil fuels.
The 2 major chemical ions found in sea water that constitutes 86% of all sea salts are
Na+1 AND C1-1
carry oxygen to deep water
Deep currents are important to life in the deeps sea because they...
according to the ekman spiral, water that is close to how many meters deep is traveling where to the surface current
150 meters, in the opposite direction
How are longshore currents generated?
-when the waves approach the shore at an angle which sets up a current in the surf zone that moves down the beach
where it falls as rain or snow
winds carry moisture laden air away from tropics to cooler latitudes where what happens?
What other 4 factors influence the tide?
1. declination of moon's orbit (18 degrees to 28 degrees in an 18.6 year cycle)
2. earth-moon distance
3. earth-sun distance
4. weather (low pressure = water rises / wind blowing towards shore = higher tides)
What is the difference between a tide and a current?
Tides are caused by gravity, currents by wind or density differences
How can the Iron from the Island Mass Effect create Productivity?
Brilliant swirls of green and blue in the midst of the deep, blue Atlantic Ocean off Argentina were created by multitudes of tiny marine plants (phytoplankton) that draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to grow. Intentionally adding iron to the ocean would fertilize more phytoplankton blooms.
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