Oceanography Unit Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
seamounts
undersea volcanoes
zooplankton
animal plankton
Sea Floor spreading
...
Guyot
Seamounts with flattened tops
continental crust
granite forms what?
Water waves are
orbital waves
Values of Estuaries
-Environmental (habitat)
- Recreation
-Productive (nutrients)
-Economic
-Transportation
-Good Harbors
Determining factor of Estuaring Circulation
(E-P)
planets
collision of planetesimals formed what?
Warm less dense air...____surface pressure
lower
Crust
The thin, lightweight outermost layer
hadley
circulation cells between the equator and 30 degrees N and S
Hurricanes
An intense, rotating oceanic weather system with winds of 74mph or greater.
state(gas,liquid, solid), temperature, salinity, and temp
what affects density?
Coast
larger zone affected by shoreline processes
sediment transport
movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of the force of gravity acting on the sediment
Nekton
Animals that swim. Examples include fish, whales, turtles, squid, and shrimp.
There is no horizontal tide-generating force on Earth at points directly below and opposite the Moon.
True
is lahars sticky or thick?
very sticky
Oceanography
study of earth's oceans(70% of earth's surface)
Which of the following possible locations for life to have begun would have had problems with UV radiation on the early earth?
Tide pools
Where did the people that originally settle Polynesia probably come from?
Asia
Basalt
Rock type that composes the ocean floor
true
the decreased calcium content in the shells of piscivorous birds was a result bioaccumulation of pesticides in the food chain
Panthalassa
when pangea existed, Pacific ocean was a massive ocean called what?
10%
the efficiency of trophic transfers in ecosystems is on average around
precipitation
the term for falling, condensed water molecules, which come down as rain, snow, sleet, or hail---depending on conditions in the Earth's atmosphere
An estuary formed from a flooded glacial valley
Fjord
Heat, Nutrients
are provided and carried by currents
groin
A long wall of rocks or concrete
Diadromous
types of bony fish that migrate between fresh and saline environments
photosynthesis
process for making food and oxygen using chlorophyll, sunlight co2 and h2o
why?
Similarity of our body fluids, same main elements, water needed for survival, same temp, and pH as our bodies.
Depended on star positions for navigation. Colonized Hawaii and other islands.
The Polynesians
Continental shelf
The flat or gently sloping submerged point of the continent extends from the shoreline out of the continental rise
Erosion
The act of water moving and destroying rocks and the crust. This action destroys the crust.
reef ecosystem
coral reef is composed of calcium carbonate, or limestone, derived from the water by the reef organisms: colonies of coral polyps and coralline algae. Most of this structure, the underlying foundation of the reef, is dead, made up of layer upon layer of coral skeletons.
Amphidromic point
center of an open ocean tidal system
turbidity current
caused by debris sliding down the slope
Trophic level
Nourishment level in a food chain Algal produces constitute the lowes level followed by herbivores and a series of carnivores at the highest level
potentially lethal bleaching of coral reefs caused by
expulsion of algae
T/F: nutrients are brought up to the surface when ocean surface currents are divergent
True
Tide range
high to low water difference; varies according to basin configuration, usually <2 m
Benjamin Franklin
Published the first chart of any current
ambergris
a substance in the intestines of sperm whales. it is used to make certain expensive perfumes
One lunar day =
24 hours and 50 minutes
What are evaporites?
sedimentary deposit left behind when water evaporates; examples: halite (NaCl), anhydrite (CaSO4)
any form of artificial structure built to protect a coast or to prevent the movements of sand along a beach. Examples include groins, break waters and sea walls
hard stabilization
plate tectonics
The theory that Earth's lithosphere is fractured into plates that move relative to each other and are driven by convection currents in the mantle. Most volcanic and seismic activity occurs at plate margins.
This person was the first to calculate the circumfrence of the Earth.
Eratosthenes
Hydrogen Sulfide
Scientist found life at the deep ocean floor vents. The source of energy for these communities is...
neritic environments are influenced by
seasonal salt variations, seasonal temp fluctuations, wave energy
Slack Water
Water ceases to flow toward or away from land, occurs at high and low tides
bore tide
high breaking wave that advances up as tide rises
tides
the regular rise and fall of the water at the ocean shore
dead zones
condition of the ocean where all or most marine life is unable to survive because of extreme pollution- no oxogen
One day on the moon is about (blank) days on the earth.
27.5
currents
are rivers in the sea, caused by winds which prevail in that region
Residence Time
The average amount of time that a substance remains in solution.
What is salinity?
The amount of dissolved substances in water
how are estuaries classified?
1. drowned river mouths
2. fjords
3. bar-built
4. tectonic
relict sediment
a sediment deposited under a set of environmental conditions that still remains unchanged.
If you wanted to collect samples of Archaea, the best locality would be:
Deep sea vents
Echo Sounding
sonar used to find the distance to the ocean floor
Basin
A low area on Earth in which an ocean formed when the area filled with water from torrential rains.
continental slope
at the end of the continental shelf is this, marking the boundary between continental and oceanic crust
the seaward flow of air from the land caused by differential cooling of earths surface.
land breeze
Who was one of the first captains who set sail for science?
James Cook
the seafloor magnetic pattern is
parrallel to and symmetric about ocean ridges
continental fit or continental drift
continents fit together and can be reassembled into one large landmass- called what?
what is net primary production?
the amount of organic material left after photosynthesizers take care of respiration and cellular maintenance
About halfway between high and low tides
when maximum tidal currents are reported
In the southern hemisphere, the direction of the Ekman transport is
to the left of the wind direction
7 major oceans of the water
n. pacific s. pacific n. atlantic s. atlantic arctic southern
gas comes from molten material-- and it forms an atmosphere
what comes from molten material within earth and what does it form?
True or False: Some sharks are filter feeders instead of predators.
basking sharks, whale sharks, and many rays are filter feeders
How do we believe the moon was formed?
During this time the earth was bombarded by meteorites, but the moon formed with a large asteroid collided with the earth
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