Digestive System 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
somatostatin
inhibites gatrin release
Parietal peritoneum
holding wall
Mouth carbs
salivary amylase
minerals are
inorganic substances
anus
expells solid matter
Pancreas
Exocrine secretions- trypinogen secretes and produces all
what is the pharnyx?
throat
Secretin
duodnal mucosa. entero, stim bicarbonate ion. stim secretion
Peritonitis
inflammation of peritoneum
can arise from piercing abdominal wound, perforating ulcer, poor sterile technique during abdominal surgery; most commonly burst apendix
peritoneal coverings tend to stick together around the infection site, localizing the infection for macrophages to attack
If becomes widespread within peritoneal cavity, dangerous and lethal
Treatment: removing as much infectious debris as possible and administering megadoses of antibiotics
Absorption
Transferring nutrients from the digestive tube to the body is ________
what covers smooth muscle layers
serosa
CCK
duodnal mucosa. Contraction of gall bladder. Relaxation of hepatopancreatic sphinctor
Gall bladder
store and concentrate gall bladder
Peristalsis
major means of propulsion alternate waves of contraction + relaxation of muscles, mainly to squeeze food along the tract
Liver Functions Include
-Detoxifies blood
-Produces plasma proteins
-Stores glucose as glycogen, maintain blood glucose
-Converts amino acids to glucose & urea
Submucosal
Nervous tissue assocatied with teh submucosa is called ______
excess fat soluble vitamins
accumulate in tissues
enamel
protective coat of hardened calcium deposits
inner pulp
nercous tissue and blood vessels
Gigiva(gums) cell type?
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Long epithelial ridges
Dense lamina propia
zymogens
precursor enzymes that must be activated, this form prevents stomach from digesting itself
what are your stomach contents called?
chyme
Mechanism for absorption for Sm. intestines
diffusion
facilitated diffusion
osmosis
active transport
Greater omentum
attaches to stomach. Keep organs lubricated
Visceral peritoneum
covers external surfaces of most digestive organs and is continuous w/ parietal peritoneum that lines body wall
Red margin
reddened area where we apply lipstick
Small Intestine Functions
-Digests almost all food
 
-Absorbs nutrients
 
-Transports undigested food to large intestine
Retroperitoneal
_____ refers to organs of the abdominal cavity that are posterior the peritoneum
What size can the stomach stretch too?
4L
incisors are used to...
shear chunks of food
Define excretion
The elimination of indigestable from the body in the form of feces.
STOMACH
THE LINING OF THE STOMACH CONTAINS ACID AND ENCYMES THAT BREAKS THE FOOD DOWN INTO A THICK LIQUID
tongue
helps swallow and propells food down esophagus
Iodine
Starch indicator; binds to the starch to help you identify whether or not the starch has broken down.
Metabolism
The sum of chemical processes in living cells by which energy is provided and new material is assimilated.
salivary amylase
A salivary gland enzyme that hydrolyzes starch.
what is nutrition?
how heterotrophic animals disassemble food to get energy
enterokinase
An active enzyme that splits off part of the trypsinogen to form trypsin
Lamina Propria (TMucosa)
penetrated by gastric glands in stomach. Found within the villi of SI & penetrated by intestinal crypts. Penetrated by intestinal glands of LI
Intrinsic Controls of Gut
product of “in-house” nerve plexuses or hormone producing cells
Foliate papillae
are on the lateral aspects of posterior tongue
Alimentary Canal
one-way tube that passes through the body
Incisiors
The most anterior type of tooth used for biting is
bicarbonate, amylase
Serous cells produce _____ to buffer acids and ____ which begins the digestion of carbohydrates
what closes off the trachea?
epiglottis and vocal cords
how do glucose an damino acids enter the blood stream?
directly
What is Digestion?
Breakdown of food into component nutrients small enough to enter cells
ESOPHAGUS  
MADE OF RINGS OF MUSCLES THAT SQUEEZE THE FOOD TO THE STOMACH
Duodenum
The first part of the small intestine; it is C-shaped and runs from the stomach to the jejunum.
Complex Carbohydrate
A carbohydrate that releases its sugar in to the body relatively slowly and also provides fiber.
name the 4 digestive glands in the small intestine and what they break down
sucrase-sucrose;lactase-lactaid;maltase-maltose;nuclease-nucleic acids
Tunica serosa/tunica adventitia (thicker)
think outside layer, simple squamous epithelium. Function: secrete serous fluid to reduce friction
Palate
forms roof of the mouth and has two parts: hard palate and soft palate in the back
Esophagus
food tube from the throat the bolus of food enters to travel to the stomach
Peristalsis, Segmentation
The two types of muscle motility in the digestive system are _____ and ______
skeletal and smooth
The muscularis of the esophagus serves as a transition from ____ muscle in the upper third to ____ muscle in the lower third
Uvula
The ____ is an extension of the soft palate
what does the stomach have at each end?
a sphincter
carbohydrates and protein are broken down by enzymes into
monosaccarides and amino acids
tasks of the large intestine
storage of undigested material, absorption of minerals
what causes colon cancer
genetic defect or low fiber diet
What is an Adventitia?
Outer most layerComposed of colligen fibers which achors the organs to another part of the body.
What are the functions of the mouth?
IngestionMastication/ mechanical digestiionChemical digestion of startch with salivary amylasePropulsion
Stomach; Mucosa, Mucosal(gastric) glands, Muscularis function:
Mucosa: Protects against invasion and autodigestion.
Mucosal(gastric) glands: Add acid and enzymes to chyme(not called food anymore). Further breakdown.
Muscularis: Mixes contents. Transfers to small intestines.
Transverse Colon
The part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen.
large intestine (colon)
The tubular portion of the vertebrate alimentary tract between the small intestine and the anus; functions mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces.
What is malnourishment?
enough calories but not enough of something essential
Retroperitoneal Organs
most of the pancreas and parts of the large intestine
temporal and temperomandibular
The mandible forms a joint with the ____ of the skull called the ____ joint which ic condylid type of synovial joint
what does the liver do?
secretes bile for emulsifying fat, also has roles in metabolism of fat, carbohydrates, and proteins
why do monoglycerides and fatty acids diffuse across membrane of epithelial cells?
increased concentrations of monoglycerides and fatty acids in micelles enhance concentration gradient
What is the histology of the anus?
Stratified squamous epithelium.
Internal anal sphincter is smooth muscle, involuntary.
External anal sphincter is skeletal muscle, voluntary.
Which vitamins will kill you if you take too much?
A and D
presence of bile salts in small intestines allows...
long-chain fatty acid and monoglyceride absorption in small intestine
maxilla and mandible
The two bones with teeth are the ____ and _____
how many proteins can the body not build without food?
8 of the 20
what are the three different kinds of teeth?
incisors, canines and molars/premolars
where does absorption mainly occur in the small intestine?
the jejunmum and the ileum
How does the digestive system mantain homeostasis?
Mechanoreceptors and Chemoreceptors in the walls of the GI tract monitor conditions.They respond to stretch, osmolarity, pH, substrates, and end products of digestion.When stimulation cause the GI tract to secretes digestive juices, hormones, and muscle contrations
What is the gomphosis/periodontal ligament?
The articulation between the tooth and alveolus
Describe the process of swollowing
Reflex action that results from the contractions of muscles that line the pharynx.1. Tongue pushes bolus to the back of mouth2. Soft palate at back of mouth moves back to cover the opening of the nasal cavity.3. Epiglottis covers trachea.4. Food bolus passes into espohagus.
name the four types of teeth and how many of each
incisors (front) 4;canines(vampire)2;premolar 4; molar 6
Where does the digestive system begin?
In the mouth with mechenical and chemical processes(teeth,tongue and saliva)
what are the four accessory organs of the digestive system?
salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Name and describe the location of the stomach regions.
Cardiac- connects to the esophagusFundus- superior portionBodyPyloric- thick muscular portion that connects to the small intestine.
Main function of the Digestive System
Food is digested so that nutrients are small enough to enter the cell
how does the constant movement of the intestine wall help fat absorption?
breaks fat globules into smaller droplets
Describe the location and function of the esophagus.
10-12" long muscular tube posterior to the trachea, that pierces the diaphragm at the esophageal hiatus.passage way for food
can you get all fatty acids from your body?
no some must come from food
Name and describe the curvatures of the stomach.
The greater curvature is on the outer edge.The lesser curvature is on the inner edge.
Describe how the mouth's structre is suited to its function.
The mouth recieves food and holds the food in preperation for swollowing.- Lips: keep fluids in mouth- Tongue: pushes food between teeth, mixes food with saliva and prepares food bolus.- Teeth: chew food, mechanical digestion.- Salivary glands: 3 pairs (parotid, sublingual, sumandibular) which all produce and release saliva.
sial
saliva
Lith/o
stone;calculus
NG
NASOGASTRIC
lith
stone
-pepsia
digestion
gloss-
tongue
palat/o
palate
-emisis
vomiting (suffix)
-iasis
abnormal condition
iatrics
medical practice
Dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
GINGIVITIS
INFLAMMATION THE GUMS
tomo
slice or cut
mastication
process of chewing
function of buffers
neutralize acids
Body (Stomach)
midportion or length
VIP
-released from s.intestine-released due to fat in s.intestine, stretch, pH lowering, hypertonic chyme-inhibits smooth muscles in capillaries of s.intestines (vasodialate, more blood, more places to absorb things)-stimulates s.intestine to release an alkaline mucus
protease
enzyme that digests protein
liver
produces bile
helps neutralize the chyme
Large intestine
vit K absorbed in?
Type of reflex in esophagus
visceral
circumvallate papillae
largest9-12 along sulcus terminalishave crypts
hypopharyngeal sphincter
-upper esophageal-right below pharynx, controls if food enters digestive system or not
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile
polyp
small growth on mucous membrane
macro nutrients
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and liquid
The permanent central incisor erupts between the ages of __-__
7-8
LDL(Low Density Protein)
delivers cholesterol to tissue
Iliocecal valve
Connects ilium to large intestine
Minerals
.ca,Fe,Zn, etc.Best source of veggies and legumes
lymphoid nodules
Peyer's patches in the ileum
defacation
elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum
Upper Endoscopy
Observational procedure of the esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, and the stomach.
splenic flexure
-where transverse colon becomes descending colon
cholelithiasis
presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct.
What produced by the pacreas neutralizes the extremely acidic pH of chyme entering the duodenum?
Buffers.
Generally speaking, _______, is a substance found in the body and is used for chemically breaking down other substances
Enzyme
deciduous
primary dentition (temporary set of teeth in young animals)
Anorexia (def)
def: loss of appetite for food
myenteric nerve plexus
lines between circular and longitudinal muscle layers of muscularis externa; contains enteric neurons that control patterns of segmentation and peristalsis; largely automatic involving local reflex arcs
The connective tissue layer that lies beneath the lining of the digestive tract is the ___________.
submucosa
perioteneum
large serous membrane that coats the GI tract. Protects organs and cuts down friction
The _____________ is a muscular tube carrying food from the pharynx to the stomach.
esphogus
Regions of Gallbladders
fundus, body, neck, cystic duct
Pancreatic islets
produce insulin and glucagon – hormones important in carbohydrate metabolism
necessary for absorption of vit B12
Intrinsic factor
Pathology of the Digestive System - nutritional conditions - obesity - body mass index, also known as?
BMI
gastroenteritis
Acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines.
glycosis
energizes a glucose molecule so that it can be split into 2 pyruvic acid molecules and yield ATP
maltase
-breaks down maltose to glucose and glucose
antiemetic
a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
Peritoneum
this serous membrane that lines the walls and most organs of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. visceral layer: touching organsparietal layer: touching body wall
All the following nutrients are absorbed by blood capillaries of the villis.
glucose
amino acids
phosphate
minerals
villi (microvilli)
folds that increase the surface area of the small intestine for food absorption (has capillaries that carry nutrients to the bloodstream)
The enzyme in the stomach of young children that curds milk.
Rennin
Pharynx
passage for food and air from oral cavity, helps produce sounds of speech.
Facial Nerve VII innervates
the submandibular and sublingual glands
Vestibule
space between cheek and gums or lips and teeth can be used for storing blades/contraband hiding place
what does the stomach contain?
cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
breaks down complex molecules in the digestive tract to allow absorption
chemical digestion
oropharynx
extends from the soft palate in the mouth to the level of the hyoid bone
Abdominal Hernia
A protrusion of the intestine forward through the abdominal wall.
STOOL CULTURE
MICROORGANISMS IN FECES ARE GROWN ON MEDIA TO IDENTIFY SPECIFIC PATHOGENS
hernia
protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
The Sm intestine is suspended from the _____ body wall by the _________.
Dorsal
Mesentery
The organs of the digestive system form an irregularly shaped tube called the alimentary canal or the _________ ______.
gastrointestinal tract (GI)
The liver receives venous blood from the
hepatic portal vein
vermiform appendix
a narrow tube with a closed  end projecting off to the cecum it has no digestive functions but contains lymphatic tissue
incisor
one of the four front teeth in the dental arch
blood supply to liver
-hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery drop into capillary known as liver sinusoid-go to central vein (still inside liver) then into hepatic vein, then inferior vena cava
How does the mouth chemically digest food?
Saliva begins digestion.
Mumps are most often caused by a viral infection of the:_________ Salivary glands
Parotid
What is the esophageal hiatus?
Where the esophagus goes through diaphragm to continue to the stomach
The basic functional unit of the liver is the
a. falciform, round, and coronary ligaments
b. hepatocyte
c. liver lobule
d. stellate reticuloendothelial cells
e. none of the above
c. liver lobule
Treatment Procedures of the Digestive System - the Rectum and Anus - proctoplasty
surgical repair of the rectum
What does the cementum do?
Fastens teeth in the alveolar process.
What does each villi have?
A lacteal which absorbs lipids from the gut tube to the circulatory system
what is the pharynx covered with and what is it subdivided into(from mouth to esophagus)?
stratified squamous epithelium, oropharynx, hypopharynx
What enzyme in the pacreatic juices convert starch into dissacharides?
Amylase (also found in saliva)
What is:
-The cecum
-The colon and Rectum

Cecum: A short, blind ending sac found at the ileocaecal junction.  

Colon: divided into the ascending, transverse and descending colon according to which direction the tube is running

Rectum:The area of the colon that lies within the pelvic cavity and terminates at the anal canal.  The most cranial part is covered with peritoneum but deeper into the cavity it becomes surrounded by connective tissue and muscles, which attach it to the root of the tail. 
 
* The division between the rectum and colon is artifical. The rectum is directly continous. 
 
2 membranes that tie the stomach to other organs and to the body wall attached to the curvatures
Lesser omentum and greater omentum
Structures of the Digestive System - The Large Intestine - colon - what four parts?
1. ascending colon, 2. transverse colon, 3. descending colon, 4. sigmoid colon
What are the 3 sublayers of the mucosa
Surface epithelium Lamina propria Muscularis mucosa
What are the 4 accessory structures in the digestive system?
Salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gallbladder
List the 4 layers of the GI tract from deep to superficial.
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, adventia OR serosa
Pathology of the Digestive System - Indigestion and Vomiting - nausea
the sensation that leads to the urge to vomit
What does the ileum of the small intestine do?
It joins the large intestine to the ileocecal valve.
Digestion - the Role of the Mouth, Salivary Glands and Esophagus - bolus
a mass of food chewed and ready to be swallowed
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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