of Psychology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions

Ellis- REBT
Solution- Focused Therapy

Chapter 9: Behaviorism
negative reinforcement
removal--(aversive)--underlines anxiety disorders--cleaning removes anxiety

Classical conditioning: Pavlov

B4 Conditioning

UCS+CS-------->UCR(salivate)…do it, over and over again.

After Conditioning
CS(bell)---------> CR(salivate)

Human emotions can be conditioned. They aren't unconscious conflicts.

A mindfulness-based program that encourages clients
to accept, rather than attempt to control or
change, unpleasant sensations.

Chapter 10: Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
Internal-External Scale--23 forced choice options
16-factor model of personality--opposing words on a bell curve
Cardinal dispositions--most pervasive and powerful traits of an individual--usually only one--sadism
operant conditioning
A-antecedent, B-behavior, C-consequence
elements of classical conditioning
His development of psychoanalysis contributed an essential method for the understanding, treatment and research of psychological disturbance. Was a medical doctor and Jewish.
Techniques: ABA(applied behavior analysis)

Operate behavior techniques
Functional assessment

The process of systematically
generating information on the events
preceding and following the behavior in an attempt
to determine which antecedents and consequences
are associated with the occurrence of
the behavior.

A collection of cognitive behavioral
strategies based on the idea that change
can be brought about by teaching people to use
coping skills in various problematic situations.
Classical conditioning

Also known as Pavlovian
conditioning and respondent conditioning. A
form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is
repeatedly paired with a stimulus that naturally
elicits a particular response. The result is that
eventually the neutral stimulus alone elicits the

The conceptual framework of
multimodal therapy, based on the premise that
human personality can be understood by assessing
seven major areas bf functioning: behavior,
affective responses, sensations, images, cognitions,
interpersonal relationships, and drugs/
biological functions.
Multimodal therapy

A model endorsing technical
eclecticism; uses procedures drawn from
various sources without necessarily subscribing
to the theories behind these techniques; developed
tiy Arnold Lazarus.
Techniques: Behavioral
Operate conditioning
In vivo desensitation
Techniques: Cognitive 

Dispute and challenge
Detect irrational belief and debate it. Discriminate the self help and self hurt beliefs
Try to replace negative emotions with positive emotions
Thought insertion
Musterbation, shoulding on yourself( stop taking problems so seriously)

Giving them reading, emotive, imaginative
Basically what you learn in therapy take out and learn in everyday life

Changing one's language
Instead of saying "it would be absolutly aweful if...", they learn to say "It would be inconvenient if..."

Psychoeducational methods
clients are more likely to cooperate with a treatment plan if they understand how the therapy process works


Carefully designed and agreed
upon assignments aimed at getting clients to
carry out positive actions that induce emotional
and attitudinal change. These assignments
are checked in later sessions, and clients
learn effective ways to dispute self-defeating

What people "say" to themselves
when they are thinking. The internal dialogue
that goes on within an individual in stressful

A three-person system; the smallest
stable emotional unit of human relations.
Carl Rogers
Scientist associated with humanism
M. Knowles
- adults are self-directed, like to be involved in planning and evaluation of instruction
- learning should be oriented to problem-solving rather than content
- adults learn experientially
- adults learn best when topic is of immediate value
different responses to similar stimuli
Allport--theorectical propositions
Theorectical Propositions:Traits are real, not labels made up to account for behavior, dynamic
personality pathology is genetic, concordance rate is 2:1 for MZ:DZ (Tsuang)
Secondary traits--smaller traits that are exhibited regularly but not necessarily consistently, influenced by situational factors, food preference
inborn disposition for activity, socialbility, and emotional responding
decrease a frequency of behavior
The reservoir of teh biological, instinctual drives with innate and developmental components.

Prolonged and intensive in vivo or
imaginal exposure to'highly anxiety-evoking stimuli
without the opportunity to avoid or escape
from them.
Applied behavior analysis

Another term for
behavior modification; this approach seeks to
understand the causes of behavior and address
these causes by changing antecedents and consequences.

In stmctural family therapy, an emotional
barrier that protects individuals within a
Dichotomous thinking

A cognitive error that
involves categorizing experiences in either-or
Therapeutic collaboration

A process whereby
the therapist strives to engage the client's active
participation in all phases of therapy.
Psychological needs

The needs for belonging,
power, freedom, and fun; these are the forces
that drive humans and explain behavior.
4 Philosophical Views of Feminist Theory

Cognitive structure

The organizing aspect of
thinking, which monitors and directs the choice
of thoughts; implies an "executive processor,"
one that determines when to continue, interru.pt,
or change thinking paiterns.
Systematic desensitization

A procedure based
on the principles of classical conditioning in which
the client is taught to relax while imagining a
graded series of progressively anxiety-arousing
situations. Eventually, the client reaches a point
at which the anxiety-producing stimulus no longer
brings about the anxious response
Cognitive distortions

In cggnitive therapy, the
client's rriisconceptions and faulty assumptions.
Examples include arbitrary inference, selective
abstraction, overgener alization, magnifi cation
and minimizations, labeling and mislabeling,
dichotomous thinking, and person alization.

In structural family therapy, an intervention
consisting of a family playing out its
relationship patterns during a therapy session so
that the therapist can observe and then change
transactions that make up the family structure.
Contingency contracting

Written agreement
between a client and another person that specifies
the relationship between performing target
behaviors and their consequences.
John B. Watson
Scientist associated with behavioralism
heredity provides the raw material that may be shaped or limited by the conditions of our environment
Perceived competence to produce a behavior under certain circumstancesOur feelings of competence, adequacyCan be specific across domains
Cattell--Dynamic traits
describe our motivations and interests
the weakening of inhibitions or constraints by observing the behavior of a model
a behavior modification technique that involves observing the behavior of others (models) and participating withthem in performing the desired behavior
An instinct towards death and self destruction, posited by Frued to oppose and balance Eros, thie life instinct.
The basic driving force of personality in Freud's system, it includes sexual energy but is not restricted to it.
a structure of the mind, developed from innate tendencies and early parental interactions and identifications that embraces moral and other standards and regulates psychic tensions, self-image, self image, self esteeem and drive discharge.

Self-Instruction Training (SIT)

Teaches the appropriate behavior through modeling.Basically, if you take a child to the store and they want to run all over the place. You saw we are going to hold hands and we will walk through the toys and when they don't act up you say good job. Gradually give them self instruction where they can do things themselves and praise themselves silently.

Kids and adults need to learn a script to evaluate their behavior change
Client's experience

Very much here and now
Homework, reeducation

Client Therapist Relationship

Value the idea of a therapeutic alliance but they don't dwell on it
Work as a team
And client takes an active role
combine empathy and sensitivity, along with technical competence 
Social effectiveness training (SET)

A multifaceted
treatment program designed to reduce
social anxiety, improve interpersonal skills, and
increase the range of enjoyable social activities.
Experiential Therapeutic Goals
include increasing awareness of one's present
, experiencing, facilitating individual growth and more effective interactional patterns,
and promoting authenticitY.
Strategic Therapists
base their  interventions on a communications model, which focuses on stuck interactional sequences in a family. Charge occurs through action-oriented directives and paradoxical interventions
Choice theory

The view that humans are internally
motivated and behave to control the world
around them according to some pu{pose within
them. We are basically self-determining and create
our own destiny.
Bowenian family therapists
focus on extended-family patterns. This multigenerational approach is based on a number of key ideas, two of which are differentiation of the self and triangulation
Self-instructional therapy

An approach to
therapy based on the assumption that what
pepple say to themselves directly influences the
things they do. Training consists of learning new
self-talk aimed at coping with problems.
Rational.emotive imagery

A form of intense
mental practice for learning new emotional
and physical habits. Clients imagine themselves
thinking, feeling, and behaving in exactly the
way they would like to in everyday situations.
Assertion training

A set of techniques that involves
behavioral rehearsal, coaching, and learning
more effective social skills; specific skills
training procedures used to teach people ways
to express both positive and negative feelings
openly and directly.
People react to physical stimulus and changes in body chemistry
cognitive dissonance theory
L. Festinger
- individuals seek consistency within their beliefs
- when there is inconsistency in beliefs or attitudes, something must change to resolve dissonance
- dissonance can be resolved by reducing importance of beliefs, acquiring new ones, or removing conflicting attitude or behavior
Token Economy
a behavior modificaiton technique in which tokes, which can be exchanged for valued objects or privileges, are awarded for desirable behaviors
Costa & McCrae--5 factor model (OCEAN)
Openness--new experiencesConscientiousness--rules governExtroversion--socialble, talkativeAgreeableness--social interaction, good naturedNeuroticism--emotional stability or lack of
Bandura--Observational Learning Process
Attentional Processes: developing our cognitive processes and perceptual skills so that we can pay sufficient attentiona to a model to imitate behavior
apply the newly learned principles to other similar stimuli and situations
Bandura--Peformance attainment
most influential source of efficacy judgment
Short term failures in adulthood can lower
A defense mechanism that allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form. For example, aperson experiencing extreme anger might take up kick boxing as a means of venting frustration. Freud believed that sublimation was a sign of maturity that allows people to function normally in socially acceptable ways.
Electra Complex
Erotic attraction of the female child for her father accompanied by hostility toward the mother.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

An exposure-based therapy that
involves imaginal flooding, cognitive restructuring,
and the use of rhythmic eye movements and
other bilateral stimulation to treat traumatic
stress disorders and fearful memories of clients.
Cognitive behavioral coping skills therapy
aimed at teaching clients specific skills to
deal effectively with problematic situations.
Core Principles of Feminist Theory

The personal is political
Egalitarian Counseling relationship
Women's Experience are Honored
Reformulated Distress and Mental Illness
Satirian Therapeutic Goals
the human validation process model parallel Satirt view of the process of
change. Specific goals include generating self-esteem and hope, identifuing and strengthening'coping
skills, and facilitating movement toward health and actualization.

Functional communication- open
Dysfunctional communication- closed
Verbal and nonverbal

Dishonest communication when people want to save their self-esteem
Placading- just agreeing with someone
Blame- disagree with person but inside you don't admit feelings
Super-reasonable- use logic instead of feeling…the person is feeling isolated and vulnerable
Irrelevant behavior- can't relate to what's going on so you use words to get away from the topic

strategic family therapeutic goals
insight is considered unimportant' The central goal of this
upprouJh is to resolve i family's presenting problem (or symptoms) by focusing on
changing its current behavioral sequences'
Experiential family therapists
take a developmental perspective in explaining individual growth in a systemic context
States that human behavior is a result of their constanly solving problems around them.
F. Marton & N. Entwistle
- focused on learning in higher education
- researchers should seek understanding of learning of examining students' experiences
- research about learning needs to occur in a naturalistic setting involving actual content and settings within which people learn
adult learning theory
K.P. Cross
- program for adult learners should capitalize on life experience
- programs should be adapted to age limitations (sight, hearing, mobility)
- programs should challenge participants into advanced stages of personal development
- participants should have as much choice as possible in the availability and organization of the program.  
situational characteristics - part-time/full time, voluntary/compulsory
Cattell--Environmental-mold traits
source traits that are learned from social and environmental influences
Cattell--Surface traits
show a correlation but do not constitute a factor because they are not determined by a single source--unstable
Allport--personal dispositions
traits that are peculiar to an individual, as opposed to traits shared by a number of people
Cattell--Ability traits
traits that describe our skills and how efficiently we will be able to work towards our goals
Role of expeiential family therapist
a family coach, challengeq, and model for
change through play. Therapists have various functions at different-fioints in therapy,
including being a stress activator, a growth activator, and a creativity stimulator.
Adlerian family therapists techniques
famify constellation, reporting of a typical day, goal disclosure, and logical consequences.
Relationship between therapist and client
Accept them as imperfect
Teaching role
Self-disclosure as appropriate
Choice theory therapeutic goals

reconnect with people in their quality world
Clients set goals and interpute their behavior

Work on their core problems
What's going on in their relationships
Help them stick to the five needs
Functional family

A family in which the needs
of the individual members are met and there
is a balance of interdependence and autonomy
among members.
Chapter 12: Feminist
Not connected to one founder, but based in the grass roots of the women's movement
progressive collaborative effort
fixed ratio reinforcement schedule
behavior based, every certain number of behaviors (2:1, 2:1); fastest learning
Emotional responding
can be highly reactive from birth or not very reactive at all
Choice theory normal and abnormal behavior

Normal behavior
The healthy person balance the needs
Choose to have affective behavior

Abnormal behavior
Its a choice

He uses verbs
We choose to be depressing, angering, obsessing

Role of Adlerian family therapists
assume the roles of educators, motivational investigators, and collaborators.
Structural family Therapeutic Goals
aims at both treating symptoms and changing dysfunctional
transactional patterns within the family. Rules are identified that govern interactions
among family members, with the purpose of helping them develop clear boundaries
and approPriate hierarchies.

Two types of families
Disengaged-rigid boundaries, little contact between family members. They don't respond when response is needed.

Enmeshed- they have diffuse boundaries, stuff is coming in and out! There is resistance when people try to make a change
They're giving support but at the expense of autonomy

variable ratio reinforcement schedule
number of times behavior seen can change (2:1, 5:1), produces strongest learning, uncertainty
Skinner--Operant Conditioning
the procedure by which a change in the consequences of a response will affect the rate at which the response occurs
Multiple lenses therapeutic Goals
the best way to assess the client is to match a
clientt needs with the specific therapeutic perspective'

Multimodal Therapy-Lazarus-Basic ID

Very wholistic, systematic, comprehensive theory

What works for whom under what conditions
Technical eclecticism- taking stuff from a mixture of theories

Rather than using one model you pick up techniques that you think will help the clients
Lazarus thought that when people come in to therapy they had several problems and they're a lot of different interventions

7 modalities and the acronym is called "BASIC ID"

Affect- what emotions are pre-dominent
What starts it

Sensation- is there anything significant from the senseses
Imagery- mental pictures, dreams, self-image
Cognition- thoughts, ideas, values and opinions
Interpersonal Relationship- how they interact with each others
Drugs/biology- are you taking anything

Firing order- basically what comes up first to them in the modalities

Start where the client is a do an assessment
Start in one area then teach them a technique they can use to make the changes they want as quickly as possible
variable interval reinforcement schedule
time interval can change (10 mins, 5 mins)--fishing

Cognitive schemas defined

Early child hood experiences and interactions that shaped their schemas
Sometimes we have positive ones( I have the ability to do anything)
Sometimes they are negative( I will never succeed)
Who was involved with the inception(were they important people)
how well developed they are (how long have they been in your head)
People with anxiety disorders often happens is that there is a belief when there is none. They don't recognize the safty cues
The role of thinking in how we process information. Transform mal-adaptive thinking into something more productive
Asked clients to detect self defeating, irrational, disfunctioning things they think

Function and roles

Help client unlearn the mal-adaptive behaviors

Create opportunities to learn
Model for the client
They learn by imitations

Use clarification

Functional assessment
Anaceedent- something in the environment that preceeded the behavior
Behavior- like a guy who drinks after he fights with his wife
Consequences-gets addicted to the alchol
Philosophy and Basic Assumptions of family theropy
it is crucial to consider clients within their family system.
a person's dysfunctional behavior grows out of the interactional unit of the family as well as the larger community and societal systems. 
A client's probematic behavior may:
serve a function or purpose for the family
be a function of the family's inability to operate productively, especially during developmental transitions
be a symptom of dysfunctional patters handed down across generations

Allport--six criteria for normal, mature adult personality
1. mature adult extends his sense of self to people2. relates warmly to other people3. self-acceptance helps achieve emotional security4. holds a realistic perception of life, personal skills, commitment to work5. sense of humor and self-objectification6. unifying philosophy of life

Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Linehan

Usually used to treat borderline personality

Dialectics means we are reconcile opposites
Helps them regulate their emotions

Accept them for who they are but teach them how to make change

Help them manage behaviors
Acting out, substance abuse

Usually a long time, maybe a year
Help them to analyze their own emotional deregulation

Don't solve problems

Social Learning Theory: Bandura

A model of operant conditioning. We can anticipate the outcome of our behaviors
Cause and effect situations.

The environment doesn't affect us blindly. We are aware that our behavior creates some kind of outcome

Much of our learning is done through the behavior of othersSymbolic model

When we see the behavior of a model being rewarded we are more likely to repeat it and vise versa.
Self-efficacy- you believe in your behavior to do the behaviors needed to produce a particular outcome.If you have this you set challenging goals.

Could have been self-efficacy

Operant(learning) conditioning: Skinner

Our behavior is a function of it's consequences
When you get rewarded for something you tend to repeat it.
Positive reinforcement- increases the probability that a response will be repeated.
Negative reinforcement-increases the probability that a response will be repeated when the unpleasant condition is removed.

With punishment you are less likely to do the things
Punishment 1- present a noxious(bad) stimulus usually in attempt to get rid of a bad behavior.
Punishment 2- the removal of a pleasant stimulus(penalty)

Extinction- ignore the behavior….I dunno
The theories of learning that Pavlov and skinner did with animals apply to humans
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