of Solutions Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
13.6) Mixtures containing particles larger than normal solutes but small enough to remain suspended in the dispersing medium?
13.4) Do concentrated solutions have relatively large concentrations or small concentrations of solute?
13.1) Interactions between solute and solvent molecules are known as what?
reverse osmosis
the process occurring when the external pressure on a solution causes a net flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane from the solution of to the solvent.
a phenomenon in which a semipermeable membrane allows transfer of both solvent molecules and small solute molecules and ions.
13.1) Do non-polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents or non-polar solvents?
13.2) What type of solution contains less solute than a saturated solution?
13.1) The amount of randomness or disorder is called what?
13.1) Is solution formation favored by an increase or decrease in entropy that accompanies mixing?
13.5) When a solution freezes, are crystals of a pure or non-pure solvent formed first?
13.5) Does a nonvolatile solute lower or raise the vapor pressure of a solution?
13.3) Are gasoline and water miscible or immiscible liquids?
13.3) Are ethanol and water miscible or immiscible liquids?
13.1) Is the separation of solvent molecules an exothermic or endothermic process?
13.1) Do polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents or non-polar solvents?
13.1) The dissolving medium of a solution (which is normally the component present in the larger amount) is known as what?
13.1) A substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution is known as what?
the removal of dissolved salts from an aqueous solutions.
the deduction of a colloid by causing particles to aggregate and settle out.
Tyndall effect
the scattering of light by particles in a suspension.
13.2) The amount of solute required to form a saturated solution is the solutions what?
13.1) A mixture of substances that has a uniform composition is known as what?
13.3) Is the solubility large or small with strong attraction between solute and solvent molecules?
enthalpy (heat) of solution
the enthalpy change associated with dissolving a solute in a solvent; the sum of the energies needed to expand both solvent and solute in a solution and the energy released from the solvent-solute reactions.
Henry's law
the amount of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution.
molal freezing-point depression constant
a constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the change in freezing point as a function of the solution molality; used in molecular weight determinations.
13.5) The temperature at which solid, liquid, and gas phases coexist in equilibrium is called what?
the triple point
mass percent
the percent by mass of a component of a mixture, or of a given element in a compound.
mole fraction
the ratio of the number of moles of a given component in a mixture to the total number of moles in the mixture.
13.3) The tendency or a substance to dissolve in another depends on what three things?
Solute-solvent interactions, pressure, and temperature
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