on BIOLOGY exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
TRANS-
ACROSS
ATP
adeninetriphosphate/energy
fatigue
la fatiga
this provides insulation
fats
Monosacchrides
single sugar molecule
inspiratory neurons
-cause contraction of _____ and ________ --> ______
diaphragm
rib muscles
 
inhalation
atomic #
number of protons
organism that causes decay
Decomposer
cortisol
The principal glucocorticoid secreted from the adrenal corex. This steroid hormone is released during stress, causing increased blood glucose levels and reducing inflammation. The latter effect has led to a clinical use of cortisol as an anti-inflammatory agent.
Pathogen:
A disease-causing organism or virus
O makes
anti A and B
Expand the abbreviation BP
blood pressure
roundworms (nematods)
PSUEDOCOELOMATES sexual reproduction; unsegmented worms
anaerobic respiration makes __ ATP
2
Development
Living things undergo systematic gene directed changes as they grow and mature
Venules
Vasculature that returns blood to interlobular veins
intracellular digestion
HYDROLYSIS OF NUTRIENTS INSIDE CELLS-food particles taken into individual cells by phagocytosis -forms a food vacuole, lysosomes fuse w food vacuole, food digested
Chromosomes
A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
This instrument operates under a vacuum and the chamber containing the rotor is refrigerated. The instrument is capable of extremely high centrifugal forces, ie, 250,000 times the force of gravity
Ultracentrifuge
natural selection
individuals that have characteristics that enable them survive and produce more offspring. The strong survive
Species with backbones represent about ______ of the total species in the animal kingdom.
4%
herbivore
an organism that eats plants (producers). Are always 1st order consumers.
Who is the father of genetics?
Mendel
The sac containing the yolk
yolk sac
glycerol
a colorless, odorless, syrupy, sweet liquid, C3H8O3, usually obtained by the saponification of natural fats and oils: used for sweetening and preserving food, in the manufacture of cosmetics, perfumes, inks, and certain glues and cements, as a solvent and
ecological succession
series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time is called ecological succession
Genomic Imprinting
A process that explains the Prader-Willi/Angelman enigma and some similar phenomena.
genetic profile
an individuals unique dna sequence.  can be obtained by tissue or body fluids
ribosome
A complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as a site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of a large and a small subunit. In eukaryotic cells, each subunit is assembled in the nucleolus.
Heart
Keeps blood moving through system of vessels
During exocytosis what does the secretory vesicle fuse with?
Plasma Membrane
hypotonic
"below strength"
 
When one side of a system is of less concentration than the other side, this side is said to by hypotonic
recessive
no noticeable effect on the organism's appearance.
Y Chromosome
contains master gene for sex determination; if present testes form; contains very few genes
restriction enzymes
highly specific substances cut even the largest DNA molecule into precise pieces called restriction fragments that are several hundred bases in length
carbohydrate loading
regimen of moderate exercise followed by the consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet; increases glycogen storage
Biomass
any organic material that has been produced in an ecosystem.
cell membrane
lipid bilayer with embedded protiens that enclose the cytoplasm; essential to a cells cytoplasm; also called the plasma membrane
founder effect
in evolutionary biology, the principle that individuals founding a new colony carry only a fraction of the total gene pool present in the parent population
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is _______.
osmosis
midbrain
the middle of the three primary divisions of the brain in the embryo of a vertebrate or the part of the adult brain derived from this tissue; mesencephalon.
Disulfide Bridges
This can reinforce the shape even more. This is where two amino acids with -SH groups (cysteine monomers) are bonded by the folding of the protein and hold the molecule together like rivets.
Spongy Bone
Lighter and less dense than compact bone, it consists of an interconnecting lattice of bony spicules (trabeculae). The cavities between the spicules contain bone marrow
What is the scientific term for white blood cells?
Lymphocytes.
avogadro's #
6.02 x 10 23 = # molecules/mol
Exergonic Reactions
The products have less free energy than reactants.The difference in energy is released and is available to do work.Exergonic reactions are thermodynamically favored; thus, they are spontaneous, but not necessarily fast (more on activation energy later).Catabolic reactions are usually exergonic.ATP+H20->ADP+Pi highly exergonic in cellular conditions.
Chemical Reactions
Changes between atoms that result in the formation of substances. Some absorb energy and some release it. Reactens are to the left og the arrow and teh product is to the righ right of the arrow.
Acidic
Referring to a solution with an H+ concentration exceeding that of OH-; referring to a substance that releases H+.
Key Concept 6
Basic, or alkaline, solutions contain lower consontrations of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values above 7
Name the term: Inner lining of the heart
endocardium
where do the intercostal muscles lie?
between the ribs
Secondary Consumer
a consumer that eats other consumers to obtain nutrients.
Noncompetitive Inhibitior
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to
promoter
mitochondrion
an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
quantitative
that is or may be estimated by quantity.
What is the common name for the Cteneophorans?
comb jellies
 
Five Characteristics of Chordates
Nerve chord
Dorsal to the notochord and hollow
Carbohydrates contain which of the essential 6 elements?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
Golgi Apparatus
A stack of membranous sacs, found in most eukaryotic cells, that is the site of processing and separation of membrane components and secretory materials.
double helix
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
 
Which of the following are polysaccharides?
 
Chitin
Starch
Glycogen
1 and 2
1, 2, and 3
 
 
1, 2, and 3
a molecule such as water which has a linkage to a different water molecule due to an uneven distribution of charge forms a **** bond which gives shape to molecules like proteins
hydrogen
Negative Feedback
The most common form of feedback, in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
contains enzymes which are required for reactions containing lipids
DNA synthesis
the process that occurs in the S phase of interphase
_____ aid in the coordination of the activities of adjacent animal cells.
gap (communicating) junctions
where is the diaphragm located
along the bottom of the ribcage
What is characteristic of monerans?
No nuclear membrane or membrane-bound organelles present; prokaryotic; reproduce asexualy.
who studied teh molecular structure of dna with x ray crystallogrophy?
maurice wilkins and roalind franklin
The kinases of the cell cycle control system are known as _________ ____ __________
Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks)
innervation of a muscle
refers to the identity of the nerve that stimulates it; enables the diagnosis of nerve, spinal cord, and brainstem injuries from their effects on muscle function
1.      What is a split-brain procedure? Describe some of the behaviors displayed by a split-brain patient shortly after the procedure.
When the corpus callosum of an individual is severed, leaving a split brain, the two hemispheres cannot communicate
Stage 3 of Metabolism
Oxidation of Acetyl CoA to CO2 via the citric acid cycle. FADH2 and NADH are also generated. They give electrons to the electron transport chain to make energy.
Potassium atoms (atomic number 19) have one electron in their valence shell. Talk about their valence shells
They will have a full valence shell
Quels sont les fonctions des hydrates de carbone?
1. Emmagazaine les glucides sous forme d'amidon et aide a former la paroi cellulaire (chez les cellules végétales).
2.  Servent dans la structure
3. Réserve énergétique.
The eggs of vertebrates other than the fish and amphibians have
an amniotic sac that surrounds the embryo
Temperate Deciduous Forests New England
South of taiga in easter NA A and much of E, moderate climate with relatively high rainfall, seasons are well defined and long growing seson, trees have broad leaves, lose leaves in fall and grow in spring, canopy and understory shrub layer and mosses lichens and ferns, variety of habitats, birds insects ground life mammals amphibians reptiles, rich soil, fruits nuts berries.
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