Oral Epidemiology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pilot studies and randomized clinical trials use what size sample?
Epidemiology is used to describe and assess the health status of a ___.
Risk establishes an association or relationshiop between the ______ and the ______ that is used to infer or suggest causality
Exposure, condition
Causality is also known as?
Cause and Effect
Sjogren's syndrome is an example of a ___ disease that presents with primary oral symptoms.
How does epidemiology affect the diagnostic process of a disease?
By identifying cause-and-effect relationships of diseases and other various risk factors
Define Internal Validity
Refers to the accuracy of a studys results.
Which of these is a risk factor for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, periodontal diseases, candidiasis, and dental caries? Tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, or inappropriate dietary practices?
Tobacco use
What is a basic screening?
A rapid assessment accomplished in a short time by visual detection
What are five possible ways the state can broaden the access of child dental care to lower income families & special needs?

Reference: Gehshan, S., Snyder, A., & Paradise, J. (2008, July). Filling an urgent need: improving children’s access to
1)Improve dental benefits
2)Increase oral health education and patient support
3)Expand the supply of dental care
4)Promote increased provider participation
5)Improve data collection, monitoring, and evaluation
Another goal of the healthy people 2010 was the ( ) in the number of indian health sevices and dental program. Increase or decrease
But instead there was a decrease.
List 6 main ways the sample from the study must be similar to the population:
1. age
2. gender
3. SES
4. ethnicity
5. other demographic factors
6. variable that relate to the area of study
Why does epidemiology study the trends of disease?
To help plan for health services and public health programs
What is The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)?
Data released to the US Weekly by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of public health information and recommendations.
Definition: Detailed visual-tactile assessment accomplished with dental instruments and a light source in a survey that provides more detailed information than basic screening
Epidemiologic Examination
Cause - Plaque Biofilm
Effect - Gingivitis
Epidemiology is used to ___ multiple factors associated with disease and conditions to explain their etiology.
This type of surveillance involves voluntary reporting, which may be in response to laws that require reporting.
Passive Surveillance
Define Rate
Expression of disease in a population using a standardized denominator and including a time dimension. Allows for valid comparison
What is the primary means of surveillance in the United States?
Passive Surveillance
This type of surveillance is used to identify cases of disease that would otherwise be missed by passive reporting.
Active Surveillance
What are three pieces of equipment with which a basic screening can be performed?
Tongue blade
Dental mirror
Appropriate lighting
Cause - Professional Fluoride Treatments
Effect - Lower dental caries rates
An example of inferred causal relationship would be _____ and ______.
Excess fluoride and fluorosis, tobacco use and oral cancer, plaque biofilm bacteria and PD disease.
Definition: A program that was set up in conjunction with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD) to monitor data on national levels and state levels
National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS)
List 5 things that enhance internal validity:
1. Controlling sources of error
2. Increasing subject retention
3. Achieving compliance of study participants
4. Enhancing data quaility
5. Applying appropriate methods for statistical data analysis.
In the U.S., which organization is responsible for conducting surveillance activities?
the *CDC* component of the US Department of Health & Human Services.
Facts about adults over the age of 18 who seek dental care in the United States
1) Untreated dental disease remains prevalent throughout the US
2)Disparities in oral health are most evident among populations with low income & educational levels, special needs, & those who live in communties without access to oral health services
3) Oral diseases have been associated with a number of systemic sonditions and chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and preterm low birth-weight babies, underscoring the importance of oral health services for all indiviuals.
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