Organization Theory and Design 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Define "Scientific Management"
Emphasizes scientifically determined jobs and management practices as the way to improve efficiency and labor productivity.
Define "Symbol"
Something that represents another thing.
Define "Horizontal Linkage"
Communication and coordination horizontally across organizational departments.
Define "Service Technology"
Technology characterized by simultaneous production and consumption, customized output, customer participation, intangible output, and being labor intensive.
Define "Technology"
The work processes, techniques, machines, and actions used to transform organizational inputs into outputs.
Define "Large-batch Production"
A manufacturing process characterized by long production runs for standardized parts.
Define "Reengineering"
The redesign of a vertical organization along its horizontal workflows and processes.
Define "Routine Technology"
Technology characterized by little task variety and the use of objective, computational procedures.
Define "Behavior Control"
Manager observation of employee actions to see whether the individual follows desired procedures and performs tasks as instructed.
Define "Negotiation"
The bargaining process that often occurs during confrontation and that enables the parties to systematically reach a solution.
Define "Mass Customization"
Using mass-production technology to quickly and cost-effectively assemble goods that are uniquely designed to fit the deands of individual customers.
Define "Organic"
An organization system marked by free-flowing, adaptive processes, an unclear hierarchy of authority, and decentralized decision making.
Define "Analyzer"
A business strategy based on maintaining a stable business while innovating on the periphery.
Define "Satasficing"
The acceptance of a satisfactory rather tahn a maximum level of performance, enabling an organization to achieve several goals simultaneously.
Define "Extranet"
An external communications system that uses the Internet and is shared by two or more organizations.
Define "Knowledge"
A conclusion drawn from information that has been linked to other information and compared to what is already known.
Define "Structural Dimensions"
Describe the internal characteristics of an organization, and create a basis for measuring and comparing organizations.
Define "Collaborative Network"
A perspective whereby organizations join together to become more competitive and to share scarce resources to increase value and productivity for all.
Define "Subcultures"
Cultures that develop within an organization that reflect the common problems, goals, and experiences that members of a team, department, and other unit share.
Define "Integration"
The quality of collaboration among departments or organizations.
Define "Stakeholder Approach"
Integrates and balances diverse organizational activities by looking at various organizational stakeholders and what they want from the organization.
Define "Skunkworks"
A separate, small, informal, highly autonomous, and often secretive group that focuses on breakthrough ideas for the business.
Define "Multidomestic"
Manager mindset in which competitive issues in each country are viewed independently of other countries; the company deals with each country individually.
Define "Uncertainty"
Condition that exists when decision makers do not have sufficient information about environmental factors, and they have a difficult time predicting external changes.
Administrative principles in particular contributed to the development of _________. (pg 25)
Bureaucratic organizations, which emphasized designing and managing organizations on an impersonal, rational basis through such elements as clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal recordkeeping, and uniform application of standard rules.
Define "Intergroup Conflict"
The behavior that occurs among organizational groups when participants identify with one group and perceive that other groups may block their group's goal achievement or expectations.
Define "Life Cycle"
The concept that organizations are born, grow older, and eventually die.
Define "Institutional Environment"
Norms, values, and expectations from stakeholders (customers, investors, boards, government, community, etc).
Define "International Division"
A division organized to handle business in other countries.
Define "Programmed Decisions"
Repetitive and well defined, these decisions are used when procedures exist for resolving the problem.
Define "Social Capital"
The quality of interactions among people and the degree in which they share a common perspective.
Define "Simple-Complex Dimension"
The number and dissimilarity of external elements relevant to an organization's operation.
Define "Technology Change"
Change in an organization's production process, including its knowledge and skill base, that enables distinctive competence.
Define "Variation"
The appearance of new, diverse forms in a population of organizations.
Define "Normative Forces"
Pressures to achieve standards of professionalism and to adopt techniques that are considered by the professional community to be up to date and effective.
Define "Official Goals"
Formally stated definition of business scope and outcomes the organization is trying to achieve.
Define "Adaptability Culture"
A culture characterized by strategic focus on the external environment through flexibility and change to meet customer needs.
Define "Coalition"
An alliance among several managers who agree about organizational goals and problem priorities.
Define "Formalization"
The degree to which an organization has rules, procedures, and written documentation.
Define "Chaos Theory"
A theory that suggests that relationships in complex, adaptive systems (including organizations) are nonlinear and made up of numerous interconnections and divergent choices that create unintended effects and render the whole unpredictable.
Define "Generalist"
An organization that offers a broad range of products or services or serves a broad market.
Define "E-business"
Any business that takes place by digital processes over a computer network rather than in physical space.
Define "Collective Bargaining"
The negotiation of an agreement between management and workers.
Define "Confrontation"
A situation in which parties in conflict directly engage one another and try to work out their differences.
Define "Analyzability"
A dimension of technology in which work can be reduced to mechanical steps and particpants can follow an objective, computational procedure to solve problems.
Define "Globalization Strategy"
The standardization of product design, manufacturing, and marketing strategy throughout the world.
Define "Ambidextrous Approach"
A design approach that incorporates structures and management processes that are appropriate to both the creation and the implementation of innovation.
Define "Power Sources"
The five sources of horizontal power in organizations are dependency, financial resources, centrality, nonsubstitutability, and the ability to cope with uncertainty.
Define "Customer Relationship Management (CRM)"
Systems that help companies track customers' interactions with the firm and allow employees to call up a customer's past sales and service records, outstanding orders, or unresolved problems.
Define "Problemistic Search"
Search that occurs when managers look around in the immediate environment for a solution to quickly resolve a problem.
Define "Divisional Grouping"
A grouping in which employees are organized according to what the organization produces.
Define "Team Building"
Activities that promote the idea that people who work together can work as a team.
Define "Virtual Network Grouping"
A loosely connected cluster of separate components.
Define "Variety"
In terms of tasks, the frequency of unexpected and novel events that occur in the conversion process.
Define "Code of Ethics"
A formal statement of the organization's values concerning ethics and social responsibility.
Define "Strategic Contingencies"
Events and activites both inside and outside an organization that are essential for attaining organizational goals.
Define "Creativity"
The generation of novel ideas that may meet perceived needs or respond to opportunities.
Define "Mission Culture"
A culture characterized by emphasis on a clear vision of the organization's purpose and on the achievement of goals, such as sales growth, profitability, or market share, to help acheive the purpose.
Define "Ethics Hotline"
A telephone number employees can call to seek guidance as well as report questionable behavior.
Define "Job Simplification"
The variety and difficulty of tasks performed by a single person are reduced.
Define "Large Group Intervention"
An approach that brings together participants from all parts of the organization, often including key stakeholders from outside the organization as well, in an off-site setting to discuss problems or opportunities and plan for change.
Define "Job Enlargement"
An expansion of the number of different tasks performed by an employee in a job.
Define "Groupthink"
The tendency of people in groups to suppress contrary opinions for the sake of group harmony.
Define "Operative Goals"
Goals stated in terms of outcomes sought through the actual operating procedures of the organization.
Define "Organizational Environment"
All elements that exist outside the boundary of the organization and have the potential to affect all or part of the organization.
Define "Nonsubstitutability"
A source of horizontal power when a department's function cannot be performed by other readily available resources.
Define "Institutional Perspective"
The view of how organizations survive and succeed through congruence between an organization and the expectations from its institutional environment.
Name all six structural dimensions (pg 15).
1.  Formalization
2.  Specialization
3.  Hierarchy of authority
4.  Centralization
5.  Professionalism
6.  Personnel ratios
Define professional bureaucracy in terms of the Mintzberg's five organization types. (pg 29)
Distinguished by its size and power, made up of highly skilled professionals.  Technical staff is small or nonexistent.  Large administrative support staff is needed.  Primary goals are quality and effectiveness.  The professionals and technical core have autonomy.  Typically provides services rather than tangible goods.  Exists in complex environments.
Define "Job Rotation"
Moving employees from job to job to give them a greater variety of tasks.
Define "Joint Venture"
A separate entity created with two or more active firms as sponsors.
Define "Virtual Team"
A team made up of organizationally or geographically dispersed members who are linked primarily through advanced information and communications technologies.
Define "Job Design"
The assignment of goals and tasks to be accomplished by employees.
Define "Network Centrality"
A source of power based on being centrally located in the organization and having access to information and people that are critical to the company's success.
Define "Escalating Commitment"
Persisting to invest time and money in a solution despite strong evidence that it is not working.
Define "Organization Development (OD)"
A behavioral science field devoted to improving performance through trust, open confrontation of problems, employee empowerment and participation, the design of meaningful work, cooperation between groups, and the full use of human potential.
Define "Organizational Decision Making"
The process of identifying and solving problems.
Define "Product Matrix"
Type of matrix structure in which the project or product managers have primary authority and functional managers simply assign technical personnel to projects and provide advisory expertise as needed.
Define "Low-cost Leadership Strategy"
A strategy of increasing market share by keeping costs low compared to competitors.
Define "Managerial Decision Making (MIS)"
A computer-based system that provides information and support for managerial decision making.
True or false.
"The primary role of managers in business organizations is to achieve maximum efficiency" (pg 20).
Efficiency is important, but organizations must respond to a variety of stakeholders, who may want different things from the organization.  Managers strive for both efficiency and effectiveness in trying to meet the needs and interest of stakeholders.  Effectiveness is often considered more important than efficiency.
Define organization theory (pg 36).
A macro examination of organizations because it analyzes the whole organization as a unit.  Is concerned with people aggregated into departments and organizations and with the differences in structure and bahavior at the organization level of analysis.  Might be considered the sociology of organizations, while organicational behaior is the psyhology of organizations.
Name two globalization trends (pg 7)
Global outsourcing and strategic partnering with foreign firms.
Define organizational behavior. (pg 36)
The micro approach to organizations because it focuses on the individuals within organizations as the relevant units of analysis.  Examines concepts such as motivation, leadership style, and personality.  Is concerned with cognitive and emotional differences between people within organizations.
Define "Coping with Uncertainty"
A source of horizontal power for a department that reduces uncertainty for other departments by obtaining prior information, prevention, or absorption.
Define "Domains of Political Activity"
Areas in which politics plays a role.  Three domains in organizations are structural change, management succession, and resource allocation.
Define "Management Champion"
A manager who acts as a supporter and sponsor of a technical champion to shield and promote an idea within the organization.
Define Meso Theory (pg 36).
Concerns the integration of both micro and macro levels of analysis.  Individuals and groups affect the organization, and the organization in return influences individuals and groups. 
Define administrative support in terms of Mintzberg's Organizational Types. (pg 27).
Responsible for the smooth operation and upkeep of the organization, including its physical and human elements.  Includes human resource activities as well as maintenance activities.
Define environment in terms of contextual dimensions (pg 17).
Includes all elements outside the boundary of the organization.  Key elements include the industry, government, customers, suppliers, and the financial community.  The environmental elements that affect an organization the most are often other organizations.
Define effectiveness (pg 20).
A broader term, meaning the degree to which an organization achieves its goals.
Who are the nine major stakeholder groups of an organization (pg 21)?
1.  Owners and stakeholders  
2.  Employees  
3.  Customers  
4.  Creditors  
5.  Management  
6.  Government  
7.  Union  
8.  Community  
9.  Suppliers
Define profressionalism in terms of structural dimensions (pg 17).
The level of formal education and training of employees. 
What are the five parts of an organizational framework proposed by Henry Mintzberg (pg 26)?
1.  Technical core
2.  Technical support
3.  Top mangement
4.  Middle management
5. Admistrative support 
What did the classical perspective seek (pg 23)?
It sought to make organizations run like efficient, well-oiled machines.  It is associated with the development of hierarchy and bureaucratic organizations and remians the basis of much of modern management theory and practice.
Define level of analysis (pg 35).
Is the difference between a course in organization theory and one in managmeent or organizational behavior.  They include external environment, orignation level of analysis, group level of analysis and individual level of analysis.
Define personnel ratios in terms of structural dimensions (pg 17).
The deployment of people to various functions and departments.  Personnel ratios include the administrative ratio, the clerical ratio, the professional staff ratio, and the ratio of indirect to direct labor employees.  Is measured by dividing the number of employees in a classification by the total number of organizational employees.
Define size in terms of contextual dimensions (pg 17).
Size can be measured for the organization as a whole or for specific components, such as a plant or division.  Typically measured by the number of employees.  Other measures include total sales or total assets.
Define hierarchy of authority in terms of structural dimensions (pg 17).
Describes who reports to whom and the span of control for each manager.  When spans of control are narrow, the heirarchy tends to be taller.
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